HOME TheInfoList
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff


Observations Concerning The Increase Of Mankind, Peopling Of Countries, Etc.
''Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc.'' is a short essay written in 1751 by Benjamin Franklin. It was circulated by Franklin in manuscript to his circle of friends, but in 1755 it was published as an addendum in a Boston pamphlet on another subject.Franklin, Benjamin (edited by Ormond Seavey)''Autobiography and other writings'' Oxford University Press, 1999p.251-252 It was reissued ten times during the next 15 years. The essay examines population growth and its limits. Writing as, at the time, a loyal subject of the British Empire, Franklin argues that the British should increase their population and power by expanding across the Americas, taking the view that Europe is too crowded. Content Franklin projected an exponential growth (doubling every twenty five years) in the population of the British colonies, so that in a century "the greatest Number of Englishmen will be on this Side of the Water", thereby increasing the power of England. As ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A polymath, he was a leading writer, printer, political philosopher, politician, Freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department, and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the Ame ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

An Essay On The Principle Of Population
The book ''An Essay on the Principle of Population'' was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus. The book warned of future difficulties, on an interpretation of the population increasing in geometric progression (so as to double every 25 years) while food production increased in an arithmetic progression, which would leave a difference resulting in the want of food and famine, unless birth rates decreased. While it was not the first book on population, Malthus's book fuelled debate about the size of the population in Britain and contributed to the passing of the Census Act 1800. This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England, Wales and Scotland, starting in 1801 and continuing every ten years to the present. The book's 6th edition (1826) was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection. A key portion of the book was dedic ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

1751 Books
In Britain and its colonies (except Scotland), 1751 only had 282 days due to the British Calendar Act of 1751, which ended the year on 31 December (rather than nearly three months later according to its previous rule). Events January–March * January 1 – As the American colony in Georgia prepares the transition from a trustee-operated territory to a British colonial province, the prohibition against slavery is lifted by the Board of Trustees. At the time, the African-American population of Georgia is about 400 people who have been kept as slaves in violation of the law. By 1790, the slave population increases to over 29,000 and by 1860 to 462,000. * January 7 – The University of Pennsylvania, conceived 12 years earlier by Benjamin Franklin and its other trustees to provide non-denominational higher education "to train young people for leadership in business, government and public service". rather than for the ministry, holds its first classes as "The Acade ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

National Archives And Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with the preservation and documentation of government and historical records. It is also tasked with increasing public access to those documents which make up the National Archive. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, and federal regulations. NARA also transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress. It also examines Electoral College and Constitutional amendment ratification documents for prima facie legal sufficiency and an authenticating signature. The National Archives, and its publicly exhibited Charters of Freedom, which include the original United States Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution, United States Bill of Rights, and many other historical documents, is headquartered in the National Archives Building in Was ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly
The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was a British North American colony founded by William Penn after receiving a land grant from Charles II of England in 1681. The name Pennsylvania ("Penn's Woods") refers to William's father, Admiral Sir William Penn. The Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major Restoration colonies. The proprietary colony's charter remained in the hands of the Penn family until they were ousted by the American Revolution, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was created and became one of the original thirteen states. "The lower counties on Delaware", a separate colony within the province, broke away during the American Revolution as "the Delaware State" and was also one of the original thirteen states. The colony attracted Quakers, Germans, and Scots-Irish frontiersmen. The Lenape promoted peace with the Quakers, but wars eventually broke out after William Penn and Tamanend were no longer living. Lenape beliefs were ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Pennsylvania Dutch
The Pennsylvania Dutch (''Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch''), also referred to as the Pennsylvania Germans, are a cultural group formed through those who emigrated primarily from the territory in Europe now partly within modern-day Germany (mainly from Palatinate, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, and Rhineland), but also from the Netherlands, Switzerland and today France (Alsace-Lorraine) travelling down the river Rhine to the sea ports. The word ''Deitsch'' corresponds with the High German word ''Deutsch'' (in standard German), meaning "German", and is how the first settlers would have described themselves in the principal southern German dialect spoken: Palatine German. Most of these settlers emigrated in the 17th and 18th centuries to America and spoke unique dialects within the German language family, but it is through their cross-dialogue interaction and what was retained by subsequent generations that a hybrid dialect emerged, known as Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania Dutch, which has ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Gordon S
Gordon may refer to: People * Gordon (given name), a masculine given name, including list of persons and fictional characters * Gordon (surname), the surname * Gordon (slave), escaped to a Union Army camp during the U.S. Civil War * Clan Gordon, aka the House of Gordon, a Scottish clan Education * Gordon State College, a public college in Barnesville, Georgia * Gordon College (Massachusetts), a Christian college in Wenham, Massachusetts * Gordon College (Pakistan), a Christian college in Rawalpindi, Pakistan * Gordon College (Philippines), a public university in Subic, Zambales * Gordon College of Education, a public college in Haifa, Israel Places Australia *Gordon, Australian Capital Territory *Gordon, New South Wales *Gordon, South Australia *Gordon, Victoria *Gordon River, Tasmania *Gordon River (Western Australia) Canada *Gordon Parish, New Brunswick *Gordon/Barrie Island, municipality in Ontario *Gordon River (Chochocouane River), a river in Quebec Scotland *Gordon (dis ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

White People
White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, generally used for people of European origin; although the definition can vary depending on context, nationality, and point of view. This term has at times been expanded to encompass persons of South Asian, West Asian, and North African descent, persons who are often considered "non-white" in other contexts in the United States. It has also been alleged that, in the United States, people of Southern European and even Irish descent have been excluded from this category, although this idea has been contested. The usage of "white people" or a "white race" for a large group of mainly or exclusively European populations, defined by their light skin, among other physical characteristics, and contrasting with "black", "red", "brown", "yellow", and other "colored" people or "persons of color", originated in the 17th century. Prior to this, Europeans also described people from East Asia as being "white". It was only during the 19 ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Population Growth
Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.9 billion in 2020. The UN projected population to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. However, some academics outside the UN have increasingly developed human population models that account for additional downward pressures on population growth; in such a scenario population would peak before 2100. World human population has been growing since the end of the Black Death, around the year 1350. A mix of technological advancement that improved agricultural productivity and sanitation and medical advancement that reduced mortality have caused a exponential population growth. In some geographies, this has slowed through the process called the demographic transition ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

American Philosophical Society
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 in Philadelphia, is a scholarly organization that promotes knowledge in the sciences and humanities through research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach. Considered the first learned society in the United States, it has played an important role in American cultural and intellectual life for over 270 years. Through research grants, published journals, the American Philosophical Society Museum, an extensive library, and regular meetings, the society continues to advance a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the sciences. Philosophical Hall, now a museum, is just east of Independence Hall in Independence National Historical Park; it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965. Linda Greenhouse, Knight Distinguished Journalist in Residence and Joseph Goldstein Lecturer in Law at Yale Law School, was elected president of the American Philosophical Society in 2017. Sh ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Conway Zirkle
Conway Zirkle (October 28, 1895 – March 28, 1972) was an American botanist and historian of science. Zirkle was professor emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania. He was highly critical of Lamarckism, Lysenkoism and Marxian biology.Joravsky, David. (1960). ''Evolution, Marxian Biology and the Social Scene by Conway Zirkle''. ''Isis''. Vol. 51, No. 3. pp. 348-353. Selected publications Books *''The Beginnings of Plant Hybridization'' (1935) *''Death of a Science in Russia, the Fate of Genetics as Described in "Pravda" and Elsewhere'' (1949) *''Evolution, Marxian Biology, and the Social Scene'' (1959) *''The Evolution of Biology'' (1964) Papers *Zirkle, Conway. (1935). ''The Inheritance of Acquired Characters and the Provisional Hypothesis of Pangenesis''. ''American Naturalist'' 69: 417-445. *Zirkle, Conway. (1936). ''Further Notes on Pangenesis and the Inheritance of Acquired Characters''. ''American Naturalist'' 70: 529-546. *Zirkle, Conway. (1941). ''Natural Selection Be ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin (; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted, and considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book ''On the Origin of Species''. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolu ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Thomas Malthus
Thomas Robert Malthus (; 13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric, scholar and influential economist in the fields of political economy and demography. In his 1798 book ''An Essay on the Principle of Population'', Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the well-being of the population, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words, humans had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the "Malthusian trap" or the "Malthusian spectre". Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship, want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease, a view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe. Malthus wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as imp ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

William Godwin
William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. He is considered one of the first exponents of utilitarianism and the first modern proponent of anarchism. Godwin is most famous for two books that he published within the space of a year: ''An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice'', an attack on political institutions, and ''Things as They Are; or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams'', an early mystery novel which attacks aristocratic privilege. Based on the success of both, Godwin featured prominently in the radical circles of London in the 1790s. He wrote prolifically in the genres of novels, history and demography throughout his life. In the conservative reaction to British radicalism, Godwin was attacked, in part because of his marriage to the feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft in 1797 and his candid biography of her after her death from childbirth. Their daughter, later known as Mary Shelley, would go on to write '' ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]