Newton's Method
In numerical analysis, Newton's method, also known as the Newton–Raphson method, named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a rootfinding algorithm which produces successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a realvalued function. The most basic version starts with a singlevariable function defined for a real variable , the function's derivative , and an initial guess for a root of . If the function satisfies sufficient assumptions and the initial guess is close, then :x_ = x_0  \frac is a better approximation of the root than . Geometrically, is the intersection of the axis and the tangent of the graph of at : that is, the improved guess is the unique root of the linear approximation at the initial point. The process is repeated as :x_ = x_n  \frac until a sufficiently precise value is reached. This algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods, succeeded by Halley's method. The method can also be extended to complex functions an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Numerical Analysis
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to symbolic computation, symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). It is the study of numerical methods that attempt at finding approximate solutions of problems rather than the exact ones. Numerical analysis finds application in all fields of engineering and the physical sciences, and in the 21st century also the life and social sciences, medicine, business and even the arts. Current growth in computing power has enabled the use of more complex numerical analysis, providing detailed and realistic mathematical models in science and engineering. Examples of numerical analysis include: ordinary differential equations as found in celestial mechanics (predicting the motions of planets, stars and galaxies), numerical linear algebra in data analysis, and stochastic differential equations and Markov chains for simulating living ce ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Systems Of Equations
In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations or an equation system, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought. An equation system is usually classified in the same manner as single equations, namely as a: * System of linear equations, * System of nonlinear equations, * System of bilinear equations, * System of polynomial equations, * System of differential equations, or a * System of difference equations See also * Simultaneous equations model, a statistical model in the form of simultaneous linear equations * Elementary algebra Elementary algebra encompasses the basic concepts of algebra. It is often contrasted with arithmetic: arithmetic deals with specified numbers, whilst algebra introduces variables (quantities without fixed values). This use of variables entai ..., for elementary methods {{set index article Equations Broadconcept articles de:Gleichung#Gleichungssysteme ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

John Colson
John Colson (1680 – 20 January 1760) was an English clergyman, mathematician, and the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. Life John Colson was educated at Lichfield School before becoming an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford, though he did not take a degree there. He became a schoolmaster at Sir Joseph Williamson's Mathematical School in Rochester, and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1713. He was Vicar of Chalk, Kent from 1724 to 1740. He relocated to Cambridge and lectured at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. From 1739 to 1760, he was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. He was also Rector of Lockington, Yorkshire. Works In 1726 he published his NegativoAffirmativo Arithmetik advocating a modified decimal system of numeration. It involved "reduction osmall figures" by "throwing all the large figures 9, 8, 7, 6 out of a given number, and introducing in their room the equivalent small figures 1\bar, 1\bar, 1\bar, 1\bar respectively ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Method Of Fluxions
''Method of Fluxions'' ( la, De Methodis Serierum et Fluxionum) is a mathematical treatise by Sir Isaac Newton which served as the earliest written formulation of modern calculus. The book was completed in 1671, and published in 1736. Fluxion is Newton's term for a derivative. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667, but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly, his findings which eventually became the ''Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica'' were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years). Gottfried Leibniz developed his form of calculus independently around 1673, 7 years after Newton had developed the basis for differential calculus, as seen in surviving documents like “the method of fluxions and fluents..." from 1666. Leibniz however published his discovery of differential calculus in 1684, nine years before Newton f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

William Jones (mathematician)
William Jones, FRS (16751 July 1749) was a Welsh mathematician, most noted for his use of the symbol (the Greek letter '' Pi'') to represent the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. He was a close friend of Sir Isaac Newton and Sir Edmund Halley. In November 1711 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was later its vicepresident. Biography William Jones was born the son of Siôn Siôr (John George Jones) and Elizabeth Rowland in the parish of Llanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd, about west of Benllech on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales. He attended a charity school at Llanfechell, also on the Isle of Anglesey, where his mathematical talents were spotted by the local landowner Lord Bulkeley, who arranged for him to work in a merchant's countinghouse in London. His main patrons were the Bulkeley family of north Wales, and later the Earl of Macclesfield. Jones initially served at sea, teaching mathematics on board Navy ships between 1695 and 1702, where he becam ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

De Analysi Per Aequationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas
''De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas'' (or ''On analysis by infinite series'', ''On Analysis by Equations with an infinite number of terms'', or ''On the Analysis by means of equations of an infinite number of terms'') is a mathematical work by Isaac Newton. Creation Composed in 1669,Carl B. Boyer, Uta C. Merzbach during the midpart of that year probably, from ideas Newton had acquired during the period 1665–1666. Newton wrote The explication was written to remedy apparent weaknesses in the ''logarithmic series'' nfinite series for \log(1 + x), that had become republished due to Nicolaus Mercator,Britannica Educational or through the encouragement of Isaac Barrow in 1669, to ascertain the knowing of the prior authorship of a general method of ''infinite series''. The writing was circulated amongst scholars as a manuscript in 1669, including John Collins a mathematics ''intelligencer'' for a group of British and continental mathematicians. His relat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Analysis
Analysis ( : analyses) is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle (384–322 B.C.), though ''analysis'' as a formal concept is a relatively recent development. The word comes from the Ancient Greek ἀνάλυσις (''analysis'', "a breakingup" or "an untying;" from ''ana'' "up, throughout" and ''lysis'' "a loosening"). From it also comes the word's plural, ''analyses''. As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to Alhazen, René Descartes (''Discourse on the Method''), and Galileo Galilei. It has also been ascribed to Isaac Newton, in the form of a practical method of physical discovery (which he did not name). The converse of analysis is synthesis: putting the pieces back together again in new or different whole. Applications Science The field of chemistry uses analysis in thr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Neighbourhood (mathematics)
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space. It is closely related to the concepts of open set and interior. Intuitively speaking, a neighbourhood of a point is a set of points containing that point where one can move some amount in any direction away from that point without leaving the set. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point If X is a topological space and p is a point in X, then a of p is a subset V of X that includes an open set U containing p, p \in U \subseteq V \subseteq X. This is also equivalent to the point p \in X belonging to the topological interior of V in X. The neighbourhood V need be an open subset X, but when V is open in X then it is called an . Some authors have been known to require neighbourhoods to be open, so it is important to note conventions. A set that is a neighbourhood of each of its points is open since it can be expressed as the union of open sets ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rate Of Convergence
In numerical analysis, the order of convergence and the rate of convergence of a convergent sequence are quantities that represent how quickly the sequence approaches its limit. A sequence (x_n) that converges to x^* is said to have ''order of convergence'' q \geq 1 and ''rate of convergence'' \mu if : \lim _ \frac=\mu. The rate of convergence \mu is also called the ''asymptotic error constant''. Note that this terminology is not standardized and some authors will use ''rate'' where this article uses ''order'' (e.g., ). In practice, the rate and order of convergence provide useful insights when using iterative methods for calculating numerical approximations. If the order of convergence is higher, then typically fewer iterations are necessary to yield a useful approximation. Strictly speaking, however, the asymptotic behavior of a sequence does not give conclusive information about any finite part of the sequence. Similar concepts are used for discretization methods. The solutio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multiplicity (mathematics)
In mathematics, the multiplicity of a member of a multiset is the number of times it appears in the multiset. For example, the number of times a given polynomial has a root at a given point is the multiplicity of that root. The notion of multiplicity is important to be able to count correctly without specifying exceptions (for example, ''double roots'' counted twice). Hence the expression, "counted with multiplicity". If multiplicity is ignored, this may be emphasized by counting the number of ''distinct'' elements, as in "the number of distinct roots". However, whenever a set (as opposed to multiset) is formed, multiplicity is automatically ignored, without requiring use of the term "distinct". Multiplicity of a prime factor In prime factorization, the multiplicity of a prime factor is its padic valuation. For example, the prime factorization of the integer is : the multiplicity of the prime factor is , while the multiplicity of each of the prime factors and is . ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intermediate Value Theorem
In mathematical analysis, the intermediate value theorem states that if f is a continuous function whose domain contains the interval , then it takes on any given value between f(a) and f(b) at some point within the interval. This has two important corollaries: # If a continuous function has values of opposite sign inside an interval, then it has a root in that interval (Bolzano's theorem). # The image of a continuous function over an interval is itself an interval. Motivation This captures an intuitive property of continuous functions over the real numbers: given ''f'' continuous on ,2/math> with the known values f(1) = 3 and f(2) = 5, then the graph of y = f(x) must pass through the horizontal line y = 4 while x moves from 1 to 2. It represents the idea that the graph of a continuous function on a closed interval can be drawn without lifting a pencil from the paper. Theorem The intermediate value theorem states the following: Consider an interval I = ,b/math> of real n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 