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National Police Corps
The National Police Corps ( es|Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, CNP; ; also known simply as National Police, ''Policía Nacional'') is the national civilian police force of Spain. The CNP is mainly responsible for policing urban areas, whilst rural policing is generally the responsibility of the Civil Guard, the Spanish gendarmerie. The CNP operates under the authority of Spain's Ministry of the Interior. They mostly handle criminal investigation, judicial, terrorism and immigration matters. The powers of the National Police Corps varies according to the autonomous communities, Ertzaintza in the Basque Country and Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia are the primary police agencies. In Navarra they share some duties jointly with Policía Foral (Foruzaingoa). History The 1986 organic law unifying the separate uniformed and plainclothes branches of the national police was a major reform that required a considerable period of time to be brought into full effect. The former plainclothes service ...
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Spanish Constitution Of 1978
The Spanish Constitution (Spanish, Asturleonese, and gl|Constitución Española; eu|Espainiako Konstituzioa; ca|Constitució Espanyola; oc|Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain. It was enacted after its approval in a constitutional referendum, and it is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. The Constitution of 1978 is one of about a dozen of other historical Spanish constitutions and constitution-like documents; however, it is one of two fully democratic constitutions (the other being the Spanish Constitution of 1931). It was sanctioned by King Juan Carlos I on 27 December, and published in the ' (the government gazette of Spain) on 29 December, the date in which it became effective. The promulgation of the constitution marked the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy after the death of general Francisco Franco, on 20 November 1975, who ruled over Spain as a military dictator for nearly 40 years. T ...
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Mossos D'Esquadra
The ''Mossos d'Esquadra'' (; in English: Troopers) are the police force of Catalonia (Spain), largely replacing the Spanish Policía Nacional (National Police) and Guardia Civil (Civil Guard). They trace their origins back to squads formed in 1719. History On 21 July 1950 the Deputation of Barcelona was authorised to create a small security force using the historical title ''Mossos d'Esquadra''. These new Mossos were a militarized corps having little similarity to the earlier incarnations, with limited powers and small numbers, which was in charge of protecting the government buildings of the Province of Barcelona. With the return of democracy to Spain, the Mossos d'Esquadra grew in number and powers. Since 25 October 1980 the force has been under the authority of the Generalitat de Catalunya (the Government of Catalonia). Previous Catalan forces The , later known as the , (and informally known as the ), were men-at-arms who had fought as irregulars in the War of the Spanish Succe ...
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Gambling
A gambling stand in Paris Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling thus requires three elements to be present: consideration (an amount wagered), risk (chance), and a prize. The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season. The term "gaming" in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity has been specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive; ''i.e.'', a "gaming" company offers (legal) "gambling" activities to the public and may be regulated by one of many gaming control boards, for example, the Nevada Gaming Control Board. However, this di ...
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Passports
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government to its citizens, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel. Standard passports may contain information such as the holder's name, place and date of birth, photograph, signature, and other relevant identifying information. Many countries issue (or plan to issue) biometric passports that contain an embedded microchip, making them machine-readable and difficult to counterfeit. , there were over 150 jurisdictions issuing e-passports. Previously issued non-biometric machine-readable passports usually remain valid until their respective expiration dates. A passport holder is normally entitled to enter the country that issued the passport, though some people entitled to a passport may not be full citizens with right of abode (e.g. American nationals or British nationals). A passport does not of itself create any rights in the country being visited o ...
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ID Cards
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document that may be used to prove a person's identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is usually called an identity card (IC, ID card, citizen card), or passport card. Some countries issue formal identity documents, as national identification cards which may be compulsory or non-compulsory, while others may require identity verification using regional identification or informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a person's photograph, it may be called photo ID. In the absence of a formal identity document, a driver's license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification. Some countries do not accept driver's licenses for identification, often because in those countries they do not expire as documents and can be old or easily forged. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification. Some countries require all peopl ...
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Heckler & Koch USP
The USP (''Universelle Selbstladepistole'' or "universal self-loading pistol") is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Germany by Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K) of Oberndorf am Neckar as a replacement for the P7 series of handguns. History Design work on a new family of pistols commenced in September 1989 focused primarily on the United States commercial and law enforcement markets. USP prototypes participated in rigorous testing alongside H&K's entry in the Offensive Handgun Weapon System (OHWS) program requested by the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and which would later result in the Mk 23 Mod 0. The USP prototypes were then refined in 1992, based on input from the OHWS trials, and the design was finalized in December of the same year. The USP was formally introduced in January 1993 with the USP40 model (the base version) chambered for the increasingly popular .40 S&W cartridge, followed soon by the USP9 (using the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge), and in May 1995—the USP45 ...
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CETME
CETME () is a Spanish government design and development establishment. While being involved in many projects CETME was mostly known for its small arms research and development. The CETME Model 58 and CETME Model L are its most notable projects. CETME also designed the CETME C2 9mm submachine gun, and the CETME Ameli light machine gun in 5.56×45mm NATO. Products * 7.62×51mm CETME ammunition * CETME Ameli * CETME C2 * CETME Model 58 * CETME Model L Sources * Manual del soldado de Infantería de Marina ( 1985 ). Marine Corps soldier Manual Edited by the Spanish Ministry of Defence. * Manual de instrucción básica de la Escuela Técnica de Seguridad y Defensa del Aire (ETESDA) (2002). Basic instruction Manual of the Technical School Safety and Air Defence (ETESDA) (2002). Edited by the Spanish Ministry of Defence. * Centro de Documentación y Publicaciones del Ministerio de Defensa. Publications and Documentation Centre of the Ministry of Defence. * CETME: 50 años del fusil de ...
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Armed Police Corps
Defile of ''Guardia Civil'' and ''Policía Armada'' members in San Sebastián, 1942. The ''Policía Armada'' ( en|Armed Police), conventional long names ''Cuerpo de Policía Armada y de Tráfico'' and ''Fuerzas de Policía Armada'', —popularly known as ''los grises'' ( en|the grey ones) owing to the color of their uniforms— was an armed urban police force of Spain established by the Francoist regime in 1939 to enforce the repression of all opposition to the regime. Its mission was "total and permanent vigilance, as well as repression when deemed necessary." The first commander of the ''Policía Armada'' was General Antonio Sagardía Ramos. In its first years of operation the corps was inadequately equipped in armament and vehicles but this situation would be steadily straightened out. History Following the overthrow of the Second Spanish Republic in April 1939, the Francoist Spain initially relied on the Army in order to handle public order issues. By means of two sets of l ...
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General Police Corps
The General Police Corps ( es|Cuerpo General de Policía, CGP) was a law enforcement force of Spain established by the Francoist regime in 1941 to conduct criminal investigation and enforce political repression. They should not be confused with the Armed Police Corps, which was responsible for the maintenance of public order. History Following the overthrow of the Second Spanish Republic in April 1939, the Francoist Spain initially relied on the Army in order to handle public order issues. Mariano Aguilar (1999)''El ejército español durante el franquismo'' p. 58 By means of two sets of laws issued on 3 August 1939 and 8 March 1941 the Spanish State reorganized the police forces of Spain (namely the and the Guardia de Asalto) and officially the General Police Corps was created. Mariano Aguilar (1999)''El ejército español durante el franquismo'' p. 62 The selection of the cadres was made between the former members of the police who had passed the purge, and also through a new sel ...
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Secret Police
Secret police (or political police) are intelligence, security or police agencies that engage in covert operations against a government's political opponents and dissidents. Secret police organizations are characteristic of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes. They protect the political power of a dictator or regime, and often operate outside the law to repress dissidents and weaken political opposition, frequently using violence. History Africa Uganda In Uganda, the State Research Bureau (SRB) was a secret police organisation for President Idi Amin. The Bureau tortured many Ugandans, operating on behalf of a regime responsible for more than five hundred thousand violent deaths. The SRB attempted to infiltrate every area of Ugandan life. Asia China In East Asia, the ''jinyiwei'' (Embroidered Uniform Guard) of the Ming Dynasty was founded in the 1360s by the Hongwu Emperor and served as the dynasty's secret police until the collapse of Ming rule in 1644. Originally, their ...
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Superior Police Corps
The Superior Police Corps ( es|Cuerpo Superior de Policía, CSP) was a law enforcement force of Spain created during the Spanish transition to democracy and predecessor of the present-day National Police Corps. It was also known colloquially as "the Secret Police" or simply "the Secret". They came to be called contemptuously (especially within the police circles) "the badges", by the way they identified themselves by showing their badge. History The origins of CSP are in the General Police Corps (CGP) of the Francoist Spain, which on 4 December 1978 was renamed as "Superior Police Corps". The CSP inherited much of the staff from the old CGP, and also maintained its structure with slight modifications. Organically it depended on the Ministry of the Interior, although directly it did it through the Directorate-General of Security (DGS). In the middle of 1980s the CSP was affected by the existence of a mafia network (known as the "police mafia") composed of several policemen who acted ...
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Policía Foral
The Chartered Police of Navarre ( es|Policía Foral de Navarra, eu|Nafarroako Foruzaingoa) is the autonomous police force for the chartered autonomous community of Navarre in Spain, largely replacing the Spanish Policía Nacional (National Police) and Guardia Civil (Civil Guard). It operates across the Community, and was founded from a traffic police unit set up by the Provincial Council of Navarre in 1929. As of 2020, the Spanish Civil Guard will transfer one of its last competences in Navarre, traffic policing and highways patrolling to the Navarrese autonomous Police, leaving the Civil Guard to specific tasks in this Autonomous Community (as for Catalonia and the Basque Country). As of 2007, the force had 925 police officers, with medium-term plans to increase that number to about 1,200. Ranks center|500px|Rank Insignia * Foral police chief (, ) * Chief commissioner (, ) * Commissioner (, ) * Inspector (, ) * Sub-inspector (, ) * Corporal (, ) * Foral constable (, ) Referenc ...
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Navarra
Navarre (; es|Navarra ; eu|Nafarroa ; oc|Navarra ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es|Comunidad Foral de Navarra|links=no ; eu|Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea|links=no ), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France. The capital city is Pamplona (or ''Iruñea'' in Basque). The best-known event in Navarre is the San Fermín festival in July held in Pamplona. It corresponds to the southern portion of the medieval Kingdom of Navarre. Navarre is in the transition between Green Spain and semi-arid interior areas, causing a vast difference of landscapes between various parts of the region. The transition also renders a highly variable climate, with cooler spells and heat waves mixing in summer. Winters are mild for the latitude. Navarre is one of the historic Basque districts, with its Basque features conspicuous in the north, while virtually absent ...
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Catalonia
Catalonia (; ca|Catalunya ; Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es|Cataluña ) is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationality'' by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city, Barcelona is the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the fifth-most populous urban area in the European Union. > > > ''Catalonia'' theoretically derived. During the Middle Ages, Byzantine chroniclers claimed that ''Catalania'' derives from the local medley of Goths with Alans, initially constituting a ''Goth-Alania''. Other less plausible or recent theories suggest: * ''Catalunya'' derives from the term "land of castles", having evolved from the term ''castlà'' or ''castlan'', the medieval term for a castellan (a ruler of a castle). This theory therefore suggests that the names ''Catalunya'' and ''Castile'' have a common root. * The source is the Celtic ...
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