Military Order Of Max Joseph
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Military Order Of Max Joseph
The Military Order of Max Joseph (german: Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden) was the highest military order of the Kingdom of Bavaria. It was founded on 1 January 1806 by Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, the first king of Bavaria. The order came in three classes: * Grand Cross (''Großkreuz'') * Commander's Cross (Kommandeurkreuz'') * Knight's Cross (''Ritterkreuz''). Individuals who received the order and were not already members of the nobility were ennobled and would add the title of " Ritter von" to their family name. A Bavarian title of nobility obtained through the Military Order of Max Joseph was valid for the recipient's life only. The order became obsolete in 1918 with the collapse of the Bavarian monarchy on Germany's defeat in World War I. However, the orders chancery continued to process outstanding award recommendations to at least 1922. Description The ''badge'' of the order was a white-enameled gold Maltese cross with balls at each cross point. The center meda ...
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Military Order Of Max Joseph (badge And Breast Star)
The Military Order of Max Joseph (german: Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden) was the highest military order of the Kingdom of Bavaria. It was founded on 1 January 1806 by Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, the first king of Bavaria. The order came in three classes: * Grand Cross (''Großkreuz'') * Commander's Cross (Kommandeurkreuz'') * Knight's Cross (''Ritterkreuz''). Individuals who received the order and were not already members of the nobility were ennobled and would add the title of " Ritter von" to their family name. A Bavarian title of nobility obtained through the Military Order of Max Joseph was valid for the recipient's life only. The order became obsolete in 1918 with the collapse of the Bavarian monarchy on Germany's defeat in World War I. However, the orders chancery continued to process outstanding award recommendations to at least 1922. Description The ''badge'' of the order was a white-enameled gold Maltese cross with balls at each cross point. The center medal ...
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Moiré Pattern
In mathematics, physics, and art, moiré patterns ( , , ) or moiré fringes are large-scale interference patterns that can be produced when an opaque ruled pattern with transparent gaps is overlaid on another similar pattern. For the moiré interference pattern to appear, the two patterns must not be completely identical, but rather displaced, rotated, or have slightly different pitch. Moiré patterns appear in many situations. In printing, the printed pattern of dots can interfere with the image. In television and digital photography, a pattern on an object being photographed can interfere with the shape of the light sensors to generate unwanted artifacts. They are also sometimes created deliberately – in micrometers they are used to amplify the effects of very small movements. In physics, its manifestation is wave interference such as that seen in the double-slit experiment and the beat phenomenon in acoustics. Etymology The term originates from '' moire'' (''moir ...
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Bruno Ritter Von Hauenschild
__NOTOC__ Bruno Ritter von Hauenschild (9 June 1896 – 10 March 1953), born Bruno Hauenschild, was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II Hauenschild served in World War I; at the beginning of World War II, he rejoined the army as an officer. From 15 April to 12 September 1942, Hauenschild commanded the 24th Panzer Division. On 26 January 1945 Hauenschild was given command of the III Military District headquartered in Berlin. Hauenschild commanded the III Military District until 15 March. He was relieved of command of the Berlin Defense Area on 6 March due to illness and was replaced by Lieutenant-General (''Generalleutnant'') Helmuth Reymann. Awards and decorations * Iron Cross (1914) 2nd Class (21 May 1915) & 1st Class (6 December 1917)Thomas 1997, p. 253. * Knight's Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern with Swords * Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph (2 September 1918) * Clasp to the Iron Cross (1939) 2nd Class (24 Sep ...
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Wilhelm Groener
Karl Eduard Wilhelm Groener (; 22 November 1867 – 3 May 1939) was a German general and politician. His organisational and logistical abilities resulted in a successful military career before and during World War I. After a confrontation with Erich Ludendorff the Quartermaster general () of the German Army, Groener was reassigned to a field command. When Ludendorff was dismissed in October 1918, Groener succeeded him. Groener worked with the new Social Democratic president Friedrich Ebert to foil a left-wing take-over during the German Revolution of 1918–19. Under his command, the army bloodily suppressed popular uprisings throughout Germany. Groener tried to integrate the military, which was dominated by an aristocratic and monarchistic officer corps, into the new republic. After resigning from the army in the summer of 1919, Groener served in several governments of the Weimar Republic as minister of transportation, interior and defence. He was pushed out of the governm ...
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Robert Ritter Von Greim
Robert ''Ritter'' von Greim (born Robert Greim; 22 June 1892 – 24 May 1945) was a German field marshal and First World War flying ace. In April 1945, in the last days of World War II, Adolf Hitler appointed Greim commander-in-chief of the ''Luftwaffe'' (German Air Force) after Hermann Göring had been dismissed for treason. He is the last person ever promoted to field marshal in the German armed forces. After the surrender of Nazi Germany in May 1945, Greim was captured by the Allies. He committed suicide in an American-controlled prison on 24 May 1945. Early life and career He was born as Robert Greim on 22 June 1892 in Bayreuth in the Kingdom of Bavaria, a state of the German Empire, the second son of police ''Hauptmann'' Ludwig Greim and his wife Marie. Greim had an older brother Ludwig, named after his father, born 5 October 1888, and a younger sister Marie Barbara born 11 January 1911. From 18 September 1906 to 6 July 1911, Greim attended the () on the Marsfeld in Mun ...
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Erich Von Falkenhayn
General Erich Georg Sebastian Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the second Chief of the German General Staff of the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916. He was removed on 29 August 1916 after the failure at the Battle of Verdun, the opening of the Battle of the Somme, the Brusilov Offensive and the entry of Romania into the war on the Allied side undid his strategy to end the war before 1917. He was later given important field commands in Romania and Syria. His reputation as a war leader was attacked in Germany during and after the war, especially by the faction supporting Paul von Hindenburg. Falkenhayn held that Germany could not win the war by a decisive battle but would have to reach a compromise peace; his enemies said he lacked the resolve necessary to win a decisive victory. Falkenhayn's relations with the Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg were troubled and undercut Falkenhayn's plans. Early life Falkenhayn was ...
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Franz Ritter Von Epp
Franz Ritter von Epp (born Franz Epp; from 1918 as Ritter von Epp; 16 October 1868 – 31 January 1947)Lilla, Joachim: Epp, Franz Ritter v.'. In: Staatsminister, leitende Verwaltungsbeamte und (NS-)Funktionsträger in Bayern 1918 bis 1945. Bayerische Landesbibliothek Online. Retrieved on 12 November 2015.Epp's death date is often erroneously given as 31 December 1946. According to Lilla, Staatsminister, this error was replicated from the . The correct date, 31 January 1947, is confirmed by Epp's death certificate in the civil registry of Munich. was a German general and politician who started his military career in the Bavarian Army. Successful wartime military service earned him a knighthood in 1916. After the end of World War I and the dissolution of the German Empire, von Epp was a commanding officer in the and the . He was a member of Bavarian People's Party, before joining the Nazi Party in 1928, when he was elected as a member of the German parliament or , a pos ...
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Colin Campbell (colonial Governor)
Colin Campbell may refer to: Scottish history *Cailean Mór (died after 1296), also known as Sir Colin Campbell, or "Colin the Great" * Sir Colin Og Campbell of Lochawe (died before 1343), Lord of Lochawe * Colin Campbell (Swedish East India Company) (1686–1757), Scottish merchant and founder of the Swedish East India Company *Colin Roy Campbell of Glenure (c. 1708–1752), also known as the "Red Fox", killed in the Appin Murder, subject of ''Kidnapped'' by Robert Louis Stevenson *Sir Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde (1792–1863), Scottish soldier Scottish nobility *Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll (c. 1433–1493), Scottish nobleman *Colin Campbell, 3rd Earl of Argyll (c. 1486–1535), Scottish nobleman and soldier *Colin Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyll (1541/46–1584), Scottish nobleman and politician *Sir Colin Campbell, 2nd Baronet (1577–1640), Scottish nobleman *Sir Colin Campbell, 1st Baronet, of Lundie (died c. 1650), Scottish noble *Colin Campbell, 7th Earl Cawdor (born ...
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Hans Ritter Von Adam
Hans Ritter von Adam, born Hans Adam (24 May 1886 – 15 November 1917), was a Bavarian flying ace in World War I, with 21 victories before being killed in action. He enlisted as an infantry private, and rose through the ranks to be commissioned an officer. His valor earned him his nation's highest awards, including one that posthumously raised him to nobility. Background Hans Ritter von Adam was born as Hans Adam on 24 May 1886, in Bayerisch Eisenstein in the Lower Bavaria region of the Kingdom of Bavaria (a town now divided between Germany and the Czech Republic), son of a railway official, Andreas Adam, and his wife Hildegard ''née'' Fischer. Hans Adam entered the Royal Bavarian Army as a one-year volunteer (''Einjährige-Freiwilliger'') on 1 October 1906, serving in the 4th Infantry Regiment in Metz. He then became a businessman in Munich. By the time World War I began, Adam was married, with two children. Military service Adam returned to service as a lieutenant in th ...
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Rupprecht, Crown Prince Of Bavaria
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Duke of Bavaria, Franconia and in Swabia, Count Palatine by (the) Rhine (''Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand''; English: ''Robert Maria Leopold Ferdinand''; 18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955), was the last heir apparent to the Bavarian throne. During the first half of the First World War he commanded the 6th Army on the Western Front. From August 1916, he commanded Army Group Rupprecht of Bavaria, which occupied the sector of the front opposite the British Expeditionary Force. Childhood Rupprecht was born in Munich, the eldest of the thirteen children of Ludwig III, the last King of Bavaria, and of Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, a niece of Duke Francis V of Modena. He was a member of the lineage of both Louis XIV of France and William the Conqueror. As a direct descendant of Henrietta of England, daughter of Charles I of England, he was claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland in the Jacobite succession. His ...
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Prince Leopold Of Bavaria
Prince Leopold of Bavaria (Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria Arnulf; 9 February 1846 – 28 September 1930) was born in Munich, the son of Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria (1821–1912) and his wife Archduchess Augusta of Austria (1825–1864). He was a Field Marshal (''Generalfeldmarschall'') who commanded German and Austro-Hungarian forces on the Eastern Front in World War I. Biography Military career Prince Leopold entered the Bavarian Army at the age of 15, and received his patent as a lieutenant dated 28 November 1861. He saw first combat during the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, where he commanded an artillery battery at Kissingen and Rossbrunn. In 1870, King Ludwig II of Bavaria sent Leopold to the battlefields of France, where the Bavarian Army was fighting alongside the Prussian Army in the Franco-Prussian War. He served with the 3rd Bavarian Artillery Regiment and saw action at Sedan and Beauvert. He was promoted to major in December 1870.Bavarian War Ministry, ...
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Gustav Ritter Von Kahr
Gustav Ritter von Kahr (; born Gustav Kahr; 29 November 1862 – 30 June 1934) was a German right-wing politician, active in the state of Bavaria. He helped turn post–World War I Bavaria into Germany's center of radical-nationalism but was then instrumental in the collapse and suppression of Adolf Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. In revenge for the latter, he was murdered later in the 1934 Night of the Long Knives. Biography Born in Weißenburg in Bayern, Kahr studied law and worked as a lawyer before entering politics. He served Bavaria's House of Wittelsbach faithfully, efforts that earned him the title ''Ritter''. Politically, he was a monarchist and had links to the Catholic Bavarian People's Party (BVP), though he was a Protestant and never joined any party. In 1917, he became head of the ''Regierungsbezirk'' (provincial) government of Upper Bavaria, continuing in the post even after the establishment of the People's State of Bavaria in November 1918 ended the Wittelsb ...
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