Mathematical Problem
A mathematical problem is a problem that can be represented, analyzed, and possibly solved, with the methods of mathematics. This can be a realworld problem, such as computing the orbits of the planets in the solar system, or a problem of a more abstract nature, such as Hilbert's problems. It can also be a problem referring to the nature of mathematics itself, such as Russell's Paradox. Realworld problems Informal "realworld" mathematical problems are questions related to a concrete setting, such as "Adam has five apples and gives John three. How many has he left?". Such questions are usually more difficult to solve than regular mathematical exercises like "5 − 3", even if one knows the mathematics required to solve the problem. Known as word problems, they are used in mathematics education to teach students to connect realworld situations to the abstract language of mathematics. In general, to use mathematics for solving a realworld problem, the first ste ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Representation (mathematics)
In mathematics, a representation is a very general relationship that expresses similarities (or equivalences) between mathematical objects or structures. Roughly speaking, a collection ''Y'' of mathematical objects may be said to ''represent'' another collection ''X'' of objects, provided that the properties and relationships existing among the representing objects ''yi'' conform, in some consistent way, to those existing among the corresponding represented objects ''xi''. More specifically, given a set ''Π'' of properties and relations, a ''Π''representation of some structure ''X'' is a structure ''Y'' that is the image of ''X'' under a homomorphism that preserves ''Π''. The label ''representation'' is sometimes also applied to the homomorphism itself (such as group homomorphism in group theory). Representation theory Perhaps the most welldeveloped example of this general notion is the subfield of abstract algebra called representation theory, which studies the representing ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Undecidable Problem
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is proved to be impossible to construct an algorithm that always leads to a correct yesorno answer. The halting problem is an example: it can be proven that there is no algorithm that correctly determines whether arbitrary programs eventually halt when run. Background A decision problem is any arbitrary yesorno question on an infinite set of inputs. Because of this, it is traditional to define the decision problem equivalently as the set of inputs for which the problem returns ''yes''. These inputs can be natural numbers, but also other values of some other kind, such as strings of a formal language. Using some encoding, such as a Gödel numbering, the strings can be encoded as natural numbers. Thus, a decision problem informally phrased in terms of a formal language is also equivalent to a set of natural numbers. To keep the formal definition simple, it is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII of England, King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in monographs and scholarly journals. Most are nonprofit organizations and an integral component of a large research university. They publish work that has been reviewed by schola ... in the world. It is also the King's Printer. Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. It became part of Cambridge University Press & Assessment, following a merger with Cambridge Assessment in 2021. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 Country, countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries. Its publishing includes more than 380 academic journals, monographs, reference works, school and uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Exercise (mathematics)
A mathematical exercise is a routine application of algebra or other mathematics to a stated challenge. Mathematics teachers assign mathematical exercises to develop the skills of their students. Early exercises deal with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of integers. Extensive courses of exercises in school extend such arithmetic to rational numbers. Various approaches to geometry have based exercises on relations of angles, segments, and triangles. The topic of trigonometry gains many of its exercises from the trigonometric identities. In college mathematics exercises often depend on functions of a real variable or application of theorems. The standard exercises of calculus involve finding derivatives and integrals of specified functions. Usually instructors prepare students with worked examples: the exercise is stated, then a model answer is provided. Often several worked examples are demonstrated before students are prepared to attempt exercises on their own. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Problem Solving
Problem solving is the process of achieving a goal by overcoming obstacles, a frequent part of most activities. Problems in need of solutions range from simple personal tasks (e.g. how to turn on an appliance) to complex issues in business and technical fields. The former is an example of simple problem solving (SPS) addressing one issue, whereas the latter is complex problem solving (CPS) with multiple interrelated obstacles. Another classification is into welldefined problems with specific obstacles and goals, and illdefined problems in which the current situation is troublesome but it is not clear what kind of resolution to aim for. Similarly, one may distinguish formal or factbased problems requiring psychometric intelligence, versus socioemotional problems which depend on the changeable emotions of individuals or groups, such as tactful behavior, fashion, or gift choices. Solutions require sufficient resources and knowledge to attain the goal. Professionals such as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Science
The mathematical sciences are a group of areas of study that includes, in addition to mathematics, those academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper. Statistics, for example, is mathematical in its methods but grew out of bureaucratic and scientific observations, which merged with inverse probability and then grew through applications in some areas of physics, biometrics, and the social sciences to become its own separate, though closely allied, field. Theoretical astronomy, theoretical physics, theoretical and applied mechanics, continuum mechanics, mathematical chemistry, actuarial science, computer and computational science, data science, quantitative biology, operations research, control theory, econometrics, geophysics and mathematical geosciences are likewise other fields often considered part of the mathematical sciences. Some institutions offer degrees in mathematical sciences (e.g ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Deductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning is the mental process of drawing deductive inferences. An inference is deductively valid if its conclusion follows logically from its premises, i.e. if it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false. For example, the inference from the premises "all men are mortal" and "Socrates is a man" to the conclusion "Socrates is mortal" is deductively valid. An argument is ''sound'' if it is ''valid'' and all its premises are true. Some theorists define deduction in terms of the intentions of the author: they have to intend for the premises to offer deductive support to the conclusion. With the help of this modification, it is possible to distinguish valid from invalid deductive reasoning: it is invalid if the author's belief about the deductive support is false, but even invalid deductive reasoning is a form of deductive reasoning. Psychology is interested in deductive reasoning as a psychological process, i.e. how people ''actually'' draw ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Reason
Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans. Reason is sometimes referred to as rationality. Reasoning is associated with the acts of thinking and cognition, and involves the use of one's intellect. The field of logic studies the ways in which humans can use formal reasoning to produce logically valid arguments. Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning, such as: deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and abductive reasoning. Aristotle drew a distinction between logical discursive reasoning (reason proper), and intuitive reasoning, in which the reasoning process through intuition—however valid—may tend toward the personal and the subject ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Awareness
Awareness is the state of being conscious of something. More specifically, it is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events. Another definition describes it as a state wherein a subject is aware of some information when that information is directly available to bring to bear in the direction of a wide range of behavioral actions. The concept is often synonymous to consciousness and is also understood as being consciousness itself. The states of awareness are also associated with the states of experience so that the structure represented in awareness is mirrored in the structure of experience. Concept Awareness is a relative concept. It may be focused on an internal state, such as a visceral feeling, or on external events by way of sensory perception. It is analogous to sensing something, a process distinguished from observing and perceiving (which involves a basic process of acquainting with the items we perceive). Awareness or "to sense" can ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Computers
A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These programs enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. A computer system is a nominally complete computer that includes the hardware, operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment needed and used for full operation. This term may also refer to a group of computers that are linked and function together, such as a computer network or computer cluster. A broad range of industrial and consumer products use computers as control systems. Simple specialpurpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls are included, as are factory devices like industrial robots and computeraided design, as well as generalpurpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices like smartphones. Computers power the Internet, which links bill ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Poincaré Conjecture
In the mathematics, mathematical field of geometric topology, the Poincaré conjecture (, , ) is a theorem about the Characterization (mathematics), characterization of the 3sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in fourdimensional space. Originally conjectured by Henri Poincaré in 1904, the Grigori Perelman's theorem concerns spaces that locally look like ordinary Euclidean space, threedimensional space but which are finite in extent. Poincaré hypothesized that if such a space has the additional property that each path (topology), loop in the space can be continuously tightened to a point, then it is necessarily a 3sphere, threedimensional sphere. Attempts to resolve the conjecture drove much progress in the field of geometric topology during the 20th century. The Perelman's proof built upon Richard S. Hamilton's ideas of using the Ricci flow to solve the problem. By developing a number of breakthrough new techniques and results in the theory of Ricci ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fermat's Last Theorem
In number theory, Fermat's Last Theorem (sometimes called Fermat's conjecture, especially in older texts) states that no three positive integers , , and satisfy the equation for any integer value of greater than 2. The cases and have been known since antiquity to have infinitely many solutions.Singh, pp. 18–20. The proposition was first stated as a theorem by Pierre de Fermat around 1637 in the margin of a copy of '' Arithmetica''. Fermat added that he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin. Although other statements claimed by Fermat without proof were subsequently proven by others and credited as theorems of Fermat (for example, Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares), Fermat's Last Theorem resisted proof, leading to doubt that Fermat ever had a correct proof. Consequently the proposition became known as a conjecture rather than a theorem. After 358 years of effort by mathematicians, the first successful proof was released in 1994 by Andrew Wiles and form ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 