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Luang (title)
The Thai nobility was a social class comprising titled officials (''khunnang'', th|ขุนนาง) in the service of the monarchy. They formed part of a hierarchical social system which developed from the time of the Ayutthaya Kingdom (14th century – 1767), through the Thonburi (1767–1782) and early Rattanakosin (1782 onwards) periods. Reforms by King Chulalongkorn ended the system around the end of the 19th century, though noble titles continued to be granted until the abolition of absolute monarchy in 1932. Thai noble titles comprise a rank and a title, which denote the holder's post or office. Unlike in European aristocracies, Thai noble titles were not inherited, but individually granted based on personal merit. Nevertheless, familial influence was substantial, and some families were able to accumulated large amounts of wealth and power, especially during the 17th to 19th centuries. History While the use of noble rank and title words are found in the documents of many ea ...
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Thai Monarchy
The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically, King of Siam; th|พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The king currently resides in quarantine at the Grand Hotel Sonnenbichl in Germ ...
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Samuhanayok
Chatusadom or Catustambha ( th|จตุสดมภ์ , literally "Four Pillars" from Sanskrit ''Catur'' "Four" + ''Stambha'' "Pillars") was the Thai system of central executive governance during the Ayutthaya Kingdom, Thonburi Kingdom and Rattanakosin Kingdom from 1455 to 1892. For about four hundred years, it had served as the constitution of central government of Siam or Thailand until King Chulalongkorn organized ''Chatusadom'' into modern ministries and officially established the Cabinet on April 1, 1892. The ''Chatusadom'' system King Trailokanat promulgated the constitution of ''Chatusadom'' in his Palatine Law, or ''Phra aiyakan tamnaeng na phonlaruean'' ( th|พระไอยการตำแหน่งนาพลเรือน), with the promulgation date being 1455. The original written law had been lost, however. ''Chatusadom'' went through subsequent amendments over time and King Rama I enacted the Palatine Law in the Three Seals Law, from which the ''Chatusadom' ...
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Battambang
Battambang ( km|ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង) is the capital of Battambang province in Northwestern Cambodia. Founded in the 11th century by the Khmer Empire, Battambang is the leading rice-producing province of the country. For nearly 100 years it was a major commercial hub and provincial capital of Siamese province of Inner Cambodia (1795-1907), though it was always populated by Khmer, with some ethnic Vietnamese, Lao, Thai and Chinese. Battambang remains the hub of Cambodia's northwest, connecting the region with Phnom Penh and Thailand. The city is situated on the Sangkae River, a tranquil, small body of water that winds its way picturesquely through Battambang Province. As with much of Cambodia, French Colonial architecture is a notable aspect of the city, with some of the best-preserved examples in the country. Now the government and Ministry of Culture and Fine Art are preparing documents to nominate The Old Town of Battambang in the list of UNESCO world heritage ...
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Phra Tabong
Phra Tabong Province ( th|พระตะบอง) was a province of Thailand, from the late-18th century until it was ceded to French Indochina in 1907, and again between 1941-1946 after Thailand recaptured it during the Japanese occupation of Cambodia in World War II. The province was dissolved and returned to France in 1946. The area is now in the Pailin municipality of Battambang Province, Cambodia. Name ''Phra Tabong'' ( th|พระตะบอง) is the Thai version of the name ''Preah Bat Dambang Kranhoung'', the namesake of Battambang, who according to Khmer legend threw his staff from Angkor, landing in the area of modern Battambang. History Though Siam had invaded this area of Cambodia at the beginning of the 15th century, Siamese administration of the area was only formally organized in the late-18th century, at the beginning of the Bangkok Period known as Inner Cambodia or ''Khamen Nai''. Baen Abhaiwongse, of the Abhaiwongse family, was installed as governor, with t ...
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Aphaiphubet
Aphaiphubet ( th|อภัยภูเบศร) is a Thai noble title granted to some governors of Battambang, who acted as rulers of western Cambodia during the period of Siamese rule from the late 18th century to 1907. Past titleholders all came from what is now the Abhaiwongse family. Holders of the title included: * Chaophraya Aphaiphubet (Baen) * Phraya Aphaiphubet (Baen) * * Phraya Aphaiphubet (Ched) * Phraya Aphaiphubet (Som) * Phraya Aphaiphubet (Nong) * * Category:Thai nobility {{Nobility-stub ...
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Chaiya
Chaiya District ( th|ไชยา, ) is a district (''amphoe'') and town in Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. The main town is Talat Chaiya. Geography Neighboring districts are (from the south clockwise): Tha Chang and Kapoe of Ranong Province; Phato of Chumphon Province, and Tha Chana in Surat Thani. To the east is the Gulf of Thailand, with Cape Sui marking the northern end of the Bandon Bay. The eastern part of the district consists of mostly flat low coastal areas, while to the west are the mountains of the Phuket mountain range, including Kaeng Krung National Park. History Laem Pho Beach in the district is thought to have been a Srivijaya|Srivijaya Kingdom seaport in the 7th to 13th centuries. Srivijaya was an Indonesian city-state that grew to become an influential maritime power in what is now Southeast Asia. Tang Dynasty (7th–10th centuries) ceramics have been found in the area as well as pottery from India and glassware from Persia. Similar finds have been ...
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Phetchaburi
Phetchaburi ( th|เพชรบุรี, ) or Phet Buri () is a town (''thesaban mueang'') in southern Thailand, capital of Phetchaburi Province. In Thai, Phetchaburi means "city of diamonds" (''buri'' meaning "city" in sanskrit). It is approximately 160 km south of Bangkok, at the northern end of the Thai peninsula. As of 2005, the town had a population of 26,181 and covers the two ''tambon'' Tha Rap and Khlong Krachaeng.Department of provincial administration
The Phetchaburi River runs through the middle of the city. The region is mostly flat, save for a single hill (called ''Khao Wang'') on the outskirts of town. The royal palace named
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Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok ( th|พิษณุโลก, ) is an important, historic city in lower northern Thailand and is the capital of Phitsanulok Province. Phitsanulok is home to Naresuan University and Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University, as well as to a major Royal Thai Army base. As of 2019, the population of the city was 66,106. Toponymy *Song Khwae: The first element, ''song'', means the number 'two'. The second element, ''khwae'', means 'tributary', hence 'two rivers'. *Phitsanulok: The first element, ''Phitsanu'' (Thai: พิษณุ; Sanskrit: viṣṇu विष्णु "Vishnu"), is a cognate of 'Vishnu', a Hindu god (see, e.g., Witnu, Thai: วิษณุ). Lack of a v sound in the Thai language accounts for the two forms. The second element, ''lok'' (Thai: โลก; Sanskrit: loka लोक 'world') means 'globe' or 'world'. A loose translation of the entire name would be 'Vishnu's heaven'. History Phitsanulok is one of the oldest cities in Thailand, founded over ...
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List Of Samuhakalahom
The ''samuhakalahom'' ( th|สมุหกลาโหม) was one of the two chief ministers in the historical Chatusadom government system of Siam (now Thailand) in use from the Ayutthaya through early Rattanakosin periods. The post was originally charged with military affairs but later oversaw both civil and military affairs in southern cities. Officials who held the post usually received the noble title of Mahasena ( th|มหาเสนา). List of ''samuhakalahom'' Rattanakosin #Chaophraya Mahasena (Pli): Served King Rama I, from 1782. #Chaophraya Mahasena (Bunnag): Served Rama I until his own death in 1805. He was the progenitor of the Bunnag family, which would become one of the most powerful noble families, with multiple descendants also holding the post. #Chaophraya Mahasena (Pin): Served during the reign of Rama I. #Chaophraya Mahasena (Bunma): Served until his death during the reign of Rama II. #Chaophraya Wongsasurasak (Saeng): Served until his death in 1822. #Chaophray ...
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Kalahom
Chatusadom or Catustambha ( th|จตุสดมภ์ , literally "Four Pillars" from Sanskrit ''Catur'' "Four" + ''Stambha'' "Pillars") was the Thai system of central executive governance during the Ayutthaya Kingdom, Thonburi Kingdom and Rattanakosin Kingdom from 1455 to 1892. For about four hundred years, it had served as the constitution of central government of Siam or Thailand until King Chulalongkorn organized ''Chatusadom'' into modern ministries and officially established the Cabinet on April 1, 1892. The ''Chatusadom'' system King Trailokanat promulgated the constitution of ''Chatusadom'' in his Palatine Law, or ''Phra aiyakan tamnaeng na phonlaruean'' ( th|พระไอยการตำแหน่งนาพลเรือน), with the promulgation date being 1455. The original written law had been lost, however. ''Chatusadom'' went through subsequent amendments over time and King Rama I enacted the Palatine Law in the Three Seals Law, from which the ''Chatusadom' ...
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List Of Samuhanayok
The ''samuhanayok'' ( th|สมุหนายก) was one of the two chief ministers in the historical Chatusadom government system of Siam (now Thailand), originally charged with civil affairs but later overseeing both civil and military affairs in northern cities. During the Ayutthaya and Thonburi periods, the official who held the post usually took the noble title of Chakri ( th|จักรี, ). The term, from Sanskrit चक्री ''cakrī'', literally meant "one who has a discus", referring to the Hindu god Vishnu who possesses the discus Sudarshana). The last office-holder to be known by the title Chakri was Thongduang, who established the Rattanakosin Kingdom and became King Rama I in 1782. His dynasty, which includes the current Thai royal family, is known as the Chakri Dynasty after his former title. Later office-holders of Rattanakosin were granted individualized titles. List of ''samuhanayok'' Officials who served as ''samuhanayok'' included: Ayutthaya * Phraya Ch ...
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Three Seals Law
The ''Three Seals Law'' or ''Three Seals Code'' ( th|กฎหมายตราสามดวง; ) is a collection of law texts compiled in 1805 on the orders of King Rama I of Siam. Most of the texts were laws from the Ayutthaya era which had survived the destruction of Ayutthaya in 1767. The compilation remained the working law of Siam until partially replaced by modern law codes in the early 20th century. The texts are an important source for the history of the Ayutthaya Kingdom and legal history in Asia. Parts of the ''Three Seals Law'' are still in force, according to a ruling of the Supreme Court of Justice of Thailand in 1978.Prachumyat 2013, pp. 63–64 Background King Rama I paid attention to the preservation of Thai texts that had survived the destruction of Ayutthaya in 1767, including the royal chronicles and religious texts. Shortly after completing a revision of the Tipiṭaka, the Buddhist canonical scriptures, in 1804, he turned his attention to the laws. After ...
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Mahatthai
Chatusadom or Catustambha ( th|จตุสดมภ์ , literally "Four Pillars" from Sanskrit ''Catur'' "Four" + ''Stambha'' "Pillars") was the Thai system of central executive governance during the Ayutthaya Kingdom, Thonburi Kingdom and Rattanakosin Kingdom from 1455 to 1892. For about four hundred years, it had served as the constitution of central government of Siam or Thailand until King Chulalongkorn organized ''Chatusadom'' into modern ministries and officially established the Cabinet on April 1, 1892. The ''Chatusadom'' system King Trailokanat promulgated the constitution of ''Chatusadom'' in his Palatine Law, or ''Phra aiyakan tamnaeng na phonlaruean'' ( th|พระไอยการตำแหน่งนาพลเรือน), with the promulgation date being 1455. The original written law had been lost, however. ''Chatusadom'' went through subsequent amendments over time and King Rama I enacted the Palatine Law in the Three Seals Law, from which the ''Chatusadom' ...
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Oknha
Oknha ( km|ឧកញ៉ា, also spelled as Oknya or Oknia) is an honorary title in Cambodia. It has different meanings depending on the period it was used. In premodern times, "Oknha" were envoys appointed by the king, who were expected to perform a wide variety of duties, take elaborate oaths of loyalty, and present the monarch with regular gifts. Oknha is one of the noble titles, above ''Preah'' () and below ''Neak Oknha'' (). It equals to ''Okya'' () of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The title ''Oknha'' is created since the 18th century to replace the title ''Ponhea'' (), which could be translated as ''Phraya'' () in Thai. The word ''Oknha'' is referred to as ''Ốc nha'' (屋牙) in ancient Vietnamese records. Today In present-day, ''Oknha'' is the highest title bestowed on civilians (non-royalty) by the Cambodian king. The word means "nobleman" or "lord". Since 20 March 2017, anyone hoping to be bestowed with the title must make contributions of $500,000 or more to the government. Th ...
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Taksin
Taksin ( th|สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช, , ) or the King of Thonburi ( th|สมเด็จพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี, ; ; Teochew: Dên Chao; Vietnamese: ''Trịnh Quốc Anh'' ; April 17, 1734 – April 7, 1782) was the only King of the Thonburi Kingdom. He had been an Ekatat servant and then was a leader in the liberation of Siam from Burmese occupation after the Second Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, and the subsequent unification of Siam after it fell under various warlords. He established the city of Thonburi as the new capital, as the city of Ayutthaya had been almost completely destroyed by the invaders. His reign was characterized by numerous wars; he fought to repel new Burmese invasions and to subjugate the northern Thai kingdom of Lanna, the Laotian principalities, and a threatening Cambodia. Although warfare took up most of Taksin's time, he paid a great deal of attention to politics, administration, ...
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