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Legal Tools
The term 'Legal Tools' refers to online legal-information services developed by the ICC Legal Tools Project since 2006, primarily with support from the European Union. The main services are the Legal Tools Database ('LTD'), the Legal Tools Website, and the Case Matrix. The anthology ''Active Complementarity: Legal Information Transfer'' provides comprehensive information about the ICC Legal Tools Project and its open access value-base. The ''Legal Tools Database'' is an online database on international criminal law. It provides legal practitioners, researchers, students and the general public with open access to all relevant legal sources in international criminal law, including information on the core international crimes (genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression). Being a tool of computer-assisted legal research, the LTD provides access to all relevant case law, legislation (statutes and treaties), preparatory works as well as academic writing ...
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International Criminal Court Logo
International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * ''International'' (New Order album), 2002 * ''International'' (The Three Degrees album), 1975 *''International'', 2018 album by L'Algérino Songs * The Internationale, the left-wing anthem * "International" (Chase & Status song), 2014 * "International", by Adventures in Stereo from ''Monomania'', 2000 * "International", by Brass Construction from ''Renegades'', 1984 * "International", by Thomas Leer from ''The Scale of Ten'', 1985 * "International", by Kevin Michael from ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * "International", by McGuinness Flint from ''McGuinness Flint'', 1970 * "International", by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark from '' Dazzle Ships'', 1983 * "International (Serious)", by Estelle from '' All of Me'', 2012 Politics * Political international, any transnational organization of ...
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Treaty
A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually made by and between sovereign states, but can include international organizations, individuals, business entities, and other legal persons. A treaty may also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. However, only documents that are legally binding on the parties are considered treaties under international law. Treaties vary on the basis of obligations (the extent to which states are bound to the rules), precision (the extent to which the rules are unambiguous), and delegation (the extent to which third parties have authority to interpret, apply and make rules). Treaties are among the earliest manifestations of international relations, with the first known example being a border agreement between the Sumerian city-states of Lagash and Umma around 3100 BC. International agreements were used in s ...
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United Nations War Crimes Commission
The United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC) initially called the United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes, was a commission of the United Nations that investigated allegations of war crimes committed by Nazi Germany and the other Axis powers in World War II. History The Commission was constituted at the behest of the British government and the other sixteen Allied nations at a meeting held at the British Foreign Office in London on 20th October, 1943, prior to the formal establishment of the United Nations in 1945. The proposal of its establishment was made by the Lord Chancellor John Simon in the House of Lords on 7 October, 1942. A similar statement was issued by the United States government.The Commission's objects and powers were conferred as follows: # It should investigate and record the evidence of war crimes, identifying where possible the individuals responsible. # It should report to the Governments concerned cases in which it appeared th ...
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Human Rights Law
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels. As a form of international law, international human rights law are primarily made up of treaties, agreements between sovereign states intended to have binding legal effect between the parties that have agreed to them; and customary international law. Other international human rights instruments, while not legally binding, contribute to the implementation, understanding and development of international human rights law and have been recognized as a source of ''political'' obligation. International human rights law, which governs the conduct of a state towards its people in peacetime is traditionally seen as distinct from international humanitarian law which governs the conduct of a state during armed conflict, although the two branches of law are complementary and in some ways overlap. A more systemic perspective explains that internatio ...
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Non-governmental Organization
A non-governmental organization (NGO) or non-governmental organisation (see spelling differences) is an organization that generally is formed independent from government. They are typically nonprofit entities, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences; they can also include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. NGOs are distinguished from international and intergovernmental organizations (''IOs'') in that the latter are more directly involved with sovereign states and their governments. The term as it is used today was first introduced in Article 71 of the newly-formed United Nations' Charter in 1945. While there is no fixed or formal definition for what NGOs are, they are gener ...
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International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal seated in The Hague, Netherlands. It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression. It is distinct from the International Court of Justice, an organ of the United Nations that hears disputes between states. While praised as a major step towards justice, and as an innovation in international law and human rights, the ICC has faced a number of criticisms from governments and civil society, including objections to its jurisdiction, accusations of bias, Eurocentrism and racism, questioning of the fairness of its case-selection and trial procedures, and doubts about its effectiveness. History The establishment of an international tribunal to judge political leaders accused of international crimes was first proposed ...
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Hyperlink
In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a digital reference to data that the user can follow or be guided by clicking or tapping. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks. The text that is linked from is known as anchor text. A software system that is used for viewing and creating hypertext is a ''hypertext system'', and to create a hyperlink is ''to hyperlink'' (or simply ''to link''). A user following hyperlinks is said to ''navigate'' or ''browse'' the hypertext. The document containing a hyperlink is known as its source document. For example, in an online reference work such as Wikipedia or Google, many words and terms in the text are hyperlinked to definitions of those terms. Hyperlinks are often used to implement reference mechanisms such as tables of contents, footnotes, bibliographies, indexes, letters, and glossaries. In some hypertext, hyperlinks can be bidirectional: they can be ...
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Germain Katanga
Germain Katanga (; born 28 April 1978), also known as Simba (), is a former leader of the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI), an armed group in the Ituri Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).International Criminal Court (19 October 2007). Statement by Fatou Bensouda, Deputy Prosecutor, during the press conference regarding the arrest of Germain Katanga''. Retrieved on 21 October 2007. On 17 October 2007, the Congolese authorities surrendered him to the International Criminal Court (ICC) to stand trial on six counts of war crimes and three counts of crimes against humanity.International Criminal Court (18 October 2007). Second arrest: Germain Katanga transferred into the custody of the ICC''. Retrieved on 21 October 2007. The charges include murder, sexual slavery, rape, destruction of property, pillaging, willful killing, and directing crimes against civilians. On 7 March 2014, Katanga was convicted by the ICC on five counts of war crimes and cri ...
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Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher
The Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher (TOAEP) is an academic publisher specializing in international law and policy. Established in 2010, it is named after Torkel Opsahl, TOAEP grew out of the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) as a research project. It is owned by the Centre for International Law Research and Policy (CILRAP), an independent international research centre in Brussels, Belgium, but it has editorial independence. The TOAEP was the first academic e-publisher in international law, publishing both in print and freely online. It has five publication series in international criminal and humanitarian law, and other areas of international law International law (also known as public international law and the law of nations) is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between states. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework for ..., which are all available online and may be downloaded free of charge. Its pu ...
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Persistent Uniform Resource Locator
A persistent uniform resource locator (PURL) is a uniform resource locator (URL) (i.e., location-based uniform resource identifier or URI) that is used to redirect to the location of the requested web resource. PURLs redirect HTTP clients using HTTP status codes. Originally, PURLs were recognizable for being hosted apurl.orgor other hostnames containing purl. Early on many of those other hosts used descendants of the original OCLC PURL system software. Eventually, however, the ''PURL concept'' came to be generic and was used to designate any redirection service (named ''PURL resolver'') that: * has a "root URL" as the ''resolver'' reference (e.g. http://myPurlResolver.example); * provides means, to its user-community, to include new ''names'' in the root URL (e.g. http://myPurlResolver.example/name22); * provides means to associate each ''name'' with its URL (to be redirected), and to update this redirection-URL; * ensure the persistence (e.g. by contract) of the root URL and th ...
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Statute
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, state, or country by way of consent. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies; they are distinguished from case law or precedent, which is decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies. Publication and organization In virtually all countries, newly enacted statutes are published and distributed so that everyone can look up the statutory law. This can be done in the form of a government gazette which may include other kinds of legal notices released by the government, or in the form of a series of books whose content is limited to legislative acts. In either form, statutes are traditionally published in chronological order based on date of enactment. A universal problem encountered by lawmakers throughout human history is how to organize published statutes. Such publications h ...
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Logo 2018 Sharp
A logo (abbreviation of logotype; ) is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type (e.g. "The" in ATF Garamond), as opposed to a ligature, which is two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was also used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today often synonymous with its trademark or brand.Wheeler, Alina. ''Designing Brand Identity'' © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (page 4) Etymology Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary states that the term 'logo' used in 1937 "probably a shortening of logogram". History Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, includ ...
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