Hundred Years' War
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Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War (; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of Kingdom of England, England and Kingdom of France, France during the Late Middle Ages. It originated from disputed claims to the French Crown, French throne between the English House of Plantagenet and the French royal House of Valois. Over time, the war grew into a broader power struggle involving factions from across Western Europe, fuelled by emerging nationalism on both sides. The Hundred Years' War was one of the most significant conflicts of the Middle Ages. For 116 years, interrupted by several Ceasefire, truces, five generations of kings from two rival Dynasty, dynasties fought for the throne of the dominant kingdom in Western Europe. The war's effect on European history was lasting. Both sides produced innovations in military technology and tactics, including professional standing armies and artillery, that permanently changed warfare in Europe; chivalry, which had reac ...
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Anglo-French Wars
The Anglo-French Wars were a series of conflicts between England (and after 1707, Britain) and France, including: Middle Ages High Middle Ages * Anglo-French War (1109–1113) – first conflict between the Capetian Dynasty and the House of Normandy post-Norman Conquest, Norman conquest * Battle of Brémule, Anglo-French War (1116–1119) – conflict over English possession of Normandy * Anglo-French War (1123–1135) – conflict that amalgamated into The Anarchy * Anglo-French War (1158–1189) – first conflict between the Capetian Dynasty and the House of Plantagenet * Anglo-French War (1193–1199) – conflict between King Richard the Lionheart and King Philip Augustus * French invasion of Normandy (1202–1204), Anglo-French War (1202–1204) – French invasion of Normandy * Anglo-French War (1213–14) – conflict between King Philip Augustus and King John of England * Anglo-French War (1215–1217) – the French intervention in the First Barons War * Anglo-French War ...
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Wars Of The Roses
The Wars of the Roses (1455–1487), known at the time and for more than a century after as the Civil Wars, were a series of civil wars fought over control of the throne of England, English throne in the mid-to-late fifteenth century. These wars were fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: House of Lancaster, Lancaster and House of York, York. The wars extinguished the patrilineality, male lines of the two branches, leading to the Tudors of Penmynydd, Tudor family inheriting the Lancastrian claim to the throne. Following the war, the Houses of Lancaster and York were united, creating Tudor Dynasty, a new royal dynasty and thereby resolving their rival claims. For over thirty years, there were greater and lesser levels of violent conflict between Template:Wars of the Roses family tree, various rival contenders for control of the English monarchy. The War of the Roses had its roots in the wake of the Hundred Years' War. After figh ...
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Kingdom Of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland (; , ) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a Anglo-Scottish border, land border to the south with Kingdom of England, England. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I of Scotland, Robert the Bruce it fought a successful Wars of Scottish Independence, War of Independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. Following the annexation of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles from Kingdom of Norway, Norway in 1266 and 1472 respectively, and the final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick upon Tweed, Berwick by England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel (British Isles), North Channel ...
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Royal Arms Of The Kingdom Of Scotland
Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name), a list of people with either the surname or given name * A member of a royal family Places United States * Royal, Arkansas, an unincorporated community * Royal, Illinois, a village * Royal, Iowa, a city * Royal, Missouri, an unincorporated community * Royal, Nebraska, a village * Royal, Franklin County, North Carolina, an unincorporated area * Royal, Utah, a ghost town * Royal, West Virginia, an unincorporated community * Royal Gorge, on the Arkansas River in Colorado * Royal Township (other) Elsewhere * Mount Royal, a hill in Montreal, Canada * Royal Canal, Dublin, Ireland * Royal National Park, New South Wales, Australia Arts, entertainment, and media * Royal (Jesse Royal album), ''Royal'' (Jesse Royal album), a 2021 reggae album * ''The Royal'', a British medical drama television series * ''The Royal Magazine'', a monthly British literary magazine published between 1898 and 1939 * Royal (Indian magazine), ''Royal'' (Indian ...
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Duchy Of Brittany
The Duchy of Brittany ( br, Dugelezh Breizh, ; french: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547. Its territory covered the northwestern peninsula of Europe, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the English Channel to the north. It was also less definitively bordered by the river Loire to the south, and Normandy, and other French provinces, to the east. The Duchy was established after the expulsion of Viking armies from the region around 939. The Duchy, in the 10th and 11th centuries, was politically unstable, with the dukes holding only limited power outside their own personal lands. The Duchy had mixed relationships with the neighbouring Duchy of Normandy, sometimes allying itself with Normandy, and at other times, such as the Breton-Norman War, entering into open conflict. Henry II of England invaded Brittany in the mid-12th century and became Count of Nantes in 1158 under a treaty with Conan IV, Duke of Brittany ...
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Arms Of Jean III De Bretagne
Arms or ARMS may refer to: *Arm or arms, the upper limbs of the body Arm, Arms, or ARMS may also refer to: People * Ida A. T. Arms (1856–1931), American missionary-educator, temperance leader Coat of arms or weapons *Armaments or weapons **Firearm **Small arms *Coat of arms **In this sense, "arms" is a common element in pub names Enterprises *Amherst Regional Middle School *Arms Corporation, originally named Dandelion, a defunct Japanese animation studio who operated from 1996 to 2020 *TRIN (finance) or Arms Index, a short-term stock trading index *Australian Relief & Mercy Services, a part of Youth With A Mission Arts and entertainment *ARMS (band), an American indie rock band formed in 2004 *Arms (album), ''Arms'' (album), a 2016 album by Bell X1 *Arms (song), "Arms" (song), a 2011 song by Christina Perri from the album ''lovestrong'' *Arms (video game), ''Arms'' (video game), a 2017 fighting video game for the Nintendo Switch *ARMS Charity Concerts, a series of charitable ...
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Burgundian State
The Burgundian StateB. Schnerb, ''L'État bourguignon'', 1999 (french: État bourguignon; nl, Bourgondische Rijk) is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to as Valois Burgundy. It developed in the Late Middle Ages under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy from the French House of Valois-Burgundy, House of Valois and was composed of both Kingdom of France, French and Holy Roman Empire, Imperial fiefs (Duchy of Burgundy, ducal and County of Burgundy, comital Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands). That territorial construction outlasted the properly 'Burgundian' dynasty and the loss of the Duchy of Burgundy itself. As such, it must not be confused with that sole fief. It is regarded as one of the major powers in Europe of the 15th century and the early 16th century. The Dukes of Burgundy were among the wealthiest and the most powerful princes in Europe and were sometimes called "Grand Dukes of the West". Including the t ...
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Arms Of The Duke Of Burgundy Since 1430
Arms or ARMS may refer to: * Arm or arms, the upper limbs of the body Arm, Arms, or ARMS may also refer to: People * Ida A. T. Arms (1856–1931), American missionary-educator, temperance leader Coat of arms or weapons * Armaments or weapons ** Firearm ** Small arms * Coat of arms **In this sense, "arms" is a common element in pub names Enterprises * Amherst Regional Middle School * Arms Corporation, originally named Dandelion, a defunct Japanese animation studio who operated from 1996 to 2020 * TRIN (finance) or Arms Index, a short-term stock trading index *Australian Relief & Mercy Services, a part of Youth With A Mission Arts and entertainment * ARMS (band), an American indie rock band formed in 2004 * ''Arms'' (album), a 2016 album by Bell X1 * "Arms" (song), a 2011 song by Christina Perri from the album ''lovestrong'' * ''Arms'' (video game), a 2017 fighting video game for the Nintendo Switch * ARMS Charity Concerts, a series of charitable rock concerts in support of Ac ...
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Arms Of France (France Moderne)
The current Constitution of France does not specify a national emblem. The unofficial coat of arms of France depicts a lictor's fasces upon branches of laurel and oak, as well as a ribbon bearing the national motto of ''Liberté, égalité, fraternité''. This composition was created in 1905 by heraldic Peintre-graveur, painter-engraver Maurice de Meyère and was first used by the French Third Republic. The full Achievement (heraldry), achievement includes the star and grand collar of the Legion of Honour. Devices The blazoning is: Coat of arms: charges Motto ''Liberté, égalité, fraternité'' (; "liberty, Social equality, equality, Fraternity (philosophy), fraternity", is the national motto of France, and is an example of a tripartite motto. Although it finds its origins in the French Revolution, it was then only one motto among others and was not institutionalized until the French Third Republic, Third Republic at the end of the 19th century. (abridged translation, ''Realm ...
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Pale Of Calais
The Pale of Calais was a territory in Northern France ruled by the monarchs of England for more than two hundred years from 1347 to 1558. The area, which was taken following the Battle of Crécy in 1346 and the subsequent Siege of Calais (1346–47), siege of Calais, was confirmed at the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360. It became an important economic centre for England in Europe’s textile trade centred in Flanders. The Pale, which was historically part of Flanders, also provided England with a permanent strategic, defensible outpost from which it could plan and launch military action on the continent. Its position on the English Channel meant it could be reinforced, garrisoned and supplied over the Straits of Dover, short distance by sea. The territory was bilingual with Middle English, English and Flemish commonly spoken. It was democratically represented in the Parliament of England by the Calais constituency. During the reign of Mary I, the Pale was unexpectedly retaken by t ...
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Kingdom Of England
The Kingdom of England (, ) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with Scotland Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a Anglo-Scottish border, border with England to the southeast ... to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. On 12 July 927, the various Anglo-Saxon kings swore their allegiance to Æthelstan of Wessex (), unifying most of modern England under a single king. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England, Denmark and Norway. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster Westminster is an area of Central Lond ...
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French Nationalism
French nationalism () usually manifests as cultural nationalism, promoting the cultural unity of France. History French nationalism emerged from its numerous wars with England, which involved the reconquest of the territories that made up France. The wars produced a great icon of French nationalism, Joan of Arc. The Catholic religion also played a major role after the Protestant Reformation. French nationalism became a powerful movement after the French Revolution in 1789. Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte promoted French nationalism based upon the ideals of the French Revolution such as the idea of "Liberté, égalité, fraternité, liberty, equality, fraternity" and justified French expansionism and French military campaigns on the claim that France had the right to spread the enlightened ideals of the French Revolution across Europe, and also to expand France into its so-called "natural borders of France, natural borders." Napoleon's invasions of other nations had the effect o ...
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