Guild Of St. Bernulphus
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Guild Of St. Bernulphus
The St. Bernulphusgilde or Guild of St. Bernulphus was a Dutch Catholic secret society established on December 1, 1869. Its intention initially was to serve as a trade union and protect national traditions of old craftsmanship in religious art and church architecture. Information about the association's meetings, as well as trade information, was published in their magazine ''The Guild Book''. The association was considered a guild and named after the 11th-century bishop of Utrecht, a passionate church builder named Bernold.Cortjaens, pp. 166-168 Establishment The association was established in Utrecht, founded by Gerard van Heukelum, at that time chaplain of St. Catherine's Cathedral in that city, from the idea of the Flemish St. Thomas Guild and St. Lucas Guild. Membership was originally open only to clergy, but the guild flourished when membership was extended to certain religious artists and architects. Although guild members worked mainly in the Netherlands in the U ...
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Guild Book Of Saint-Bernulphus
A guild ( ) is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradesmen belonging to a professional association. They sometimes depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other ruler to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials, but were mostly regulated by the city government. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild members found guilty of cheating the public would be fined or banned from the guild. Typically the key "privilege" was that only guild members were allowed to sell their goods or practice their skill within the city. There might be controls on minimum or maximum prices, hours of trading, numbers of apprentices, and many other things. These rules reduced free competition, but sometimes maintained ...
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Men Of Guild
A man is an adult male human. Prior to adulthood, a male human is referred to as a boy (a male child or adolescent). Like most other male mammals, a man's genome usually inherits an X chromosome from the mother and a Y chromosome from the father. Sex differentiation of the male fetus is governed by the SRY gene on the Y chromosome. During puberty, hormones which stimulate androgen production result in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, thus exhibiting greater differences between the sexes. These include greater muscle mass, the growth of facial hair and a lower body fat composition. Male anatomy is distinguished from female anatomy by the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, testicles, sperm duct, prostate gland and the epididymis, and by secondary sex characteristics, including a narrower pelvis, narrower hips, and smaller breasts without mammary glands. Throughout human history, traditional gender roles have often defined a ...
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Trade Unions In The Netherlands
Trade Unions play a major role in the corporatist Dutch economy. Dynamics In 2001 about 25% of the Dutch people who were employed were organized in a union. There are three major unions: the Christian-democratic " Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond (CNV)", the social-democratically oriented " Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging (FNV)" and the " Federation of Managerial and Professional Staff Unions (MHP)". All are federations of sector-based labour unions. The FNV is with about 1,4 million members the largest of the three. The CNV has 350.000 members and the MHP 160.000. The FNV has 17 affiliate unions, the CNV 11 and the MHP 4. The labour unions play a major role in the Dutch economy because, first, they bargain with employers' organizations over wages and working conditions (these deals are binding for all employed people), and second, they advise the government on economic legislation through its membership of the Social-Economic Council (SER). Traditionally Dutch labour unio ...
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Guilds In The Netherlands
A guild ( ) is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradesmen belonging to a professional association. They sometimes depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other ruler to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials, but were mostly regulated by the city government. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild members found guilty of cheating the public would be fined or banned from the guild. Typically the key "privilege" was that only guild members were allowed to sell their goods or practice their skill within the city. There might be controls on minimum or maximum prices, hours of trading, numbers of apprentices, and many other things. These rules reduced free competition, but sometimes maintaine ...
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Secret Societies
A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies or guerrilla warfare insurgencies, that hide their activities and memberships but maintain a public presence. Definitions The exact qualifications for labeling a group a secret society are disputed, but definitions generally rely on the degree to which the organization insists on secrecy, and might involve the retention and transmission of secret knowledge, the denial of membership or knowledge of the group, the creation of personal bonds between members of the organization, and the use of secret rites or rituals which solidify members of the group. Anthropologically and historically, secret societies have been deeply interlinked with the concept of the Männerbund, the all-male "warrior-band" or "warrior-society" of pre-moder ...
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Herman Schaepman
Herman Johannes Aloysius Maria Schaepman (Tubbergen, Overijssel, 2 March 1844 – Rome, 21 January 1903) was a Dutch priest, politician and poet. Life Herman’s father was major Theodoor Eduard Johannes Schaepman. Schaepman went to primary school in Tubbergen. He made his studies in the college of Oldenzaal and went to the seminaries of Culemborg and Rijsenburg, was ordained as a Catholic priest at Utrecht (city), Utrecht in 1867, and obtained the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1869 at Rome. He was immediately able to use his education as secretary to bishop of Haarlem at the First Vatican Council, Vatican Council of 1869-1870. He also functioned as a kind of quartermaster for the Dutch bishops and had a spot in the front row during the entire council. In 1869 his collected poems were published, he was only 25. In 1870, he was professor of church history at the seminary of Rijsenburg. At the same time he became a collaborator on ''De Tijd'', and in 1871, in conjunction with Dr. ...
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Fraternity
A fraternity (from Latin ''frater'': "brother"; whence, " brotherhood") or fraternal organization is an organization, society, club or fraternal order traditionally of men associated together for various religious or secular aims. Fraternity in the Western concept developed in the Christian context, notably with the religious orders in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. The concept was eventually further extended with medieval confraternities and guilds. In the early modern era, these were followed by fraternal orders such as Freemasons and Odd Fellows, along with gentlemen's clubs, student fraternities, and fraternal service organizations. Members are occasionally referred to as a ''brother'' or – usually in a religious context – ''Frater'' or ''Friar''. Today, connotations of fraternities vary according to context including companionships and brotherhoods dedicated to the religious, intellectual, academic, physical, or social pursuits of its members. Addit ...
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Alfred Tepe
Wilhelm Victor Alfred Tepe (1840–1920) was a Dutch architect. He is considered an important and influential representative of Gothic Revival architecture in the Netherlands during the 19th century. He designed and built many churches as well as other buildings, especially in the territory of the Archdiocese of Utrecht. Tepe was a key member of the Guild of St. Bernulphus, a Dutch secret society and trade union. He built and remodeled mostly in brick and used natural stone only in the later part of his career. He had four distinct time periods of architectural style in his career. He was primarily a Catholic ecclesiastical architect and worked mostly for the church. His style of designs were carried forward by other future architects. Early life Tepe was the son of German immigrants and born in Amsterdam on 24 November 1840. His father, Friederich Anton Tepe, was a textile merchant. His mother's name was Maria Anna Sternenberg. Tepe grew up and received his primary ed ...
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Martinus Christiaan Schenk
Martinus may refer to: * Martin (magister militum per Armeniam), 6th-century Byzantine/East Roman general * Martinus (son of Heraclius), 7th-century Byzantine/East Roman co-emperor * Martinus of Arles, doctor of theology, priest, and author on demonology and witches * Saint Martinus or Saint Martin of Tours * Martinus College, a secondary school in the Netherlands * VV Martinus, a Dutch volleyball club People with the name * Derek Martinus (1931–2014), British television and theatre director * Flavius Martinus, ''vicarius'' (governor) of the Roman provinces of Britain * Martinus Beijerinck, Dutch microbiologist * Martinus von Biberach (died 1498), theologian from Heilbronn, Germany * Martinus Bosselaar, Dutch football (soccer) player * Martinus Brandal, Norwegian engineer and businessman * Martinus Dom, first abbot of the Trappist Abbey of Westmalle * Martinus Fabri, Dutch composer of the late 14th century * Martinus Gosia, scholar and Italian jurist, one of the Four Doctor ...
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Friedrich Wilhelm Mengelberg
Friedrich Wilhelm Mengelberg (1837–1919) was a German-Dutch sculptor, architect of church interiors, and art collector.BWN, pp. 389–391 His work promoted the Gothic Revival architectural-style in churches throughout Germany and the Netherlands. The Mengelberg family has a long history of various artists and professionals. Family members and early life Mengelberg's parents were Johann Egidius Mengelberg and Catharina Wilhelmina Leiniger. His grandfather Egidius Mengelberg (1770–1849) was a well-known painter, as was his uncle, Otto Mengelberg (1817–1890). On 18 October 1866 Mengelberg married Wilhelmina Helen Schrattenholz, and together they had sixteen children – eight sons and eight daughters – including the conductor Willem Mengelberg (1871–1951); some of their children died young. Mengelberg's parents were Protestant, but when he turned eighteen he converted to Catholicism, probably influenced by his interest in medieval art. Career Menge ...
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Chrétien Lindsen
Chrétien is a given name and surname. In the French language, ''Chrétien'' is the masculine form of "Christian", as noun, adjective or adverb. Notable people with the name include: Given name * Chrétien de Troyes, 12th-century French poet * Chrétien Le Clercq, 17th-century Roman Catholic missionary * Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes (1759–1845), French merchant-trader, diplomat and scholar * Gilles-Louis Chrétien (1754–1811) inventor of the physionotrace * Chrétien Urhan (1790–1845), French musician and composer * Henri Chrétien, (1879–1956), French astronomer and inventor Surname * Jean Chrétien (born 1934), 20th prime minister of Canada (serving 1993–2003), and former leader of the Liberal Party of Canada (serving 1990–2003) also: **Aline Chrétien (1936–2020), his wife ** Michel Chrétien (born 1936), his brother ** Raymond Chrétien (born 1942), former Canadian ambassador to the United States, his nephew * Jean-Guy Chrétien (born 1946), Canadian p ...
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Johannes Franciscus Augustinus Lindsen
Johannes is a Medieval Latin form of the personal name that usually appears as "John" in English language contexts. It is a variant of the Greek and Classical Latin variants (Ιωάννης, ''Ioannes''), itself derived from the Hebrew name '' Yehochanan'', meaning "Yahweh is gracious". The name became popular in Northern Europe, especially in Germany because of Christianity. Common German variants for Johannes are ''Johann'', ''Hannes'', ''Hans'' (diminutized to ''Hänschen'' or ''Hänsel'', as known from "''Hansel and Gretel''", a fairy tale by the Grimm brothers), ''Jens'' (from Danish) and '' Jan'' (from Dutch, and found in many countries). In the Netherlands, Johannes was without interruption the most common masculine birth name until 1989. The English equivalent for Johannes is John. In other languages *Joan, Jan, Gjon, Gjin and Gjovalin in Albanian *'' Yoe'' or '' Yohe'', uncommon American form''Dictionary of American Family Names'', Oxford University Press, 2013. *Yaḥy ...
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