Goodman And Kruskal's Gamma
In statistics, Goodman and Kruskal's gamma is a measure of rank correlation, i.e., the similarity of the orderings of the data when ranked by each of the quantities. It measures the strength of association of the cross tabulated data when both variables are measured at the ordinal level. It makes no adjustment for either table size or ties. Values range from −1 (100% negative association, or perfect inversion) to +1 (100% positive association, or perfect agreement). A value of zero indicates the absence of association. This statistic (which is distinct from Goodman and Kruskal's lambda) is named after Leo Goodman and William Kruskal, who proposed it in a series of papers from 1954 to 1972. Definition The estimate of gamma, ''G'', depends on two quantities: :*''Ns'', the number of pairs of cases ranked in the same order on both variables (number of concordant pairs), :*''Nd'', the number of pairs of cases ranked in reversed order on both variables (number of reversed pairs), ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistics
Statistics (from German language, German: ''wikt:Statistik#German, Statistik'', "description of a State (polity), state, a country") is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of statistical survey, surveys and experimental design, experiments.Dodge, Y. (2006) ''The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms'', Oxford University Press. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey sample (statistics), samples. Representative sampling as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maximum Likelihood Estimator
In statistics, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of an assumed probability distribution, given some observed data. This is achieved by maximizing a likelihood function so that, under the assumed statistical model, the observed data is most probable. The point in the parameter space that maximizes the likelihood function is called the maximum likelihood estimate. The logic of maximum likelihood is both intuitive and flexible, and as such the method has become a dominant means of statistical inference. If the likelihood function is differentiable, the derivative test for finding maxima can be applied. In some cases, the firstorder conditions of the likelihood function can be solved analytically; for instance, the ordinary least squares estimator for a linear regression model maximizes the likelihood when all observed outcomes are assumed to have Normal distributions with the same variance. From the perspective of Bayesian inference, MLE ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rankings
A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked higher than", "ranked lower than" or "ranked equal to" the second. In mathematics, this is known as a weak order or total preorder of objects. It is not necessarily a total order of objects because two different objects can have the same ranking. The rankings themselves are totally ordered. For example, materials are totally preordered by hardness, while degrees of hardness are totally ordered. If two items are the same in rank it is considered a tie. By reducing detailed measures to a sequence of ordinal numbers, rankings make it possible to evaluate complex information according to certain criteria. Thus, for example, an Internet search engine may rank the pages it finds according to an estimation of their relevance, making it possible for the user quickly to select the pages they are likely to want to see. Analysis of data obtained by ranking commonly requires nonpar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coefficient Of Colligation
In statistics, Yule's ''Y'', also known as the coefficient of colligation, is a measure of association between two binary variables. The measure was developed by George Udny Yule in 1912,Michel G. Soete. A new theory on the measurement of association between two binary variables in medical sciences: association can be expressed in a fraction (per unum, percentage, pro mille....) of perfect association (2013), earticle, BoekBoek.be and should not be confused with Yule's coefficient for measuring skewness based on quartiles. Formula For a 2×2 table for binary variables ''U'' and ''V'' with frequencies or proportions : Yule's ''Y'' is given by :Y = \frac. Yule's ''Y'' is closely related to the odds ratio ''OR'' = ''ad''/(''bc'') as is seen in following formula: :Y = \frac Yule's ''Y'' varies from −1 to +1. −1 reflects total negative correlation, +1 reflects perfect positive association while 0 reflects no association at all. These correspond to t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kendall Tau Rank Correlation Coefficient
In statistics, the Kendall rank correlation coefficient, commonly referred to as Kendall's τ coefficient (after the Greek letter τ, tau), is a statistic used to measure the ordinal association between two measured quantities. A τ test is a nonparametric hypothesis test for statistical dependence based on the τ coefficient. It is a measure of rank correlation: the similarity of the orderings of the data when ranked by each of the quantities. It is named after Maurice Kendall, who developed it in 1938, though Gustav Fechner had proposed a similar measure in the context of time series in 1897. Intuitively, the Kendall correlation between two variables will be high when observations have a similar (or identical for a correlation of 1) rank (i.e. relative position label of the observations within the variable: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) between the two variables, and low when observations have a dissimilar (or fully different for a correlation of −1) rank between the two variables ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Yule's Y
In statistics, Yule's ''Y'', also known as the coefficient of colligation, is a measure of association between two binary variables. The measure was developed by George Udny Yule in 1912,Michel G. Soete. A new theory on the measurement of association between two binary variables in medical sciences: association can be expressed in a fraction (per unum, percentage, pro mille....) of perfect association (2013), earticle, BoekBoek.be and should not be confused with Yule's coefficient for measuring skewness based on quartiles. Formula For a 2×2 table for binary variables ''U'' and ''V'' with frequencies or proportions : Yule's ''Y'' is given by :Y = \frac. Yule's ''Y'' is closely related to the odds ratio ''OR'' = ''ad''/(''bc'') as is seen in following formula: :Y = \frac Yule's ''Y'' varies from −1 to +1. −1 reflects total negative correlation, +1 reflects perfect positive association while 0 reflects no association at all. These correspond to t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Odds Ratio
An odds ratio (OR) is a statistic that quantifies the strength of the association between two events, A and B. The odds ratio is defined as the ratio of the odds of A in the presence of B and the odds of A in the absence of B, or equivalently (due to symmetry), the ratio of the odds of B in the presence of A and the odds of B in the absence of A. Two events are independent if and only if the OR equals 1, i.e., the odds of one event are the same in either the presence or absence of the other event. If the OR is greater than 1, then A and B are associated (correlated) in the sense that, compared to the absence of B, the presence of B raises the odds of A, and symmetrically the presence of A raises the odds of B. Conversely, if the OR is less than 1, then A and B are negatively correlated, and the presence of one event reduces the odds of the other event. Note that the odds ratio is symmetric in the two events, and there is no causal direction implied (correlation does not imply causat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Contingency Table
In statistics, a contingency table (also known as a cross tabulation or crosstab) is a type of table in a matrix format that displays the (multivariate) frequency distribution of the variables. They are heavily used in survey research, business intelligence, engineering, and scientific research. They provide a basic picture of the interrelation between two variables and can help find interactions between them. The term ''contingency table'' was first used by Karl Pearson in "On the Theory of Contingency and Its Relation to Association and Normal Correlation", part of the ''Drapers' Company Research Memoirs Biometric Series I'' published in 1904. A crucial problem of multivariate statistics is finding the (direct)dependence structure underlying the variables contained in highdimensional contingency tables. If some of the conditional independences are revealed, then even the storage of the data can be done in a smarter way (see Lauritzen (2002)). In order to do this one can use ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Journal Of The Royal Statistical Society
The ''Journal of the Royal Statistical Society'' is a peerreviewed scientific journal of statistics. It comprises three series and is published by Wiley for the Royal Statistical Society. History The Statistical Society of London was founded in 1834, but would not begin producing a journal for four years. From 1834 to 1837, members of the society would read the results of their studies to the other members, and some details were recorded in the proceedings. The first study reported to the society in 1834 was a simple survey of the occupations of people in Manchester, England. Conducted by going doortodoor and inquiring, the study revealed that the most common profession was millhands, followed closely by weavers. When founded, the membership of the Statistical Society of London overlapped almost completely with the statistical section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1837 a volume of ''Transactions of the Statistical Society of London'' were wri ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Student T Distribution
In probability and statistics, Student's ''t''distribution (or simply the ''t''distribution) is any member of a family of continuous probability distributions that arise when estimating the mean of a normally distributed population in situations where the sample size is small and the population's standard deviation is unknown. It was developed by English statistician William Sealy Gosset under the pseudonym "Student". The ''t''distribution plays a role in a number of widely used statistical analyses, including Student's ''t''test for assessing the statistical significance of the difference between two sample means, the construction of confidence intervals for the difference between two population means, and in linear regression analysis. Student's ''t''distribution also arises in the Bayesian analysis of data from a normal family. If we take a sample of n observations from a normal distribution, then the ''t''distribution with \nu=n1 degrees of freedom can be defined ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Concordant Pair
In statistics, a concordant pair is a pair of observations, each on two variables, (X''1'',Y''1'') and (X''2'',Y''2''), having the property that : \sgn (X_2  X_1)\ = \sgn (Y_2  Y_1), where "sgn" refers to whether a number is positive, zero, or negative (its sign). Specifically, the signum function, often represented as sgn, is defined as: : \sgn x = \begin 1, & x 0 \end That is, in a concordant pair, both elements of one pair are either greater than, equal to, or less than the corresponding elements of the other pair. In contrast, a discordant pair is a pair of twovariable observations such that : \sgn (X_2  X_1)\ =  \sgn (Y_2  Y_1). That is, if one pair contains a higher value of ''X'' then the other pair contains a higher value of ''Y''. Uses The Kendall tau distance between two series is the total number of discordant pairs. The Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient, which measures how closely related two series of numbers are, is proportional to the d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank Correlation
In statistics, a rank correlation is any of several statistics that measure an ordinal association—the relationship between rankings of different ordinal variables or different rankings of the same variable, where a "ranking" is the assignment of the ordering labels "first", "second", "third", etc. to different observations of a particular variable. A rank correlation coefficient measures the degree of similarity between two rankings, and can be used to assess the significance of the relation between them. For example, two common nonparametric methods of significance that use rank correlation are the Mann–Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Context If, for example, one variable is the identity of a college basketball program and another variable is the identity of a college football program, one could test for a relationship between the poll rankings of the two types of program: do colleges with a higherranked basketball program tend to have a higherranked f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 