Glycolysis
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Glycolysis
Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, ... that converts glucose Glucose is a simple sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular sugar, refers to sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and ... C6H12O6, into pyruvic acid Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds compos ..., CH3COCOOH. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules adenosine triphosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP ...
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Glycolysis
Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, ... that converts glucose Glucose is a simple sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular sugar, refers to sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and ... C6H12O6, into pyruvic acid Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds compos ..., CH3COCOOH. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules adenosine triphosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP ...
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Adenosine Diphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, ... in metabolism Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in food to energy available to run cellu ... and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl .... ADP consists of three important structural components: a sug ...
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Glucose
Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydrate in the world. In , glucose is the most important source of energy in all s. Glucose for metabolism is stored as a , in plants mainly as and , and in animals as . Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as . The naturally occurring form of glucose is -glucose, while is produced synthetically in comparatively small amounts and is of lesser importance . Glucose is a containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group, and is therefore an . The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) as well as ring (cyclic) form. Glucose is naturally occurring and is found in its free state in fruits and other parts of plants. In animals, glucose is released from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as . Glucose, as , is on the ...
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Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an and that provides energy to drive many processes in living , such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis. Found in all known forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of " of intracellular . When consumed in processes such as , it converts either to (ADP) or to (AMP). Other processes regenerate ATP so that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. It is also a to DNA and RNA, and is used as a . From the perspective of , ATP is classified as a , which indicates that it consists of three components: a nitrogenous base (), the sugar , and the . Structure ATP consists of an attached by the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon atom of a sugar (), which in turn is attached at the 5' carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups remain unchanged, but the triphos ...
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Pyruvic Acid
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the keto acids, alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group. Pyruvate, the conjugate acid, conjugate base, CH3COCOO−, is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways throughout the cell. Pyruvic acid can be made from glucose through glycolysis, converted back to carbohydrates (such as glucose) via gluconeogenesis, or to fatty acids through a reaction with acetyl-CoA. It can also be used to construct the amino acid alanine and can be converted into ethanol or lactic acid via fermentation. Pyruvic acid supplies energy to cell (biology), cells through the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) when oxygen is present (aerobic respiration), and alternatively ferments to produce lactic acid, lactate when oxygen is lacking (lactic acid fermentation, lactic acid). Chemistry In 1834, Théophile-Jules Pelouze distilled tartaric acid and isolated glutaric acid and another unknown organic acid. Jöns Jacob B ...
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Substrate-level Phosphorylation
Substrate-level phosphorylation is a metabolism reaction that results in the production of ATP ATP may refer to: Companies and organizations * Association of Tennis Professionals * American Technical Publishers * ', a Danish pension * Armenia Tree Project * Association for Transpersonal Psychology * ATP architects engineers office * ATP ... or GTP by the transfer of a phosphate In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo durin ... group from a substrate directly to ADP or GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any .... Transferring from a higher energy (whether phosphate ...
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