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Fritz Albert Lipmann
Fritz Albert Lipmann (June 12, 1899 – July 24, 1986) was a German-American biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A. For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 (shared with Hans Adolf Krebs). Early life and education Lipmann was born in Königsberg, Germany, to a Jewish family. His parents were Gertrud (Lachmanski) and Leopold Lipmann, an attorney. Lipmann studied medicine at the University of Königsberg, Berlin, and Munich, graduating in Berlin in 1924. He returned to Königsberg to study chemistry under Professor Hans Meerwein. In 1926 he joined Otto Meyerhof at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, Berlin, for his doctoral thesis. After that he followed Meyerhof to Heidelberg to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. Career From 1939 on, Lipmann lived and worked in the United States. He was a Research Associate in the Department of Biochemistry, Cornell University Medical ...
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Königsberg
Königsberg (, , ) was the name for the historic Prussian city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Originally a Sambian or Old Prussian settlement, it then belonged to the State of the Teutonic Order, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, and Nazi Germany. After being largely destroyed in World War II by Allied bombing and the Red Army, it was annexed by the Soviet Union and its surviving inhabitants forcibly expelled. Thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg remain today. The literal meaning of Königsberg is 'King's Mountain'. In the local Low German dialect, spoken by many of its former German inhabitants, the name was (). Further names included lt|Karaliaučius, lv|Karaļauči, pl|Królewiec, rus|Кёнигсберг|r=Kjónigsberg or ''Korolévec'', Old Prussian: , ''Knigsberg'', and yi|קעניגסבערג ''Kenigsberg''. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancie ...
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Hans Adolf Krebs
Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (; 25 August 1900 – 22 November 1981) was a German-born British biologist, physician and biochemist. He was a pioneer scientist in the study of cellular respiration, a biochemical process in living cells that extracts energy from food and oxygen and makes it available to drive the processes of life. He is best known for his discoveries of two important sequences of chemical reactions that take place in the cells of humans and many other organisms, namely the citric acid cycle and the urea cycle. The former, often eponymously known as the "Krebs cycle", is the key sequence of metabolic reactions that provides energy in the cells of humans and other oxygen-respiring organisms; and its discovery earned Krebs a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953. With Hans Kornberg, he also discovered the glyoxylate cycle, which is a slight variation of the citric acid cycle found in plants, bacteria, protists, and fungi. Krebs died in 1981 in Oxford, where he had sp ...
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1899 Births
Events January–March * January 1 ** Spanish rule ends in Cuba, concluding 400 years of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. ** Queens and Staten Island become administratively part of New York City. * January 6 – Lord Curzon becomes Viceroy of India. * January 8 – The Association football club SK Rapid Wien is founded in Vienna. * January 10 – The Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity is founded, at Illinois Wesleyan University in Bloomington, Illinois. * January 17 – The United States takes possession of Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean. * January 19 – The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is formed (it is disbanded in 1956). * January 21 – Opel Motors opens for business in Germany. * January 22 – The leaders of six Australian colonies meet in Melbourne, to discuss the confederation of Australia as a whole. * January 23 ** Emilio Aguinaldo is sworn in, as President of the First Philippine Republic. ** The British Southern Cross Expedition crosses the Antarct ...
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List Of Jewish Nobel Laureates
Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 900 individuals, of whom at least 20% were Jews. * * * * * * * * The number of Jewish people receiving Nobel prizes has been the subject of some attention.* * *"Jews rank high among winners of Nobel, but why not Israelis" ''J. The Jewish News of Northern California'', October 25, 2002. "There are three central theories given for Jewish academic achievement, according to Shulamit Volkov, professor of history at Tel Aviv University and author of "The Magic Circle: Germans, Jews and Anti-Semites." The first theory says that Jews are cleverer than others, a theory dismissed by Volkov and other serious academics. The second theory, proposed first by an American sociologist in 1919, holds that because Jews were on the margins of society they were forced to excel. The third and more common explanation, says Volkov, states that generations of Jewish Orthodox learning later translated brilliantly into secular learning." *Noah Efron"The Real Re ...
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Fritz Albert Lipmann With Wife 1953
Fritz originated as a German nickname for Friedrich, or Frederick (''Der Alte Fritz'', and ''Stary Fryc'' were common nicknames for King Frederick II of Prussia and Frederick III, German Emperor.) As well as for similar names including Fridolin and, less commonly, Francis. Fritz (Fryc) was also a name given to German troops by the Entente powers equivalent to the derogative Tommy. Other common bases for which the name Fritz was used include the surnames Fritsche, Fritzsche, Fritsch, Frisch(e) and Frycz. Below is a list of notable people with the name "Fritz." Surname *Amanda Fritz (born 1958), retired registered psychiatric nurse and politician from Oregon *Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, (ca. September 20, 1503 – autumn, 1572) was a Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy". *Al Fritz (1924–2013), American businessman *Betty Jane Fritz (1924–1994), one of the original players in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball Le ...
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Pantethine
Pantethine (bis-pantethine or co-enzyme pantethine) is a dimeric form of pantetheine, which is produced from pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) by the addition of cysteamine. Pantethine was discovered by Gene Brown, a PhD student at the time. Pantethine is two molecules of pantetheine linked by a disulfide bridge. Pantetheine is an intermediate in the production of coenzyme A by the body. Most vitamin B5 supplements are in the form of calcium pantothenate, a salt of pantothenic acid, with doses in the range of 5 to 10 mg/day. In contrast, pantethine is sold as a dietary supplement for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides at doses of 500 to 1200 mg/day. Dietary supplement Pantethine is available in the United States as a dietary supplement because of evidence for lowering elevated LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and raising HDL-cholesterol. In multiple clinical trials of patients with elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol were decreased by ...
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New York, New York
New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the State of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. With almost 20 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and approximately 23 million in its combined statistical area, it is one of the world's most populous megacities. New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, significantly influencing commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports, and is the most photographed city in the world. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplom ...
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Rockefeller University
The Rockefeller University is a private graduate university in New York City. It focuses primarily on the biological and medical sciences and provides doctoral and postdoctoral education. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity". Rockefeller is the oldest biomedical research institute in the United States. The 82-person faculty (tenured and tenure-track, as of 2018) has 37 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 17 members of the National Academy of Medicine, seven Lasker Award recipients, and five Nobel laureates. As of October 2020, a total of 38 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Rockefeller University. The university is located on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, between 63rd and 68th streets on York Avenue. Richard P. Lifton became the university's eleventh president on September 1, 2016. The Rockefeller University Press publishes the ''Journal of Experimental Medicine'', the ''Journal of Cell Biology'', and ''The Journal of ...
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Biochemistry
Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, enzymology and metabolism. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed through biochemical methodology and research.Voet (2005), p. 3. Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells,Karp (2009), p. 2. in turn relating greatly to the understanding of tissues and organs, as well as organism structure and function.Miller (2012). p. 62. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.Astbury (1 ...
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Cornell University Medical College
Weill Cornell Medicine , officially the Joan & Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, is the biomedical research unit and medical school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university. The medical college is located at 1300 York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City, along with the Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The college is named for its benefactor, former Citigroup chairman Sanford Weill. As one of the most selective medical schools in the United States, Cornell enrolls approximately 100 students per class from a pool of over 6,000 applicants, interviewing 700-750 applicants. For the class of 2022, the average undergraduate GPA and MCAT scores for successful applicants were 3.85 and 518, respectively. The Weill Cornell Medical College is currently tied for 11th place on ''U.S. News & World Reports "Best Medical Schools: Research" ranking. Weill Cornell Medicine is affiliated with NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Corn ...
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Heidelberg
Heidelberg ( , ) is a university town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, of which roughly a quarter consisted of students. Located about south of Frankfurt, Heidelberg is the fifth-largest city in Baden-Württemberg. Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. Heidelberg University, founded in 1386, is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities. Heidelberg is a scientific hub in Germany and home to several internationally renowned research facilities adjacent to its university, including the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and four Max Planck Institutes. The city has also been a hub for the arts, especially literature, throughout the centuries, and it was designated a "City of Literature" by the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. Heidelberg was a seat of government of the former Electorate of the Palatinate and is ...
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Otto Meyerhof
Otto Fritz Meyerhof (April 12, 1884 – October 6, 1951) was a German physician and biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1922. Biography Otto Fritz Meyerhof was born in Hannover, at Theaterplatz 16A (now:Rathenaustrasse 16A), the son of wealthy Jewish parents. In 1888, his family moved to Berlin, where Otto spent most of his childhood, and where he started his study of medicine. He continued these studies in Strasbourg and Heidelberg, from which he graduated in 1909, with a work titled "Contributions to the Psychological Theory of Mental Illness". In Heidelberg, he met Hedwig Schallenberg. They married in 1914 and became parents of a daughter, Bettina, and two sons, Gottfried (who referred, after emigration, to himself as Geoffrey) as well as Walter. In 1912, Otto Meyerhof moved to the University of Kiel, where he received a professorship in 1918. In 1922, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Archibald Vivian Hill, for his work on muscle meta ...
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Hans Meerwein
Hans Meerwein (May 20, 1879 in Hamburg, Germany – October 24, 1965 in Marburg, Germany) was a German chemist. Several reactions and reagents bear his name, most notably the Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reduction, the Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement, the Meerwein arylation reaction, and Meerwein's salt. Life and work left|350px|Isobornyl chloride giving a carbocation. Meerwein's representation is top, the modern view on the bottom His father was the architect, Wilhelm Emil Meerwein. He originally trained to be a chemistry technician or 'chemotechnician' at the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences (between 1898 and 1900) before studying for a chemistry degree at the University of Bonn. After finishing his PhD with Richard Anschütz he worked at the University of Berlin, before returning to Bonn where he became professor in 1914. From 1922 till 1928 he was professor for organic chemistry at the University of Königsberg. The last change in his academic career was to the Univer ...
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Jewish
Jews ( he|יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, "Historically, the religious and ethnic dimensions of Jewish identity have been closely interwoven. In fact, so closely bound are they, that the traditional Jewish lexicon hardly distinguishes between the two concepts. Jewish religious practice, by definition, was observed exclusively by the Jewish people, and notions of Jewish peoplehood, nation, and community were suffused with faith in the Jewish G ...
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Biographical Memoirs Of Fellows Of The Royal Society
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae (résumé), a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of their life, including intimate details of experience, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality. Biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. History At first, ...
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