Fiber (mathematics)
In mathematics, the term fiber (US English) or fibre (British English) can have two meanings, depending on the context: # In naive set theory, the fiber of the element y in the set Y under a map f : X \to Y is the inverse image of the singleton \ under f. # In algebraic geometry, the notion of a fiber of a morphism of schemes must be defined more carefully because, in general, not every point is closed. Definitions Fiber in naive set theory Let f : X \to Y be a function between sets. The fiber of an element y \in Y (or ''fiber over'' y) under the map f is the set f^(y) = \, that is, the set of elements that get mapped to y by the function. It is the preimage of the singleton \. (One usually takes y in the image of f to avoid f^(y) being the empty set.) The collection of all fibers for the function f forms a partition of the domain X. The fiber containing an element x\in X is the set f^(f(x)). For example, the fibers of the projection map \R^2\to\R that sends (x,y) to x ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partition (set Theory)
In mathematics, a partition of a set is a grouping of its elements into nonempty subsets, in such a way that every element is included in exactly one subset. Every equivalence relation on a set defines a partition of this set, and every partition defines an equivalence relation. A set equipped with an equivalence relation or a partition is sometimes called a setoid, typically in type theory and proof theory. Definition and Notation A partition of a set ''X'' is a set of nonempty subsets of ''X'' such that every element ''x'' in ''X'' is in exactly one of these subsets (i.e., ''X'' is a disjoint union of the subsets). Equivalently, a family of sets ''P'' is a partition of ''X'' if and only if all of the following conditions hold: *The family ''P'' does not contain the empty set (that is \emptyset \notin P). *The union of the sets in ''P'' is equal to ''X'' (that is \textstyle\bigcup_ A = X). The sets in ''P'' are said to exhaust or cover ''X''. See also collectively exhaus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Local Homeomorphism
In mathematics, more specifically topology, a local homeomorphism is a function between topological spaces that, intuitively, preserves local (though not necessarily global) structure. If f : X \to Y is a local homeomorphism, X is said to be an Ã©tale space over Y. Local homeomorphisms are used in the study of sheaves. Typical examples of local homeomorphisms are covering maps. A topological space X is locally homeomorphic to Y if every point of X has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of Y. For example, a manifold of dimension n is locally homeomorphic to \R^n. If there is a local homeomorphism from X to Y, then X is locally homeomorphic to Y, but the converse is not always true. For example, the two dimensional sphere, being a manifold, is locally homeomorphic to the plane \R^2, but there is no local homeomorphism S^2 \to \R^2. Formal definition A function f : X \to Y between two topological spaces is called a if for every point x \in X there exists an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Residue Field
In mathematics, the residue field is a basic construction in commutative algebra. If ''R'' is a commutative ring and ''m'' is a maximal ideal, then the residue field is the quotient ring ''k'' = ''R''/''m'', which is a field. Frequently, ''R'' is a local ring and ''m'' is then its unique maximal ideal. This construction is applied in algebraic geometry, where to every point ''x'' of a scheme ''X'' one associates its residue field ''k''(''x''). One can say a little loosely that the residue field of a point of an abstract algebraic variety is the 'natural domain' for the coordinates of the point. Definition Suppose that ''R'' is a commutative local ring, with maximal ideal ''m''. Then the residue field is the quotient ring ''R''/''m''. Now suppose that ''X'' is a scheme and ''x'' is a point of ''X''. By the definition of scheme, we may find an affine neighbourhood ''U'' = Spec(''A''), with ''A'' some commutative ring. Considered in the neighbourhood ''U'', the point ''x'' correspond ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fiber Product Of Schemes
In mathematics, specifically in algebraic geometry, the fiber product of schemes is a fundamental construction. It has many interpretations and special cases. For example, the fiber product describes how an algebraic variety over one field determines a variety over a bigger field, or the pullback of a family of varieties, or a fiber of a family of varieties. Base change is a closely related notion. Definition The category of schemes is a broad setting for algebraic geometry. A fruitful philosophy (known as Grothendieck's relative point of view) is that much of algebraic geometry should be developed for a morphism of schemes ''X'' â†’ ''Y'' (called a scheme ''X'' over ''Y''), rather than for a single scheme ''X''. For example, rather than simply studying algebraic curves, one can study families of curves over any base scheme ''Y''. Indeed, the two approaches enrich each other. In particular, a scheme over a commutative ring ''R'' means a scheme ''X'' together with a morphism ''X'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Morphism Of Schemes
In algebraic geometry, a morphism of schemes generalizes a morphism of algebraic varieties just as a scheme generalizes an algebraic variety. It is, by definition, a morphism in the category of schemes. A morphism of algebraic stacks generalizes a morphism of schemes. Definition By definition, a morphism of schemes is just a morphism of locally ringed spaces. A scheme, by definition, has open affine charts and thus a morphism of schemes can also be described in terms of such charts (compare the definition of morphism of varieties). Let Æ’:''X''â†’''Y'' be a morphism of schemes. If ''x'' is a point of ''X'', since Æ’ is continuous, there are open affine subsets ''U'' = Spec ''A'' of ''X'' containing ''x'' and ''V'' = Spec ''B'' of ''Y'' such that Æ’(''U'') âŠ† ''V''. Then Æ’: ''U'' â†’ ''V'' is a morphism of affine schemes and thus is induced by some ring homomorphism ''B'' â†’ ''A'' (cf. #Affine case.) In fact, one can use this description to "define" a morphism of schemes; o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hypersurface
In geometry, a hypersurface is a generalization of the concepts of hyperplane, plane curve, and surface. A hypersurface is a manifold or an algebraic variety of dimension , which is embedded in an ambient space of dimension , generally a Euclidean space, an affine space or a projective space. Hypersurfaces share, with surfaces in a threedimensional space, the property of being defined by a single implicit equation, at least locally (near every point), and sometimes globally. A hypersurface in a (Euclidean, affine, or projective) space of dimension two is a plane curve. In a space of dimension three, it is a surface. For example, the equation :x_1^2+x_2^2+\cdots+x_n^21=0 defines an algebraic hypersurface of dimension in the Euclidean space of dimension . This hypersurface is also a smooth manifold, and is called a hypersphere or an sphere. Smooth hypersurface A hypersurface that is a smooth manifold is called a ''smooth hypersurface''. In , a smooth hypersurface is orienta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Threedimensional Space
Threedimensional space (also: 3D space, 3space or, rarely, tridimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called ''parameters'') are required to determine the position (geometry), position of an element (i.e., Point (mathematics), point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In mathematics, a tuple of Real number, numbers can be understood as the Cartesian coordinates of a location in a dimensional Euclidean space. The set of these tuples is commonly denoted \R^n, and can be identified to the dimensional Euclidean space. When , this space is called threedimensional Euclidean space (or simply Euclidean space when the context is clear). It serves as a model of the physical universe (when relativity theory is not considered), in which all known matter exists. While this space remains the most compelling and useful way to model the world as it is experienced, it is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surface (mathematics)
In mathematics, a surface is a mathematical model of the common concept of a surface. It is a generalization of a plane, but, unlike a plane, it may be curved; this is analogous to a curve generalizing a straight line. There are several more precise definitions, depending on the context and the mathematical tools that are used for the study. The simplest mathematical surfaces are planes and spheres in the Euclidean 3space. The exact definition of a surface may depend on the context. Typically, in algebraic geometry, a surface may cross itself (and may have other singularities), while, in topology and differential geometry, it may not. A surface is a topological space of dimension two; this means that a moving point on a surface may move in two directions (it has two degrees of freedom). In other words, around almost every point, there is a ''coordinate patch'' on which a twodimensional coordinate system is defined. For example, the surface of the Earth resembles (ideally) a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Twodimensional Space
In mathematics, a plane is a Euclidean (flat), twodimensional surface that extends indefinitely. A plane is the twodimensional analogue of a point (zero dimensions), a line (one dimension) and threedimensional space. Planes can arise as subspaces of some higherdimensional space, as with one of a room's walls, infinitely extended, or they may enjoy an independent existence in their own right, as in the setting of twodimensional Euclidean geometry. Sometimes the word ''plane'' is used more generally to describe a twodimensional surface, for example the hyperbolic plane and elliptic plane. When working exclusively in twodimensional Euclidean space, the definite article is used, so ''the'' plane refers to the whole space. Many fundamental tasks in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, graph theory, and graphing are performed in a twodimensional space, often in the plane. Euclidean geometry Euclid set forth the first great landmark of mathematical thought, an axiomatic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Curve (mathematics)
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line, but that does not have to be straight. Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the trace left by a moving point. This is the definition that appeared more than 2000 years ago in Euclid's ''Elements'': "The urvedline is €¦the first species of quantity, which has only one dimension, namely length, without any width nor depth, and is nothing else than the flow or run of the point which €¦will leave from its imaginary moving some vestige in length, exempt of any width." This definition of a curve has been formalized in modern mathematics as: ''A curve is the image of an interval to a topological space by a continuous function''. In some contexts, the function that defines the curve is called a ''parametrization'', and the curve is a parametric curve. In this article, these curves are sometimes called ''topological curves'' to distinguish them from more constrained curves such a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilonâ€“delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the mo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 