Eduard Heine
Heinrich Eduard Heine (16 March 1821 – 21 October 1881) was a German mathematician. Heine became known for results on special functions and in real analysis. In particular, he authored an important treatise on spherical harmonics and Legendre functions (''Handbuch der Kugelfunctionen''). He also investigated basic hypergeometric series. He introduced the Mehler–Heine formula. Biography Heinrich Eduard Heine was born on 16 March 1821 in Berlin, as the eighth child of banker Karl Heine and his wife Henriette Märtens. Eduard was initially home schooled, then studied at the Friedrichswerdersche Gymnasium and Köllnische Gymnasium in Berlin. In 1838, after graduating from gymnasium, he enrolled at the University of Berlin, but transferred to the University of Göttingen to attend the mathematics lectures of Carl Friedrich Gauss and Moritz Stern. In 1840 Heine returned to Berlin, where he studied mathematics under Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, while also attending classes o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uniform Continuity
In mathematics, a real function f of real numbers is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a positive real number \delta such that function values over any function domain interval of the size \delta are as close to each other as we want. In other words, for a uniformly continuous real function of real numbers, if we want function value differences to be less than any positive real number \epsilon, then there is a positive real number \delta such that , f(x)  f(y), 0 there exists a real number \delta > 0 such that for every x,y \in X with d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every x,y \in X , , x  y, 0 \; \forall x \in X \; \forall y \in X : \, d_1(x,y) 0 , \forall x \in X , and \forall y \in X ) are used. * Alternatively, f is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a function of all positive real numbers \varepsilon, \delta(\varepsilon) representing the maximum positive real number, such that for every x,y \in X if d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every y \in X wit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Berlin
Berlin ( , ) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituent states, Berlin is surrounded by the State of Brandenburg and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. Berlin's urban area, which has a population of around 4.5 million, is the second most populous urban area in Germany after the Ruhr. The BerlinBrandenburg capital region has around 6.2 million inhabitants and is Germany's thirdlargest metropolitan region after the RhineRuhr and RhineMain regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the Spree, which flows into the Havel (a tributary of the Elbe) in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree, Havel and Dahme, the largest of which is Lake Müggelsee. Due to its l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Legendre Functions
In physical science and mathematics, the Legendre functions , and associated Legendre functions , , and Legendre functions of the second kind, , are all solutions of Legendre's differential equation. The Legendre polynomials and the associated Legendre polynomials are also solutions of the differential equation in special cases, which, by virtue of being polynomials, have a large number of additional properties, mathematical structure, and applications. For these polynomial solutions, see the separate Wikipedia articles. Legendre's differential equation The general Legendre equation reads \left(1  x^2\right) y''  2xy' + \left lambda(\lambda+1)  \frac\righty = 0, where the numbers and may be complex, and are called the degree and order of the relevant function, respectively. The polynomial solutions when is an integer (denoted ), and are the Legendre polynomials ; and when is an integer (denoted ), and is also an integer with are the associated Legendre polynomials ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Physics
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematics, mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The ''Journal of Mathematical Physics'' defines the field as "the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories". An alternative definition would also include those mathematics that are inspired by physics (also known as physical mathematics). Scope There are several distinct branches of mathematical physics, and these roughly correspond to particular historical periods. Classical mechanics The rigorous, abstract and advanced reformulation of Newtonian mechanics adopting the Lagrangian mechanics and the Hamiltonian mechanics even in the presence of constraints. Both formulations are embodied in analytical mechanics and lead to understanding the deep interplay of the notions of symmetry (physics), symmetry and conservation law, con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi
Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (; ; 10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, determinants, and number theory. His name is occasionally written as Carolus Gustavus Iacobus Iacobi in his Latin books, and his first name is sometimes given as Karl. Jacobi was the first Jewish mathematician to be appointed professor at a German university. Biography Jacobi was born of Ashkenazi Jewish parentage in Potsdam on 10 December 1804. He was the second of four children of banker Simon Jacobi. His elder brother Moritz von Jacobi would also become known later as an engineer and physicist. He was initially home schooled by his uncle Lehman, who instructed him in the classical languages and elements of mathematics. In 1816, the twelveyearold Jacobi went to the Potsdam Gymnasium, where students were taught all the standard subjects: classical languages, history, philology, mathem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

University Of Königsberg
The University of Königsberg (german: AlbertusUniversität Königsberg) was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia. It was founded in 1544 as the world's second Protestant academy (after the University of Marburg) by Duke Albert of Prussia, and was commonly known as the Albertina. Following World War II, the city of Königsberg was transferred to the Soviet Union according to the 1945 Potsdam Agreement, and renamed Kaliningrad in 1946. The Albertina was closed and the remaining nonLithuanian population either executed or expelled, by the terms of the Potsdam Agreement. Today, the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in Kaliningrad claims to maintain the traditions of the Albertina. History Albert, former Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and first Duke of Prussia since 1525, had purchased a piece of land behind Königsberg Cathedral on the Kneiphof island of the Pregel River from the Samland chapter, where he had an academic gymnasium (school) erected in 154 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Differential Equations
In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that relates one or more unknown functions and their derivatives. In applications, the functions generally represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the differential equation defines a relationship between the two. Such relations are common; therefore, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology. Mainly the study of differential equations consists of the study of their solutions (the set of functions that satisfy each equation), and of the properties of their solutions. Only the simplest differential equations are solvable by explicit formulas; however, many properties of solutions of a given differential equation may be determined without computing them exactly. Often when a closedform expression for the solutions is not available, solutions may be approximated numerically using computers. The theory of d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Johann Franz Encke
Johann Franz Encke (; 23 September 179126 August 1865) was a German astronomer. Among his activities, he worked on the calculation of the periods of comets and asteroids, measured the distance from the Earth to the Sun, and made observations of the planet Saturn. Biography Encke was born in Hamburg, where his father was the Pastor at St. James' Church, Hamburg. He was the youngest of eight children, and at the time his father died, when he was four years old, the family was in straitened circumstances. Thanks to the financial assistance of a teacher, he was able to be educated at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums. He studied mathematics and astronomy from 1811 at the University of Göttingen under Carl Friedrich Gauss, but he enlisted in the Hanseatic Legion The Hanseatic Legion was a military unit, first formed of a group of citizens from Hamburg. They had met in 1813 on the instigation of General Friedrich Karl von Tettenborn, in order to fight in the War of the Sixth ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jakob Steiner
Jakob Steiner (18 March 1796 – 1 April 1863) was a Swiss mathematician who worked primarily in geometry. Life Steiner was born in the village of Utzenstorf, Canton of Bern. At 18, he became a pupil of Heinrich Pestalozzi and afterwards studied at Heidelberg. Then, he went to Berlin, earning a livelihood there, as in Heidelberg, by tutoring. Here he became acquainted with A. L. Crelle, who, encouraged by his ability and by that of Niels Henrik Abel, then also staying at Berlin, founded his famous ''Journal'' (1826). After Steiner's publication (1832) of his ''Systematische Entwickelungen'' he received, through Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, who was then professor at Königsberg University, and earned an honorary degree there; and through the influence of Jacobi and of the brothers Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt a new chair of geometry was founded for him at Berlin (1834). This he occupied until his death in Bern on 1 April 1863. He was described by Thomas Hirst as follows: ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Moritz Stern
Moritz Abraham Stern (29 June 1807 – 30 January 1894) was a German mathematician. Stern became ''Ordinarius'' (full professor) at Göttingen University in 1858, succeeding Carl Friedrich Gauss. Stern was the first Jewish full professor at a German university who attained the position without changing his Jewish religion. Although Carl Gustav Jacobi preceded him (by three decades) as the first Jew to obtain a math professorial chair in Germany, Jacobi's family had converted to Christianity long before then. As a professor, Stern taught Gauss's student Bernhard Riemann. Stern was very helpful to Gotthold Eisenstein in formulating a proof of the quadratic reciprocity theorem. Stern was interested in primes that cannot be expressed as the sum of a prime and twice a square (now known as Stern primes). He is known for formulating Stern's diatomic series Stern's (originally Stern Brothers) was a regional department store chain serving the U.S. states of New York, New Jersey, and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Carl Friedrich Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and science. Sometimes referred to as the ''Princeps mathematicorum'' () and "the greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science, and he is ranked among history's most influential mathematicians. Also available at Retrieved 23 February 2014. Comprehensive biographical article. Biography Early years Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick (Braunschweig), in the Duchy of BrunswickWolfenbüttel (now part of Lower Saxony, Germany), to poor, workingclass parents. His mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension (which occurs 39 days after Easter). Ga ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

University Of Göttingen
The University of Göttingen, officially the Georg August University of Göttingen, (german: GeorgAugustUniversität Göttingen, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and starting classes in 1737, the Georgia Augusta was conceived to promote the ideals of the Enlightenment. It is the oldest university in the state of Lower Saxony and the largest in student enrollment, which stands at around 31,600. Home to many noted figures, it represents one of Germany's historic and traditional institutions. According to an official exhibition held by the University of Göttingen in 2002, 44 Nobel Prize winners had been affiliated with the University of Göttingen as alumni, faculty members or researchers by that year alone. The University of Göttingen was previously supported by the German Universities Excellence Initiative, holds memberships ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 