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Direct Selling Association
The Direct Selling Association (DSA) is a trade association in the United States that represents direct selling companies, primarily those that use multi-level marketing compensation plans. On behalf of its members' companies, the DSA engages in public relations and lobbying efforts against regulation of the multi-level marketing industry, and it funds political candidates through a political action committee. History in the US The American DSA, headquartered in Washington, D.C., is the national trade association of a group of firms that manufacture and distribute goods and services sold directly to consumers typically through social selling that includes a compensation model called multi level marketing. Founded in Binghamton, New York in 1910 as a trade group for door-to-door salesmen, the association was originally called the Agents Credit Association. It was renamed the National Association of Agency Companies (NAAC) in 1914, and briefly renamed the National Association of ...
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Trade Association
A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry. An industry trade association participates in public relations activities such as advertising, education, publishing, lobbying, and political donations, but its focus is collaboration between companies. Associations may offer other services, such as producing conferences, holding networking or charitable events, or offering classes or educational materials. Many associations are non-profit organizations governed by bylaws and directed by officers who are also members. In countries with a social market economy, the role of trade associations is often taken by employers' organizations, which also take a role in social dialogue. Political influence One of the primary purposes of trade groups, particularly in the United States, is to attempt to influence public policy in a ...
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John Moolenaar
John Robert Moolenaar ( ; born May 8, 1961) is an American politician serving as the U.S. representative for Michigan's 4th congressional district since 2015. A member of the Republican Party, he served in the Michigan House of Representatives from 2003 to 2008 and the Michigan Senate from 2011 to 2014. Early life and education Moolenaar was born in a family of Dutch Americans on May 8, 1961, in Midland, Michigan. In 1983, he earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Hope College. He earned a Master of Public Administration from Harvard University in 1989. Career Moolenaar is a chemist, and worked at Dow Chemical Company for eight months before entering politics. He was elected to the Michigan House of Representatives in 2002, where he served three terms. In 2010, he was elected to the Michigan Senate, where he served one term. Before his election to the legislature, Moolenaar served on the Midland City Council. In 2014, Moolenaar ran for the United States House of Represent ...
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Herbalife
Herbalife Nutrition Ltd., also called Herbalife International, Inc. (with a U.S. subsidiary called Herbalife International of America) or simply Herbalife, is a global multi-level marketing (MLM) corporation that develops and sells dietary supplements. The company was founded by Mark R. Hughes in 1980, and it employs an estimated 9,900 people worldwide. The business is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, with its corporate headquarters located in Los Angeles, California. The company operates in 95 countries through a network of approximately 4.5 million independent distributors and members. In October 2022, previous CEO Michael O. Johnson was appointed as Chairman and interim Chief Executive Officer following the departure of John Agwunobi. The company has been criticized for allegedly operating a "sophisticated pyramid scheme". Herbalife agreed to "fundamentally restructure" its business, in the US but not worldwide, and pay a $200 million fine as part of a 2016 settleme ...
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Avon Products
Avon Products, Inc. or simply known as Avon, is an American-British multinational cosmetics, skin care, fragrance and personal care company, based in London. It sells directly to the public. Avon had annual sales of $9.1 billion worldwide in 2020. It is the fourteenth-largest beauty company and, with 6.4 million representatives, is the second largest direct-selling enterprise in the world (after Amway). The company's CEO is Angela Cretu, who was appointed to the position in January 2020. In May 2019, the multinational company Natura & Co announced its intent to acquire Avon; the deal closed in January 2020. Following the merger, existing Natura shareholders held 73% of the combined company, Natura Holding S.A., with former Avon shareholders owning 27%. At merger completion, Avon became a privately held company, common stock was removed from the NYSE trading. History Avon's founder, David H. McConnell, initially sold books as a door-to-door salesman to New York homes. In Se ...
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Tupperware
Tupperware is an American home products line that includes preparation, storage, and serving products for the kitchen and home. In 1942, Earl Tupper developed his first bell-shaped container; the brand products were introduced to the public in 1946. Tupperware develops, manufactures, and internationally distributes its products as a wholly owned subsidiary of its parent company Tupperware Brands; as of 2007, it was sold by means of approximately 1.9 million direct salespeople on contract. In 2013, the top marketplace for Tupperware was Indonesia, which topped Germany as the second. Indonesia's sales in 2013 were more than $200 million. Company history Tupperware was developed in 1946 by Earl Tupper (1907-1983) in Leominster, Massachusetts. He developed plastic containers to be used in households to contain food and keep them airtight, which featured a then-patented "burping seal". Tupper had already invented the plastic for Tupperware in 1938, but the product succeeded with ...
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Pyramid Scheme
A pyramid scheme is a business model that recruits members via a promise of payments or services for enrolling others into the scheme, rather than supplying investments or sale of products. As recruiting multiplies, recruiting becomes quickly impossible, and most members are unable to profit; as such, pyramid schemes are unsustainable and often illegal. Pyramid schemes have existed for at least a century in different guises. Some multi-level marketing plans have been classified as pyramid schemes. Concept and basic models In a pyramid scheme, an organization compels individuals who wish to join to make a payment. In exchange, the organization promises its new members a share of the money taken from every additional member that they recruit. The directors of the organization (those at the top of the pyramid) also receive a share of these payments. For the directors, the scheme is potentially lucrative—whether or not they do any work, the organization's membership has a strong ...
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Public Interest Research Group
Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs) are a federation of U.S. and Canadian non-profit organizations that employ grassroots organizing and direct advocacy on issues such as consumer protection, public health and transportation. The PIRGs are closely affiliated with the Fund for the Public Interest, which conducts fundraising and canvassing on their behalf. History The PIRGs emerged in the early 1970s on U.S. college campuses. The PIRG model was proposed in the book '' Action for a Change'' by Ralph Nader and Donald Ross, in which they encourage students on campuses across a state to pool their resources to hire full-time professional lobbyists and researchers to lobby for the passage of legislation which addresses social topics of interest to students. Ross helped students across the country set up the first PIRG chapters, then became the director of the New York Public Interest Research Group in 1973. The Minnesota Public Interest Research Group, founded in 1971, was the f ...
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Consumer Watchdog
Consumer Watchdog (formerly the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights) is a non-profit, progressive organization which advocates for taxpayer and consumer interests, with a focus on insurance, health care, political reform, privacy and energy. The organization was founded in 1985 by California Proposition 103 author Harvey Rosenfield and is headquartered in Santa Monica, California. Its chief officers include President Jamie Court and Executive Director Carmen Balber. Early history After lobbying with consumer advocate Ralph Nader on a number of issues including campaign finance reform and nuclear power proliferation, Rosenfield founded Consumer Watchdog in 1985. Later, Rosenfield and Nader campaigned against California Proposition 51 (1986), an insurance-industry-backed initiative on the California ballot in 1986 that limited damage claims on lawsuits. Though Proposition 51 passed, Rosenfield continued to work for insurance rate reductions at his newly formed public ...
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Consumer Reports
Consumer Reports (CR), formerly Consumers Union (CU), is an American nonprofit consumer organization dedicated to independent product testing, investigative journalism, consumer-oriented research, public education, and consumer advocacy. Founded in 1936, CR was created to serve as a source of information that consumers could use to help assess the safety and performance of products. Since that time, CR has continued its testing and analysis of products and services, and attempted to advocate for the consumer in legislative and rule-making areas. Among the reforms in which CR played a role were the advent of seat belt laws, exposure of the dangers of cigarettes, and more recently, the enhancement of consumer finance protection and the increase of consumer access to quality health care. The organization has also expanded its reach to a suite of digital platforms. Consumer Reports Advocacy frequently supports left-wing environmental causes, including heightened regulations on aut ...
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Consumers Union
A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, or uses purchased goods, products, or services primarily for personal, social, family, household and similar needs, who is not directly related to entrepreneurial or business activities. The term most commonly refers to a person who purchases goods and services for personal use. Consumer rights “Consumers, by definition, include us all," said President John F. Kennedy, offering his definition to the United States Congress on March 15, 1962. This speech became the basis for the creation of World Consumer Rights Day, now celebrated on March 15. In his speech : John Fitzgerald Kennedy outlined the integral responsibility to consumers from their respective governments to help exercise consumers' rights, including: *The right to safety: To be protected against the marketing of goods that are hazardous to health or life. *The right to be informed: To be protected against fraudulent, deceitful, or grossly misleading informati ...
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Consumer Federation Of America
The Consumer Federation of America (CFA) is a non-profit organization founded in 1968 to advance consumer interests through research, education and advocacy. According to CFA's website, its members are nearly 300 consumer-oriented non-profits, which themselves have a combined membership of 50 million people. CFA members include national organizations such as Consumers Union and U.S. PIRG, state and local consumer organizations, state and local protection agencies, credit unions, rural electric cooperatives and public power groups. Members pay dues ranging from under $100 to $20,000 per year, elect the board of directors and vote on policies. CFA has a wide range of activities and interests, many centered on scrutiny of businesses and their practices, products, and services by citizens, civic groups, the news media, and government regulatory agencies as a method of defending the interests of the public at large. It is generally regarded as liberal in the modern American sense o ...
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Consumer Action
Consumer Action is a nonprofit, consumer education and advocacy center, serving consumers in the United States. Founded in 1971, the mission of Consumer Action is to help individual consumers assert their rights in the marketplace and to advance pro-consumer industry-wide change for the benefit of all. Consumer Action primarily achieves that mission by providing multi-lingual education, outreach, and advocacy services. It has offices in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles. Mission Consumer Action's mission is to educate and advocate for consumers, publish and disseminate free multilingual consumer educational materials and fight for laws and regulations that benefit consumers — not large businesses and corporations. Overview Consumer Action's frequent focus is consumer credit—and the related areas of credit cards, banking and finance, money management, and pricing; as well as health, housing, scams, fraud, privacy, and more. Consumer Action is well known for it ...
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