Darboux Integral
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Darboux integral is constructed using Darboux sums and is one possible definition of the integral of a function. Darboux integrals are equivalent to Riemann integrals, meaning that a function is Darbouxintegrable if and only if it is Riemannintegrable, and the values of the two integrals, if they exist, are equal. The definition of the Darboux integral has the advantage of being easier to apply in computations or proofs than that of the Riemann integral. Consequently, introductory textbooks on calculus and real analysis often develop Riemann integration using the Darboux integral, rather than the true Riemann integral. Moreover, the definition is readily extended to defining Riemann–Stieltjes integration. Darboux integrals are named after their inventor, Gaston Darboux (1842–1917). Definition The definition of the Darboux integral considers upper and lower (Darboux) integrals, which exist for any bounded realvalued ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Darboux
Darboux is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Jean Gaston Darboux JeanGaston Darboux FAS MIF FRS FRSE (14 August 1842 – 23 February 1917) was a French mathematician. Life According this birth certificate he was born in Nîmes in France on 14 August 1842, at 1 am. However, probably due to the midni ... (1842–1917), French mathematician * Lauriane Doumbouya (née Darboux), the current First Lady of Guinea since 5 September 2021 * Paul Darboux (1919–1982), Beninese politician {{surname ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Minimum Bounding Rectangle
In computational geometry, the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR), also known as bounding box (BBOX) or envelope, is an expression of the maximum extents of a twodimensional object (e.g. point, line, polygon) or set of objects within its coordinate system; in other words , , , . The MBR is a 2dimensional case of the minimum bounding box. MBRs are frequently used as an indication of the general position of a geographic feature or dataset, for either display, firstapproximation spatial query, or spatial indexing purposes. The degree to which an "overlapping rectangles" query based on MBRs will be satisfactory (in other words, produce a low number of "false positive" hits) will depend on the extent to which individual spatial objects occupy (fill) their associated MBR. If the MBR is full or nearly so (for example, a mapsheet aligned with axes of latitude and longitude will normally entirely fill its associated MBR in the same coordinate space), then the "overlapping rectangles" ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Integration
In mathematics, the integral of a nonnegative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the axis. The Lebesgue integral, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for nonnegative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded intervals—the ''area under the curve'' could be defined as the integral, and computed using approximation techniques on the region by polygons. However, as the need to consider more irregular functions arose—e.g., as a result of the limiting processes of mathematical analysis and the mathematical theory of probability—it became clear that more careful approximation techniques were needed to define a suitable integral. Also, one might ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regulated Integral
In mathematics, the regulated integral is a definition of integration for regulated functions, which are defined to be uniform limits of step functions. The use of the regulated integral instead of the Riemann integral has been advocated by Nicolas Bourbaki and Jean Dieudonné. Definition Definition on step functions Let 'a'', ''b''be a fixed closed, bounded interval in the real line R. A realvalued function ''φ'' : 'a'', ''b''→ R is called a step function if there exists a finite partition :\Pi = \ of 'a'', ''b''such that ''φ'' is constant on each open interval (''t''''i'', ''t''''i''+1) of Π; suppose that this constant value is ''c''''i'' ∈ R. Then, define the integral of a step function ''φ'' to be :\int_a^b \varphi(t) \, \mathrm t := \sum_^ c_i , t_  t_i , . It can be shown that this definition is independent of the choice of partition, in that if Π1 is another partition of 'a'', ''b''such that ''φ'' is constant on the open intervals of Π1, the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integer
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Darboux Refinement
Darboux is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Jean Gaston Darboux JeanGaston Darboux FAS MIF FRS FRSE (14 August 1842 – 23 February 1917) was a French mathematician. Life According this birth certificate he was born in Nîmes in France on 14 August 1842, at 1 am. However, probably due to the midni ... (1842–1917), French mathematician * Lauriane Doumbouya (née Darboux), the current First Lady of Guinea since 5 September 2021 * Paul Darboux (1919–1982), Beninese politician {{surname ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dense Subset
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subset ''A'' of a topological space ''X'' is said to be dense in ''X'' if every point of ''X'' either belongs to ''A'' or else is arbitrarily "close" to a member of ''A'' — for instance, the rational numbers are a dense subset of the real numbers because every real number either is a rational number or has a rational number arbitrarily close to it (see Diophantine approximation). Formally, A is dense in X if the smallest closed subset of X containing A is X itself. The of a topological space X is the least cardinality of a dense subset of X. Definition A subset A of a topological space X is said to be a of X if any of the following equivalent conditions are satisfied: The smallest closed subset of X containing A is X itself. The closure of A in X is equal to X. That is, \operatorname_X A = X. The interior of the complement of A is empty. That is, \operatorname_X (X \setminus A) = \varnothing. Every point in X either b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lipschitz Continuous
In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions. Intuitively, a Lipschitz continuous function is limited in how fast it can change: there exists a real number such that, for every pair of points on the graph of this function, the absolute value of the slope of the line connecting them is not greater than this real number; the smallest such bound is called the ''Lipschitz constant'' of the function (or '' modulus of uniform continuity''). For instance, every function that has bounded first derivatives is Lipschitz continuous. In the theory of differential equations, Lipschitz continuity is the central condition of the Picard–Lindelöf theorem which guarantees the existence and uniqueness of the solution to an initial value problem. A special type of Lipschitz continuity, called contraction, is used in the Banach fixedpoint theorem. We have the following chain of strict inclus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partition Of An Interval
In mathematics, a partition of an interval on the real line is a finite sequence of real numbers such that :. In other terms, a partition of a compact interval is a strictly increasing sequence of numbers (belonging to the interval itself) starting from the initial point of and arriving at the final point of . Every interval of the form is referred to as a subinterval of the partition ''x''. Refinement of a partition Another partition of the given interval , bis defined as a refinement of the partition , if contains all the points of and possibly some other points as well; the partition is said to be “finer” than . Given two partitions, and , one can always form their common refinement, denoted , which consists of all the points of and , in increasing order. Norm of a partition The norm (or mesh) of the partition : is the length of the longest of these subintervals : . Applications Partitions are used in the theory of the Riemann integral, the Riemann–St ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Infimum And Supremum
In mathematics, the infimum (abbreviated inf; plural infima) of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is a greatest element in P that is less than or equal to each element of S, if such an element exists. Consequently, the term ''greatest lower bound'' (abbreviated as ) is also commonly used. The supremum (abbreviated sup; plural suprema) of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is the least element in P that is greater than or equal to each element of S, if such an element exists. Consequently, the supremum is also referred to as the ''least upper bound'' (or ). The infimum is in a precise sense dual to the concept of a supremum. Infima and suprema of real numbers are common special cases that are important in analysis, and especially in Lebesgue integration. However, the general definitions remain valid in the more abstract setting of order theory where arbitrary partially ordered sets are considered. The concepts of infimum and supremum are close to minimum and maxim ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Analysis
In mathematics, the branch of real analysis studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real functions. Some particular properties of realvalued sequences and functions that real analysis studies include convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability. Real analysis is distinguished from complex analysis, which deals with the study of complex numbers and their functions. Scope Construction of the real numbers The theorems of real analysis rely on the properties of the real number system, which must be established. The real number system consists of an uncountable set (\mathbb), together with two binary operations denoted and , and an order denoted . The operations make the real numbers a field, and, along with the order, an ordered field. The real number system is the unique ''complete ordered field'', in the sense that any other complete ordered field is isomorphic to it. Intuitively, completeness means ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 