Cover (algebra)
In abstract algebra, a cover is one instance of some mathematical structure mapping onto another instance, such as a group (trivially) covering a subgroup. This should not be confused with the concept of a cover in topology. When some object ''X'' is said to cover another object ''Y'', the cover is given by some surjective and structurepreserving map . The precise meaning of "structurepreserving" depends on the kind of mathematical structure of which ''X'' and ''Y'' are instances. In order to be interesting, the cover is usually endowed with additional properties, which are highly dependent on the context. Examples A classic result in semigroup theory due to D. B. McAlister states that every inverse semigroup has an Eunitary cover; besides being surjective, the homomorphism in this case is also ''idempotent separating'', meaning that in its kernel an idempotent and nonidempotent never belong to the same equivalence class.; something slightly stronger has actually be shown ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the ''variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, algebra meant ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frattini Cover
Frattini is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Angelo Frattini, sculptor * Franco Frattini, politician * Giovanni Frattini, mathematician ** Frattini argument ** Frattini subgroup * Francesco Frattini Francesco Frattini (born 18 January 1967, in Varese) is an Italian former road bicycle racer. Major results ;1995 :1st, Rund um den HenningerTurm :1st, Stage 6, Bicicleta Vasca :1st, Setmana Catalana de Ciclisme ::1st, Stage 3 ;1996 :1st, Sta ..., cyclist {{surname, Frattini Italianlanguage surnames ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Embedding
In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical structure contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup. When some object X is said to be embedded in another object Y, the embedding is given by some injective and structurepreserving map f:X\rightarrow Y. The precise meaning of "structurepreserving" depends on the kind of mathematical structure of which X and Y are instances. In the terminology of category theory, a structurepreserving map is called a morphism. The fact that a map f:X\rightarrow Y is an embedding is often indicated by the use of a "hooked arrow" (); thus: f : X \hookrightarrow Y. (On the other hand, this notation is sometimes reserved for inclusion maps.) Given X and Y, several different embeddings of X in Y may be possible. In many cases of interest there is a standard (or "canonical") embedding, like those of the natural numbers in the integers, the integers in the rational numbers, the rational n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Injective Cover
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Torsionfree Cover
In algebra, a torsionfree module is a module over a ring such that zero is the only element annihilated by a regular element (non zerodivisor) of the ring. In other words, a module is ''torsion free'' if its torsion submodule is reduced to its zero element. In integral domains the regular elements of the ring are its nonzero elements, so in this case a torsionfree module is one such that zero is the only element annihilated by some nonzero element of the ring. Some authors work only over integral domains and use this condition as the definition of a torsionfree module, but this does not work well over more general rings, for if the ring contains zerodivisors then the only module satisfying this condition is the zero module. Examples of torsionfree modules Over a commutative ring ''R'' with total quotient ring ''K'', a module ''M'' is torsionfree if and only if Tor1(''K''/''R'',''M'') vanishes. Therefore flat modules, and in particular free and projective modules, are to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Flat Cover
In algebra, a flat cover of a module ''M'' over a ring is a surjective homomorphism from a flat module ''F'' to ''M'' that is in some sense minimal. Any module over a ring has a flat cover that is unique up to (nonunique) isomorphism. Flat covers are in some sense dual to injective hulls, and are related to projective covers and torsionfree cover In algebra, a torsionfree module is a module over a ring such that zero is the only element annihilated by a regular element (non zerodivisor) of the ring. In other words, a module is ''torsion free'' if its torsion submodule is reduced to its ...s. Definitions The homomorphism ''F''→''M'' is defined to be a flat cover of ''M'' if it is surjective, ''F'' is flat, every homomorphism from flat module to ''M'' factors through ''F'', and any map from ''F'' to ''F'' commuting with the map to ''M'' is an automorphism of ''F''. History While projective covers for modules do not always exist, it was speculated that for general rings, e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Perfect Ring
In the area of abstract algebra known as ring theory, a left perfect ring is a type of ring in which all left modules have projective covers. The right case is defined by analogy, and the condition is not leftright symmetric; that is, there exist rings which are perfect on one side but not the other. Perfect rings were introduced in Bass's book. A semiperfect ring is a ring over which every finitely generated left module has a projective cover. This property is leftright symmetric. Perfect ring Definitions The following equivalent definitions of a left perfect ring ''R'' are found in Aderson and Fuller: * Every left ''R'' module has a projective cover. * ''R''/J(''R'') is semisimple and J(''R'') is left Tnilpotent (that is, for every infinite sequence of elements of J(''R'') there is an ''n'' such that the product of first ''n'' terms are zero), where J(''R'') is the Jacobson radical of ''R''. * (Bass' Theorem P) ''R'' satisfies the descending chain condition on principal rig ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projective Cover
In the branch of abstract mathematics called category theory, a projective cover of an object ''X'' is in a sense the best approximation of ''X'' by a projective object ''P''. Projective covers are the dual of injective envelopes. Definition Let \mathcal be a category and ''X'' an object in \mathcal. A projective cover is a pair (''P'',''p''), with ''P'' a projective object in \mathcal and ''p'' a superfluous epimorphism in Hom(''P'', ''X''). If ''R'' is a ring, then in the category of ''R''modules, a superfluous epimorphism is then an epimorphism p : P \to X such that the kernel of ''p'' is a superfluous submodule of ''P''. Properties Projective covers and their superfluous epimorphisms, when they exist, are unique up to isomorphism. The isomorphism need not be unique, however, since the projective property is not a full fledged universal property. The main effect of ''p'' having a superfluous kernel is the following: if ''N'' is any proper submodule of ''P'', then p(N) \n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lie Group
In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced ) is a group that is also a differentiable manifold. A manifold is a space that locally resembles Euclidean space, whereas groups define the abstract concept of a binary operation along with the additional properties it must have to be thought of as a "transformation" in the abstract sense, for instance multiplication and the taking of inverses (division), or equivalently, the concept of addition and the taking of inverses (subtraction). Combining these two ideas, one obtains a continuous group where multiplying points and their inverses are continuous. If the multiplication and taking of inverses are smooth (differentiable) as well, one obtains a Lie group. Lie groups provide a natural model for the concept of continuous symmetry, a celebrated example of which is the rotational symmetry in three dimensions (given by the special orthogonal group \text(3)). Lie groups are widely used in many parts of modern mathematics and physics. Lie ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Cover
A covering of a topological space X is a continuous map \pi : E \rightarrow X with special properties. Definition Let X be a topological space. A covering of X is a continuous map : \pi : E \rightarrow X such that there exists a discrete space D and for every x \in X an open neighborhood U \subset X, such that \pi^(U)= \displaystyle \bigsqcup_ V_d and \pi, _:V_d \rightarrow U is a homeomorphism for every d \in D . Often, the notion of a covering is used for the covering space E as well as for the map \pi : E \rightarrow X. The open sets V_ are called sheets, which are uniquely determined up to a homeomorphism if U is connected. For each x \in X the discrete subset \pi^(x) is called the fiber of x. The degree of a covering is the cardinality of the space D. If E is pathconnected, then the covering \pi : E \rightarrow X is denoted as a pathconnected covering. Examples * For every topological space X there exists the covering \pi:X \rightarrow X with \pi(x)=x, which is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

SpringerVerlag
Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, ebooks and peerreviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 in Berlin, it expanded internationally in the 1960s, and through mergers in the 1990s and a sale to venture capitalists it fused with Wolters Kluwer and eventually became part of Springer Nature in 2015. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City. History Julius Springer founded SpringerVerlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's then second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in 1872.Chronology ". Springer Science+Business Media. In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Profinite Group
In mathematics, a profinite group is a topological group that is in a certain sense assembled from a system of finite groups. The idea of using a profinite group is to provide a "uniform", or "synoptic", view of an entire system of finite groups. Properties of the profinite group are generally speaking uniform properties of the system. For example, the profinite group is finitely generated (as a topological group) if and only if there exists d\in\N such that every group in the system can be generated by d elements. Many theorems about finite groups can be readily generalised to profinite groups; examples are Lagrange's theorem and the Sylow theorems. To construct a profinite group one needs a system of finite groups and group homomorphisms between them. Without loss of generality, these homomorphisms can be assumed to be surjective, in which case the finite groups will appear as quotient groups of the resulting profinite group; in a sense, these quotients approximate the profini ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 