Cormorant Fishing
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Cormorant Fishing
Cormorant fishing is a traditional fishing technique in which fishermen use trained cormorants to catch fish in rivers. Historically, cormorant fishing has taken place in Japan and China, as well as Greece, North Macedonia, and briefly, England and France. It is first attested as a method used by the ancient Japanese in the ''Book of Sui'', the official history of the Sui Dynasty of China, completed in 636 CE. Though cormorant fishing once was a successful enterprise, its primary use today is to serve the tourism industry. This artisan fishing method is no longer used anywhere except southwestern China, where it is also under threat from competition from more modern methods. To control the birds, the fishermen tie a loose snare near the base of the bird's throat. The snare does not stop the bird from swallowing small fish, but prevents the bird from swallowing larger fish, which are held temporarily in their gullet. When a cormorant has caught a fish in its throat, the fisherman ...
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Fishing Technique
Fishing techniques are methods for catching fish. The term may also be applied to methods for catching other aquatic animals such as molluscs (shellfish, squid, octopus) and edible marine invertebrates. Fishing techniques include hand-gathering, spearfishing, netting, angling and trapping. Recreational, commercial and artisanal fishers use different techniques, and also, sometimes, the same techniques. Recreational fishers fish for pleasure or sport, while commercial fishers fish for profit. Artisanal fishers use traditional, low-tech methods, for survival in developing countries, and as a cultural heritage in other countries. Mostly, recreational fishers use angling methods and commercial fishers use netting methods. There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge. Which techniques are ap ...
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Gullet
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English; both ), non-technically known also as the food pipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus is a fibromuscular tube, about long in adults, that travels behind the trachea and heart, passes through the diaphragm, and empties into the uppermost region of the stomach. During swallowing, the epiglottis tilts backwards to prevent food from going down the larynx and lungs. The word ''oesophagus'' is from Ancient Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophágos), from οἴσω (oísō), future form of φέρω (phérō, “I carry”) + ἔφαγον (éphagon, “I ate”). The wall of the esophagus from the lumen outwards consists of mucosa, submucosa (connective tissue), layers of muscle fibers between layers of fibrous tissue, and an outer layer of connective tissue. The mucosa is a stratified squamous epithelium o ...
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Heian Period
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). means "peace" in Japanese. It is a period in Japanese history when the Chinese influences were in decline and the national culture matured. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Two types of Japanese script emerged, including katakana, a phonetic script which was abbreviated into hiragana, a cursive alphabet with a unique writing method distinctive to Japan. This gave rise to Japan's famous vernacular literature, with many of its texts written by court women who were not as educated in Chinese compared to their male counterparts. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aris ...
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Ayu Sweetfish
The ayu sweetfish (''Plecoglossus altivelis''), or sweetfish, is a species of fish. It is the only species in the genus ''Plecoglossus'' and family Plecoglossidae. It is a relative of the smelts and other fish in the order Osmeriformes. Native to East Asia, it is distributed in the northwestern Pacific Ocean along the coast of Hokkaidō in Japan southward to the Korean Peninsula, China, Hong Kong and northern Vietnam. It is amphidromous, moving between coastal marine waters and freshwater lakes and rivers. A few landlocked populations also exist in lakes in Japan such as Biwa. Original wild populations in Taiwan became extinct in 1968 due to pollution and present extent populations were reintroduced from Japan in the 1990s. The name "sweetfish" was inspired by the sweetness of its flesh. In reference to its typical one-year lifespan, it is also written as ("year-fish").
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Imperial Household Agency
The (IHA) is an agency of the government of Japan in charge of state matters concerning the Imperial Family, and also the keeping of the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. From around the 8th century AD, up until the Second World War, it was known as the . The Agency is unique among conventional government agencies and ministries, in that it does not directly report to the Prime Minister at the cabinet level, nor is it affected by legislation that establishes it as an Independent Administrative Institution. Organization and functions The IHA is headed by the Director-General of IHA, assisted by the Deputy Director of IHA, appointed by the Cabinet.Imperial Household AgencyOrganization/ref> The main organizational positions within the Agency are: * the Grand Steward's Secretariat * the Board of Chamberlains * the Crown Prince's Household * the Board of Ceremonies * the Archives and Mausolea Department * the Maintenance and Works Department * the Kyoto Office The current ...
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Nagara River
The has its source in the city of Gujō, Gifu Prefecture, and its mouth in the city of Kuwana, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Along with the Kiso River and Ibi River, the Nagara River is one of the Kiso Three Rivers of the Nōbi Plain. Previously, the river was named Sunomata River (墨俣川 ''Sunomata-gawa''). With a length of , it drains an area of in the Chūbu region and empties into Ise Bay. The government of Japan classifies it as a Class 1 river. Outline Also, famous for being a clear-flowing river, it has been named one of the "Three Clear-Flowing Rivers in Japan," along with the Kakita River in Shizuoka Prefecture and the Shimanto River in Kōchi Prefecture. In 1985, the middle section of the Nagara River was named to "Japan's 100 Famous Waters." Also, it was included among Japan's top bathing areas in both 1988 and 2001. The river is also a popular tourist destination because of Nagaragawa Onsen, a collection of natural hot springs (mostly in the city of Gifu) that are ...
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Seki, Gifu
is a city located in Gifu, Japan. , the city had an estimated population of 89,020 and a population density of 190 persons per km2 in 35,366 households. The total area of the city was . Geography Seki is located in central Gifu Prefecture at the northern tip of the Nōbi Plain, approximately 40 kilometers north of Nagoya. Due to various municipal mergers, the city has a "U" shape, almost enclosing the city of Mino. Also as a result of the merger, the population center of population in Japan now is located in Sekiuchi (former Mutsumi-cho area). Mount Takinami is the highest point in the city, with an elevation of . The Nagara River and Itadori River flow through the city. Climate The city has a climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild winters (Köppen climate classification ''Cfa''). The average annual temperature in Seki is 15.2 °C. The average annual rainfall is 2090 mm with September as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average ...
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Cormorant Fishing On The Nagara River
has played a vital role in the history of the city of Gifu, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Throughout its long history, it evolved from a means to live, to a profitable industry, to a major tourist draw. It runs from May 11 to October 15 of each year (except when the river level is high and during the harvest moon). History Cormorant fishing on the Nagara River is a 1,300-year-old tradition''Cormorant Fishing on the Nagara River''. Gifu City Cormorant Fishing Viewing Boat Office, 2007. where fishing masters (鵜匠 ''ushō'') use Japanese cormorantsCormorant Fishing Explanation
Gifu Rotary Club. Accessed January 31, 2008.
to catch fish, primarily '' ayu'' (sweetfish). Because of the great skills of the fishing masters, they have received the official ...
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Gifu Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of Honshu. Gifu Prefecture has a population of 1,991,390 () and has a geographic area of . Gifu Prefecture borders Toyama Prefecture to the north; Ishikawa Prefecture to the northwest, Fukui Prefecture and Shiga Prefecture to the west, Mie Prefecture to the southwest, Aichi Prefecture to the south, and Nagano Prefecture to the east. Gifu is the capital and largest city of Gifu Prefecture, with other major cities including Ōgaki, Kakamigahara, and Tajimi. Gifu Prefecture is located in the center of Japan, one of only eight landlocked prefectures, and features the country's center of population. Gifu Prefecture has served as the historic crossroads of Japan with routes connecting the east to the west, including the Nakasendō, one of the Five Routes of the Edo period. Gifu Prefecture was a long-term residence of Oda Nobunaga and Saitō Dōsan, two influential figures of Japanese history in the Sengoku period, sp ...
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Japanese Language
is spoken natively by about 128 million people, primarily by Japanese people and primarily in Japan, the only country where it is the national language. Japanese belongs to the Japonic or Japanese- Ryukyuan language family. There have been many attempts to group the Japonic languages with other families such as the Ainu, Austroasiatic, Koreanic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century AD recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial Old Japanese texts did not appear until the 8th century. From the Heian period (794–1185), there was a massive influx of Sino-Japanese vocabulary into the language, affecting the phonology of Early Middle Japanese. Late Middle Japanese (1185–1600) saw extensive grammatical changes and the first appearance of European loanwords. The basis of the standard dialect ...
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Darter
The darters, anhingas, or snakebirds are mainly tropical waterbirds in the family Anhingidae, which contains a single genus, ''Anhinga''. There are four living species, three of which are very common and widespread while the fourth is rarer and classified as near-threatened by the IUCN. The term ''snakebird'' is usually used without any additions to signify whichever of the completely allopatric species occurs in any one region. It refers to their long thin neck, which has a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged, or when mated pairs twist it during their bonding displays. "Darter" is used with a geographical term when referring to particular species. It alludes to their manner of procuring food, as they impale fishes with their thin, pointed beak. The American darter (''A. anhinga'') is more commonly known as the anhinga. It is sometimes called "water turkey" in the southern United States; though the anhinga is quite unrelated to the wild turkey, they ...
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