Coefficient Of Determination
In statistics, the coefficient of determination, denoted ''R''2 or ''r''2 and pronounced "R squared", is the proportion of the variation in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent variable(s). It is a statistic used in the context of statistical models whose main purpose is either the prediction of future outcomes or the testing of hypotheses, on the basis of other related information. It provides a measure of how well observed outcomes are replicated by the model, based on the proportion of total variation of outcomes explained by the model. There are several definitions of ''R''2 that are only sometimes equivalent. One class of such cases includes that of simple linear regression where ''r''2 is used instead of ''R''2. When only an intercept is included, then ''r''2 is simply the square of the sample correlation coefficient (i.e., ''r'') between the observed outcomes and the observed predictor values. If additional regressors are included, ''R''2 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regression Analysis
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships between a dependent variable (often called the 'outcome' or 'response' variable, or a 'label' in machine learning parlance) and one or more independent variables (often called 'predictors', 'covariates', 'explanatory variables' or 'features'). The most common form of regression analysis is linear regression, in which one finds the line (or a more complex linear combination) that most closely fits the data according to a specific mathematical criterion. For example, the method of ordinary least squares computes the unique line (or hyperplane) that minimizes the sum of squared differences between the true data and that line (or hyperplane). For specific mathematical reasons (see linear regression), this allows the researcher to estimate the conditional expectation (or population average value) of the dependent variable when the independent variables take on a given ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sufficient Condition
In logic and mathematics, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe a conditional or implicational relationship between two statements. For example, in the conditional statement: "If then ", is necessary for , because the truth of is guaranteed by the truth of (equivalently, it is impossible to have without ). Similarly, is sufficient for , because being true always implies that is true, but not being true does not always imply that is not true. In general, a necessary condition is one that must be present in order for another condition to occur, while a sufficient condition is one that produces the said condition. The assertion that a statement is a "necessary ''and'' sufficient" condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either simultaneously true, or simultaneously false. In ordinary English (also natural language) "necessary" and "sufficient" indicate relations betw ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Regression
In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach for modelling the relationship between a scalar response and one or more explanatory variables (also known as dependent and independent variables). The case of one explanatory variable is called '' simple linear regression''; for more than one, the process is called multiple linear regression. This term is distinct from multivariate linear regression, where multiple correlated dependent variables are predicted, rather than a single scalar variable. In linear regression, the relationships are modeled using linear predictor functions whose unknown model parameters are estimated from the data. Such models are called linear models. Most commonly, the conditional mean of the response given the values of the explanatory variables (or predictors) is assumed to be an affine function of those values; less commonly, the conditional median or some other quantile is used. Like all forms of regression analysis, linear regression focuses on ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Explained Variation
In statistics, explained variation measures the proportion to which a mathematical model accounts for the variation (dispersion) of a given data set. Often, variation is quantified as variance; then, the more specific term explained variance can be used. The complementary part of the total variation is called unexplained or residual variation. Definition in terms of information gain Information gain by better modelling Following Kent (1983), we use the Fraser information (Fraser 1965) :F(\theta) = \int \textrmr\,g(r)\,\ln f(r;\theta) where g(r) is the probability density of a random variable R\,, and f(r;\theta)\, with \theta\in\Theta_i (i=0,1\,) are two families of parametric models. Model family 0 is the simpler one, with a restricted parameter space \Theta_0\subset\Theta_1. Parameters are determined by maximum likelihood estimation, :\theta_i = \operatorname_ F(\theta). The information gain of model 1 over model 0 is written as :\Gamma(\theta_1:\theta_0) = 2 F(\theta_1 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Explained Sum Of Squares
In statistics, the explained sum of squares (ESS), alternatively known as the model sum of squares or sum of squares due to regression (SSR – not to be confused with the residual sum of squares (RSS) or sum of squares of errors), is a quantity used in describing how well a model, often a regression model, represents the data being modelled. In particular, the explained sum of squares measures how much variation there is in the modelled values and this is compared to the total sum of squares (TSS), which measures how much variation there is in the observed data, and to the residual sum of squares, which measures the variation in the error between the observed data and modelled values. Definition The explained sum of squares (ESS) is the sum of the squares of the deviations of the predicted values from the mean value of a response variable, in a standard regression model — for example, , where ''y''''i'' is the ''i'' th observation of the response variable, ''x''''ji'' is the '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Explained Sum Of Squares
In statistics, the explained sum of squares (ESS), alternatively known as the model sum of squares or sum of squares due to regression (SSR – not to be confused with the residual sum of squares (RSS) or sum of squares of errors), is a quantity used in describing how well a model, often a regression model, represents the data being modelled. In particular, the explained sum of squares measures how much variation there is in the modelled values and this is compared to the total sum of squares (TSS), which measures how much variation there is in the observed data, and to the residual sum of squares, which measures the variation in the error between the observed data and modelled values. Definition The explained sum of squares (ESS) is the sum of the squares of the deviations of the predicted values from the mean value of a response variable, in a standard regression model — for example, , where ''y''''i'' is the ''i'' th observation of the response variable, ''x''''ji'' is the '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Variance
In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its population mean or sample mean. Variance is a measure of dispersion, meaning it is a measure of how far a set of numbers is spread out from their average value. Variance has a central role in statistics, where some ideas that use it include descriptive statistics, statistical inference, hypothesis testing, goodness of fit, and Monte Carlo sampling. Variance is an important tool in the sciences, where statistical analysis of data is common. The variance is the square of the standard deviation, the second central moment of a distribution, and the covariance of the random variable with itself, and it is often represented by \sigma^2, s^2, \operatorname(X), V(X), or \mathbb(X). An advantage of variance as a measure of dispersion is that it is more amenable to algebraic manipulation than other measures of dispersion such as the expected absolute deviation; for e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Total Sum Of Squares
In statistical data analysis the total sum of squares (TSS or SST) is a quantity that appears as part of a standard way of presenting results of such analyses. For a set of observations, y_i, i\leq n, it is defined as the sum over all squared differences between the observations and their overall mean \bar.:Everitt, B.S. (2002) ''The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics'', CUP, :\mathrm=\sum_^\left(y_\bar\right)^2 For wide classes of linear models, the total sum of squares equals the explained sum of squares plus the residual sum of squares. For proof of this in the multivariate OLS case, see partitioning in the general OLS model. In analysis of variance (ANOVA) the total sum of squares is the sum of the socalled "withinsamples" sum of squares and "betweensamples" sum of squares, i.e., partitioning of the sum of squares. In multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) the following equation applies Especially chapters 11 and 12. :\mathbf = \mathbf + \mathbf, where T is the to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Residual Sum Of Squares
In statistics, the residual sum of squares (RSS), also known as the sum of squared estimate of errors (SSE), is the sum of the squares of residuals (deviations predicted from actual empirical values of data). It is a measure of the discrepancy between the data and an estimation model, such as a linear regression. A small RSS indicates a tight fit of the model to the data. It is used as an optimality criterion in parameter selection and model selection. In general, total sum of squares = explained sum of squares + residual sum of squares. For a proof of this in the multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) case, see partitioning in the general OLS model. One explanatory variable In a model with a single explanatory variable, RSS is given by: :\operatorname = \sum_^n (y_i  f(x_i))^2 where ''y''''i'' is the ''i''th value of the variable to be predicted, ''x''''i'' is the ''i''th value of the explanatory variable, and f(x_i) is the predicted value of ''y''''i'' (also te ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mean Squared Error
In statistics, the mean squared error (MSE) or mean squared deviation (MSD) of an estimator (of a procedure for estimating an unobserved quantity) measures the average of the squares of the errors—that is, the average squared difference between the estimated values and the actual value. MSE is a risk function, corresponding to the expected value of the squared error loss. The fact that MSE is almost always strictly positive (and not zero) is because of randomness or because the estimator does not account for information that could produce a more accurate estimate. In machine learning, specifically empirical risk minimization, MSE may refer to the ''empirical'' risk (the average loss on an observed data set), as an estimate of the true MSE (the true risk: the average loss on the actual population distribution). The MSE is a measure of the quality of an estimator. As it is derived from the square of Euclidean distance, it is always a positive value that decreases as the error a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Residuals (statistics)
In statistics and optimization, errors and residuals are two closely related and easily confused measures of the deviation of an observed value of an element of a statistical sample from its "true value" (not necessarily observable). The error of an observation is the deviation of the observed value from the true value of a quantity of interest (for example, a population mean). The residual is the difference between the observed value and the ''estimated'' value of the quantity of interest (for example, a sample mean). The distinction is most important in regression analysis, where the concepts are sometimes called the regression errors and regression residuals and where they lead to the concept of studentized residuals. In econometrics, "errors" are also called disturbances. Introduction Suppose there is a series of observations from a univariate distribution and we want to estimate the mean of that distribution (the socalled location model). In this case, the errors are the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 