Civil Code Of Russia
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Civil Code Of Russia
The Civil Code of the Russian Federation (russian: Гражданский кодекс Российской Федерации, frequently abbreviated 'ГК РФ') is the prime source of civil law for the Russian Federation. The Russian Civil Law system descended from Roman Law through Byzantine tradition. It was heavily influenced by German and Dutch norms in the 18th-19th centuries. Socialist-style modifications took place during the Soviet period (1922-1991) and Continental European Law influences since the 1990s. The Civil Code of the Russian Federation came into force in four parts. The first part, which deals with general provisions (i.e. defines sources, names legal entities etc.) was enacted by the State Duma in 1994 and entered into force in 1995. The second part (dealing with the Law of obligations) entered into force in 1996. The third part ( Succession law) entered into force in 2002. The document has certain basic principles: equality of all participants guaranteed by ...
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Parliament Of Russia
The Federal Assembly ( rus, Федера́льное Собра́ние, r=Federalnoye Sobraniye, p=fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə sɐˈbranʲɪjə) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993). It was preceded by the Supreme Soviet of Russia. It consists of the State Duma, which is the lower house, and the Federation Council (Russia), Federation Council, which is the upper house. Both houses are located in Moscow. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third most important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case that both the President and the Prime Minister are incapacitated, the Chairman of the upper house of the Russian parliament becomes Acting President of Russia. The jurisdiction of the State Duma includes: consent to the appointment of the Prime Minister of Russia, Chairman of the Government, deciding the issue of confidence in the Government, appointment and dismissal of ...
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Property Law
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership in real property (land) and personal property. Property refers to legally protected claims to resources, such as land and personal property, including intellectual property. Property can be exchanged through contract law, and if property is violated, one could sue under tort law to protect it. The concept, idea or philosophy of property underlies all property law. In some jurisdictions, historically all property was owned by the monarch and it devolved through feudal land tenure or other feudal systems of loyalty and fealty. History Though the Napoleonic code was among the first government acts of modern times to introduce the notion of absolute ownership into statute, protection of personal property rights was present in medieval Islamic law and jurisprudence, and in more feudalist forms in the common law courts of medieval and early modern England. Theory The word ''property'', in everyday ...
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Criminal Code Of Russia
The Russian Criminal Code (russian: Уголовный кодекс Российской Федерации, frequently abbreviated УК РФ) is the prime source of the Law of the Russian Federation concerning criminal offences. The 1996 Criminal Code of the Russian Federation came into force on 1 January 1997. On 8 January 1997, President Yeltsin signed the Criminal Correctional Code to regulate the conditions of the sentences. The new Criminal Code replaced the Soviet analogue of 1960. The main changes deal with economic crimes and property crimes. These were the main pitfalls of the Soviet Criminal Code, as most of the other chapters were already amended to correspond to new Russian realities. Modifications 2022 In March 2022, the Russia fake news law was added to the criminal code, as Article No. 207.3, titled "Public dissemination of knowingly false information about the use of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation." The new law provides for a prison sentence of up ...
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Law Of The Russian Federation
The primary and fundamental statement of laws in the Russian Federation is the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Hierarchy Constitutionism Adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993 with 54.5% of the vote, the Constitution took effect on the day it was published – 25 December of the same year. It set out the fundamentals of government as well as proclaiming the rule of law, the ideological neutrality of the state, political pluralism, competitive elections and a separation of power, guaranteeing fundamental human rights to the Russian people. The Constitution establishes a semi-presidential system that encompasses strong executive power and increased independence for the president. Since its adoption in a 1993 referendum the Russian Constitution is considered to be the supreme law of the land. Article 15 of the Constitution reads that it "shall have supreme legal force and have direct effect, and shall be applicable throughout the entire territory of the Russian ...
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Constitution Of Russia
The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993. Russia's constitution came into force on 25 December 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government. The current Constitution is the second most long-lived in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution of 1936. The text was drafted by the 1993 Constitutional Conference, which was attended by over 800 participants. Sergei Alexeyev, Sergey Shakhray, and sometimes Anatoly Sobchak are considered as the primary co-authors of the constitution. The text was inspired by Mikhail Speransky's constitutional project and the current French constitution. The USAID-funded lawyers also contributed to the development of the draft. It replaced the previous Soviet-era Constitution of 12 April 1978, of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (which had already been amended in April 1992 to reflect the dissolution of the Soviet Union ...
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Federation Council Of Russia
The Federation Council (russian: Сове́т Федера́ции – ''Soviet Federatsii'', common abbreviation: Совфед – ''Sovfed''), or Senate (officially, starting from July 1, 2020) ( ru , Сенат , translit = Senat), is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. Each of the 89 federal subjects of Russia (including two annexed in 2014 and four more in 2022, that are not recognized by the international community) – consisting of 24 republics, 48 oblasts, nine krais, three federal cities, four autonomous okrugs, and one autonomous oblast – sends two senators to the Council, for a total membership of 178 Senators. In addition, the Constitution also provides for senators from the Russian Federation, which can be no more than 30 (up to seven of them for life), as well as (optionally) former presidents as life senators ( there are no such ...
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Sergei Alexeyev
Sergei Sergeyevich Alexeyev (28 July 1924 – 12 May 2013) was a Soviet and Russian legal scholar and politician. He was the first and only chairman of the Committee for Constitutional Supervision of the USSR from 1990 to 1991. Later, he was one of the co-authors of the Constitution of Russia of 1993, along with Anatoly Sobchak and Sergey Shakhray Sergey Mikhaylovich Shakhray (russian: Серге́й Михайлович Шахрай) (born April 30, 1956, in Simferopol, Crimea, Soviet Union) is a Russian politician. He is a co-author of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. He g .... Death On 12 May 2013 Alexeyev died of a heart attack. References 1924 births 2013 deaths Soviet jurists Russian jurists Jurisprudence academics Russian politicians Members of the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union Corresponding Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences Corresponding Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences Recipients of the Order "For M ...
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Boris Yeltsin
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin ( rus, Борис Николаевич Ельцин, p=bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈla(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn, a=Ru-Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin.ogg; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician who served as the first president of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. He was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1961 to 1990. He later stood as a Political Independent, political independent, during which time he was viewed as being ideologically aligned with liberalism and Russian nationalism. Yeltsin was born in Butka, Russia, Butka, Ural Oblast. He grew up in Kazan and Berezniki. After studying at the Ural State Technical University, he worked in construction. After joining the Communist Party, he rose through its ranks, and in 1976 he became First Secretary of the party's Sverdlovsk Oblast committee. Yeltsin was initially a supporter of the ''perestroika'' reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. He lat ...
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Family Code Of Russia
The Family Code of Russia (russian: Семейный кодекс Российской Федерации, abbreviated as ''СК РФ'') is the prime source of family law in the Russian Federation Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, with its internationally recognised territory covering , and encompassing one-eig .... It was passed by the State Duma on 8 December 1995, Sign into law#Approval, signed into law by President of Russia, President Boris Yeltsin on 29 December 1995, and came into force on 1 March 1996. It has been amended a number of times since then, most recently in June 2008. Structure of the Family Code * Section I: General provisions * Section II: Marriage and divorce * Section III: The rights and duties of spouses * Section IV: The rights and duties of parents and children * Section V: Alimony duties of family members * Section VI: Ways o ...
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Family Law
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations. Overview Subjects that commonly fall under a nation's body of family law include: * Marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships: ** Entry into legally recognized spousal and domestic relationships ** The termination of legally recognized family relationships and ancillary matters, including divorce, annulment, property settlements, alimony, child custody and visitation, child support and alimony awards **Prenuptial and Postnuptial agreements * Adoption: proceedings to adopt a child and, in some cases, an adult. * Surrogacy: the law and process of giving birth as a surrogate mother * Child protective proceedings: court proceedings that may result from state intervention in cases of child abuse and child neglect * Juvenile law: Matters relating to minors including status offenses, delinquency, emancipation and juvenile ...
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Trademark
A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property consisting of a recognizable sign, design, or expression that identifies products or services from a particular source and distinguishes them from others. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. Trademarks used to identify services are sometimes called service marks. The first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III of England, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France, the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857. The Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use", creating an examination based process, an ...
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Intellectual Property
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than others. The best-known types are patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets. The modern concept of intellectual property developed in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. The term "intellectual property" began to be used in the 19th century, though it was not until the late 20th century that intellectual property became commonplace in the majority of the world's legal systems."property as a common descriptor of the field probably traces to the foundation of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) by the United Nations." in Mark A. Lemley''Property, Intellectual Property, and Free Riding'', Texas Law Review, 2005, Vol. 83:1031, page 1033, footnote 4. The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a wide variety of intellectual goo ...
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