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Battle Of Changsha (1939)
The First Battle of Changsha (17 September 1939 – 6 October 1939; ) was the first of four attempts by Japan to take the city of Changsha, Hunan, during the second Sino-Japanese War. It was the first major battle of the war to fall within the time frame of what is widely considered World War II. Background and strategy The war had reached a stalemate after two years of fighting. Professor Fu Sinian (傅斯年) noted in July 1939 that while the Chinese army had become stronger, the Japanese army had weakened. On 15 August, the 11th Army came up with the general plans for a campaign south of the Yangtze, ranging from the Xinjiang River to the Gan River (贛江). In early September, Japanese General Toshizō Nishio of the "Japanese Expeditionary Forces to China" and Lieutenant-General Seishirō Itagaki set out to capture Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan. The Japanese 101st and 106th Divisions were deployed on the western bank of the Gan River in northern Jiangxi (江西), ...
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Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. In China, the war is known as the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression (), or as the Asian theatre of the World Anti-Fascist War, the latter term originating from Mao Zedong's wartime alliance with Stalin. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific Theater of the Second World War. The beginning of the war is conventionally dated to the Marco Polo Bridge Incident 7 July 1937, when a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops in Peking escalated into a full-scale invasion. This full-scale war between the Chinese and the Empire of Japan is often regarded as the beginning of World War II in Asia. In 2017 the Ministry of Education in the People's Republic of China decreed that the term "eight-year war" in all textbooks should be replaced by “fourteen-year war", with a revised starting date of 18 September 1931 prov ...
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Fu Sinian
Fu Ssu-nien (; 26 March 1896 – 20 December 1950), was a Chinese historian, linguist, and writer. He was one of the leaders of the May Fourth Movement in 1919. He studied experimental psychology at University College London from 1920–23. He was also one of the creators of the Academia Sinica, and was named director of the Institute of History and Philology upon its founding in 1928. Early years Fu was born on 26 March 1896 in Shandong, immediately after the First Sino-Japanese War, a time when the traditional systems were being challenged and revolutions were about to happen. In 1909, Fu entered the secondary school set up by Tianjin government, excelling in mathematics, English, and Chinese. In 1913, Fu was accepted by the preparatory school of Peking University where he ranked first upon graduation in humanities division.Wang, Fan-shen, ''Fu Ssu-nien: A life in Chinese history and politics.'' New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000 In 1916, Fu went on to the Chinese Depar ...
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Invasion Of Poland
The Invasion of Poland, also known as September campaign ( pl|Kampania wrześniowa), 1939 defensive war ( pl|Wojna obronna 1939 roku) and Poland campaign (german: Überfall auf Polen, Polenfeldzug), was an attack on the Second Polish Republic by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union which marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union, and one day after the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union had approved the pact. The Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west the morning after the Gleiwitz incident. Slovak military forces advanced alongside the Germans in northern Slovakia. As the Wehrmacht advanced, Polish forces withdrew from thei ...
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Battle Of Khalkin Gol
The Battles of Khalkhin Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939. The conflict was named after the river Khalkhin Gol, which passes through the battlefield. In Japan, the decisive battle of the conflict is known as the after Nomonhan, a nearby village on the border between Mongolia and Manchuria. The battles resulted in the defeat of the Japanese Sixth Army. Background After the Japanese occupation of Manchuria in 1931, Japan turned its military interests to Soviet territories that bordered those areas. The first major Soviet-Japanese border incident, the Battle of Lake Khasan, occurred in 1938 in Primorye. Clashes between Japanese and Soviet forces frequently occurred along the border of Manchuria. In 1939, Manchuria was a puppet state of Japan known as Manchukuo, and Mongolia was a communist state allied with the Soviet Union, known as the Mongolian People's Rep ...
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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
|long_name = |image = Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H27337, Moskau, Stalin und Ribbentrop im Kreml.jpg |image_width = 200 |caption = Stalin and Ribbentrop shaking hands after the signing of the pact in the Kremlin |type = |date_drafted = |date_signed = |location_signed = Moscow, Soviet Union |date_sealed = |date_effective = |condition_effective = |date_expiration = 23 August 1949(planned)22 June 1941(terminated)30 July 1941(officially declared null and void) |signatories = |parties = |depositor = |languages = |wikisource = Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was a non-aggression pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that enabled those two powers to partition Poland between them. The pact was signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939 by German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and was officially known as the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Unofficially it h ...
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Hubei
Hubei (; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China. Hubei's name is officially abbreviated to "" (), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty of –771 BCE; a popular name for Hubei is "" () (suggested by that of the powerful State of Chu, which existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty of 770 – 256 BCE). Hubei borders the provinces of Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, and Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located at Yichang, in the west of the province. History The Hubei region was hom ...
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Jiangxi
Jiangxi (; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese: ''Kongsi'', Hakka: ''Gong Si'') is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The abbreviation for Jiangxi is "" (; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called ''Ganpo Dadi'' () which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po". After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to ...
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106th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)
The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. It has no call sign, similar to 101st division. It was formed 15 May 1938 in Kumamoto as a C-class square division. The nucleus for the formation was the 6th division headquarters. The division was originally subordinated to the Central China Expeditionary Army. Its first division commander was Lieutenant General Matsuura Junrokuro, a graduate from Japanese Army War College. Action The 106th Division was assigned to 11th army. Landing south of Tianjin 22 July 1938, it soon participated in the Battle of Wuhan, capturing Jiujiang 26 July 1938. During August 1938, it advanced along railroad to Nanxun District, and in September 1938 was heavily engaged in the Battle of Wanjialing. The 106th artillery regiment was stuck in mountainous terrain, therefore was unable to provide any fire support from 20 September 1938, and entire division suffered heavy losses after its parts has been encircled in Lianxi District. Five of the eight ...
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Seishirō Itagaki
was a Japanese military officer and politician who served as a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II and War Minister from 1938 to 1939. Itagaki was a main conspirator behind the Mukden Incident and held prestigious chief of staff posts in the Kwantung Army and China Expeditionary Army during the early Second Sino–Japanese War. Itagaki became War Minister but fell from grace after Japanese defeat in the Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, serving as general for several field armies until surrendering Japanese forces in Southeast Asia in 1945. Itagaki was convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and executed in 1948. Early life Seishirō Itagaki was born on 21 January 1885 in Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, into a former ''samurai'' family that had served the Nanbu clan of the Morioka Domain. Itagaki's father, Masanori Itagaki, served as mayor for Kesen District and as a headmaster for a girls school. Itagaki was raised in a Ni ...
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Toshizō Nishio
was a Japanese general, considered to be one of the Imperial Japanese Army's most successful and ablest strategists during the Second Sino-Japanese War, who commanded the Japanese Second Army during the first years after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Early life and career Nishio was born in Tottori Prefecture, and was a graduate of the 14th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1902, and the 22nd class of the Army War College (Japan). He was commissioned a second lieutenant in June 1903 and served during the Russo-Japanese War, seeing combat at the Battle of Sandepu. He was promoted to lieutenant in February 1905, to captain in December 1909, to major in November 1916 and to lieutenant colonel in August 1920. Nishio was first attached to the 10th Regiment/10th Division from 1921 to 1923; he was promoted to colonel on 6 August 1923. Afterward, he was an instructor at the Army War College until 1925 when he became commanding officer of the 40th Regiment/10th Division. Fro ...
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Gan River
The Gan River (, Gan: Kōm-kong) travels north through the western part of Jiangxi before flowing into Lake Poyang and thus the Yangtze River. The Xiang-Gan uplands separate it from the Xiang River of neighboring eastern Hunan. It is the major geographical feature of Jiangxi, and gives its name to the Gan variety of Chinese as well as the province's one-character abbreviation. The river feeds into Lake Poyang, which in turns connects with the Yangtze. See also *List of rivers in China *2010 South China floods References External links * Category:Rivers of Jiangxi Category:Tributaries of the Yangtze River {{China-river-stub ...
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