Aircraft Principal Axes
An aircraft in flight is free to rotate in three dimensions: '' yaw'', nose left or right about an axis running up and down; ''pitch'', nose up or down about an axis running from wing to wing; and ''roll'', rotation about an axis running from nose to tail. The axes are alternatively designated as ''vertical'', ''lateral'' (or ''transverse''), and ''longitudinal'' respectively. These axes move with the vehicle and rotate relative to the Earth along with the craft. These definitions were analogously applied to spacecraft when the first manned spacecraft were designed in the late 1950s. These rotations are produced by torques (or moments) about the principal axes. On an aircraft, these are intentionally produced by means of moving control surfaces, which vary the distribution of the net aerodynamic force about the vehicle's center of gravity. Elevators (moving flaps on the horizontal tail) produce pitch, a rudder on the vertical tail produces yaw, and ailerons (flaps on the win ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Flight Dynamics With Text Ortho
Flight or flying is the process by which an object moves through a space without contacting any planetary surface, either within an atmosphere (i.e. air flight or aviation) or through the vacuum of outer space (i.e. spaceflight). This can be achieved by generating aerodynamic lift associated with gliding or propulsive thrust, aerostatically using buoyancy, or by ballistic movement. Many things can fly, from animal aviators such as birds, bats and insects, to natural gliders/parachuters such as patagial animals, anemochorous seeds and ballistospores, to human inventions like aircraft (airplanes, helicopters, airships, balloons, etc.) and rockets which may propel spacecraft and spaceplanes. The engineering aspects of flight are the purview of aerospace engineering which is subdivided into aeronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through the atmosphere, and astronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through space, and ballistics, the study of the flight of projectil ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axes Conventions
In ballistics and flight dynamics, axes conventions are standardized ways of establishing the location and orientation of coordinate axes for use as a frame of reference. Mobile objects are normally tracked from an external frame considered fixed. Other frames can be defined on those mobile objects to deal with relative positions for other objects. Finally, attitudes or orientations can be described by a relationship between the external frame and the one defined over the mobile object. The orientation of a vehicle is normally referred to as ''attitude''. It is described normally by the orientation of a frame fixed in the body relative to a fixed reference frame. The attitude is described by ''attitude coordinates'', and consists of at least three coordinates. While from a geometrical point of view the different methods to describe orientations are defined using only some reference frames, in engineering applications it is important also to describe how these frames are attache ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fixedwing Aircraft
A fixedwing aircraft is a heavierthanair flying machine, such as an airplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. Fixedwing aircraft are distinct from rotarywing aircraft (in which the wings form a rotor mounted on a spinning shaft or "mast"), and ornithopters (in which the wings flap in a manner similar to that of a bird). The wings of a fixedwing aircraft are not necessarily rigid; kites, hang gliders, variablesweep wing aircraft and airplanes that use wing morphing are all examples of fixedwing aircraft. Gliding fixedwing aircraft, including freeflying gliders of various kinds and tethered kites, can use moving air to gain altitude. Powered fixedwing aircraft (airplanes) that gain forward thrust from an engine include powered paragliders, powered hang gliders and some ground effect vehicles. Most fixedwing aircraft are flown by a pilot on board the craft, but some ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Aircraft Flight Control System
A conventional Fixedwing aircraft, fixedwing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight. Aircraft engine controls are also considered as flight controls as they change speed. The fundamentals of aircraft controls are explained in flight dynamics (fixedwing aircraft), flight dynamics. This article centers on the operating mechanisms of the flight controls. The basic system in use on aircraft first appeared in a readily recognizable form as early as April 1908, on Louis Blériot's Blériot VIII pioneerera monoplane design. Cockpit controls Primary controls Generally, the primary cockpit flight controls are arranged as follows:Langewiesche, WolfgangStick and Rudder: An Explanation of the Art of Flying McGrawHill Professional, 1990, , . * a Yoke (aircraft), control yoke (also known as a control column), centre s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wright Glider
The Wright brothers designed, built and flew a series of three manned gliders in 1900–1902 as they worked towards achieving powered flight. They also made preliminary tests with a kite in 1899. In 1911 Orville conducted tests with a much more sophisticated glider. Neither the kite nor any of the gliders were preserved, but replicas of all have been built. 1899 kite The 1899 kite, which Wilbur flew near his home in Dayton, Ohio had a wingspan of only 5 feet (1.5 m). This pine wood and shellacked craft, although too small to carry a pilot, tested the concept of wingwarping for roll control that would prove essential to the brothers' solving the problem of controlled flight. The Wrights burned the craft along with other trash in 1905. 1900 glider The 1900 Wright Glider was the brothers' first to be capable of carrying a human. Its overall structure was based on Octave Chanute's twosurface glider of 1896. Its wing airfoil was derived from Otto Lilienthal's published tables of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frenet–Serret Formulas
In differential geometry, the Frenet–Serret formulas describe the kinematic properties of a particle moving along a differentiable curve in threedimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^, or the geometric properties of the curve itself irrespective of any motion. More specifically, the formulas describe the derivatives of the socalled tangent, normal, and binormal unit vectors in terms of each other. The formulas are named after the two French mathematicians who independently discovered them: Jean Frédéric Frenet, in his thesis of 1847, and Joseph Alfred Serret, in 1851. Vector notation and linear algebra currently used to write these formulas were not yet available at the time of their discovery. The tangent, normal, and binormal unit vectors, often called T, N, and B, or collectively the Frenet–Serret frame or TNB frame, together form an orthonormal basis spanning \mathbb^ and are defined as follows: * T is the unit vector tangent to the curve, pointing in the direction o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler Angles
The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the Orientation (geometry), orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.Novi Commentarii academiae scientiarum Petropolitanae 20, 1776, pp. 189–207 (E478PDF/ref> They can also represent the orientation of a mobile frame of reference in physics or the orientation of a general Basis (linear algebra), basis in 3dimensional linear algebra. Alternative forms were later introduced by Peter Guthrie Tait and George H. Bryan intended for use in aeronautics and engineering. Chained rotations equivalence Euler angles can be defined by elemental geometry or by composition of rotations. The geometrical definition demonstrates that three composed ''elemental rotations'' (rotations about the axes of a coordinate system) are always sufficient to reach any target frame. The three elemental rotations may be #Conventions by extrinsic rotations, extrinsic (rotations about the axes ''xyz'' of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Moment Of Inertia
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the mass moment of inertia, angular mass, second moment of mass, or most accurately, rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a quantity that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis, akin to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration. It depends on the body's mass distribution and the axis chosen, with larger moments requiring more torque to change the body's rate of rotation. It is an extensive (additive) property: for a point mass the moment of inertia is simply the mass times the square of the perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation. The moment of inertia of a rigid composite system is the sum of the moments of inertia of its component subsystems (all taken about the same axis). Its simplest definition is the second moment of mass with respect to distance from an axis. For bodies constrained to rotate in a plane, only their moment of inertia about an axis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parallel (geometry)
In geometry, parallel lines are coplanar straight lines that do not intersect at any point. Parallel planes are planes in the same threedimensional space that never meet. ''Parallel curves'' are curves that do not touch each other or intersect and keep a fixed minimum distance. In threedimensional Euclidean space, a line and a plane that do not share a point are also said to be parallel. However, two noncoplanar lines are called ''skew lines''. Parallel lines are the subject of Euclid's parallel postulate. Parallelism is primarily a property of affine geometries and Euclidean geometry is a special instance of this type of geometry. In some other geometries, such as hyperbolic geometry, lines can have analogous properties that are referred to as parallelism. Symbol The parallel symbol is \parallel. For example, AB \parallel CD indicates that line ''AB'' is parallel to line ''CD''. In the Unicode character set, the "parallel" and "not parallel" signs have codepoint ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Etymology
Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time". is the study of the history of the Phonological change, form of words and, by extension, the origin and evolution of their semantic meaning across time. It is a subfield of historical linguistics, and draws upon comparative semantics, Morphology_(linguistics), morphology, semiotics, and phonetics. For languages with a long recorded history, written history, etymologists make use of texts, and texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods, how they developed in Semantics, meaning and Phonological change, form, or when and how they Loanword, entered the language. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about forms that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 