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Administrative Court
An administrative court is a type of court specializing in administrative law, particularly disputes concerning the exercise of public power. Their role is to ascertain that official acts are consistent with the law. Such courts are considered separate from general courts. The administrative acts are recognized from the hallmark that they become binding without the consent of the other involved parties. The contracts between authorities and legal persons governed by private law fall usually to the jurisdiction of the general court system. Official decisions contested in administrative courts include:Oikeusministeriö - Justitieministeriet
*taxation *dispensation of monetary benefits *environmental licenses *building inspection *child cust ...
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Court
A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law. In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, and it is generally understood that all people have an ability to bring their claims before a court. Similarly, the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary. The place where a court sits is known as a venue. The room where court proceedings occur is known as a courtroom, and the building as a courthouse; court facilities range from simple and very small facilities in rural communities to large buildings in cities. The practical authority given to the court is known as its juris ...
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Tribunals
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate who appears before a court with a single judge could describe that judge as "their tribunal". Many governmental bodies that are titled 'tribunals' are so described to emphasize that they are not courts of normal jurisdiction. For example, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was a body specially constituted under international law; in Great Britain, employment tribunals are bodies set up to hear specific employment disputes. In many (but not all) cases, the word ''tribunal'' implies a judicial (or quasi-judicial) body with a lesser degree of formality than a court, to which the normal rules of evidence and procedure may not apply, and whose presiding officers are frequently neither judges nor magistrates. Private judicial bodies are also often styled 'tribunals'. Howeve ...
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Administrative Courts In Sweden
The administrative courts in Sweden ( sv|förvaltningsrätt) are the court of first instance for the general administrative courts in Sweden. The next instance are the administrative courts of appeal ( sv|kammarrätt). The administrative courts handle numerous types of cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities. There are 12 administrative courts spread across Sweden. Types of cases Over 500 different kinds of cases are assigned to the administrative courts. For example: * Cases concerning the compulsory care for young people. * Cases concerning adults with substance misuse problems. * All decisions made by a municipality or county council can be appealed, under the Local Government Act. * Cases involving the social services in a municipality, on issues like welfare, under the Social Services Act. * Decisions made by the Swedish Tax Agency, regarding income tax, property taxes or a VAT decision, etc. * Cases concerning psychiatric care, under the terms o ...
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Judicial System Of Finland
Under the Constitution of Finland, everyone is entitled to have their case heard by a court or an authority appropriately and without undue delay. This is achieved through the judicial system of Finland. The Finnish judicial system is mostly organized under the Ministry of Justice, and consists ofJudicial system in Finland
Finnish ministry of Justice. Retrieved 10-4-2007
* the independent courts of law and administrative courts * the prosecution service * the enforcement authorities, who see to the enforcement of judgments * the prison service and the probation service, who see to the enforcement of custodial sentences, and * the Bar Association and the other avenues of legal aid.

Background

The Finnish legal system originated during the period before Swedish rule. The tra ...
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Administrative Court Of Austria
In the Republic of Austria, the Supreme Administrative Court (german: Verwaltungsgerichtshof or ) is the appellate court to which appeals may be made from the decisions of the country's eleven administrative trial courts. The Supreme Administrative Court also resolves demarcation disputes within the administrative court system and hears complaints about administrative trial courts that fail to issue verdicts legally required of them in a timely manner. The court does not have a fixed number of members. The theoretical minimum is seven; the actual number, as of June 2018, is about seventy. Members are appointed by the President of Austria on nomination of the cabinet. With respect to most appointments, the cabinet is limited to choosing from a shortlist of three candidates provided by the court. The court is subdivided into 21 panels of three to five members each, each panel handling cases in a specific area of law. The current president of the Supreme Administrative Court, appointe ...
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Supreme Administrative Court Of The Republic Of Poland
| imagesize = 100 | established = | country =Poland | location = Warsaw | coordinates = | type = | authority = Constitution of Poland | terms = | positions = | website = | chiefjudgetitle = President of the Court | chiefjudgename = Marek Zirk-Sadowski | termstart = The Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland ( pl|Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases e.g. those betweens private citizens (or corporations) and administrative bodies. This court deals with appeals from lower administrative courts called Voivodship Administrative Courts. Structure of The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland The Supreme Administrative Court is located in Warsaw. It consists of The President of the Supreme Administrative Court, Vice Presidents, and judges. Chambers The Supreme Administrative Court is divided into three chambers: Commercial Chamber, Financial C ...
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Administrative Courts In Greece
Greece, as a civil law country has administrative courts. The establishment of those courts can be found in article 94 of the Constitution of the Hellenic Republic 1975, as revised in 2001. The administrative courts are composed from districts Courts of First Instance, district Courts of Appeal and a Supreme Administrative Court that is called the "Council of State". The Council of State is also the Court of first and last instance in some important cases. The Greek administrative courts have jurisdiction upon litigations between the State and the civilians. The most important of them are tax cases, social security cases, tort liability of the State cases, illegal immigration cases etc. External links * Important case law of those courts can be obtained in the website http://lawdb.intrasoftnet.com only from subscribers and only in Greek. Category:Courts of Greece Category:Administrative courts Category:1975 establishments in Greece Category:Courts and tribunals established in 1975
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England And Wales
England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved Welsh Parliament ( cy|Senedd Cymru) – previously named the National Assembly of Wales – was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales. The powers of the Parliament were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, and the Act also formally separated the Welsh Government from the Welsh Parliament. There is no equivalent body for England, which is directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. History of jurisdiction During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the ...
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High Court Of Justice
The High Court of Justice in London (formally "Her Majesty’s High Court of Justice in England"), together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, are the Senior Courts of England and Wales. Its name is abbreviated as EWHC for legal citation purposes. The High Court deals at first instance with all high value and high importance civil law (non-criminal) cases, and also has a supervisory jurisdiction over all subordinate courts and tribunals, with a few statutory exceptions, though there are debates as to whether these exceptions are effective. The High Court consists of three divisions: the Queen's Bench Division, the Chancery Division, and the Family Division. Their jurisdictions overlap in some cases, and cases started in one division may be transferred by court order to another where appropriate. The differences of procedure and practice between divisions are partly historical, derived from the separate courts which were merged into the single High Court by the 19th-c ...
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Queen's Bench Division
The Queen's Bench (; or, during the reign of a male monarch, the King's Bench ('), is the superior court in a number of jurisdictions within some of the Commonwealth realms. The original King's Bench, founded in 1215 in England, was one of the ancient courts of the land and is now a division of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. In the Commonwealth, the term Queen-on-the-Bench, or King-on-the-Bench is a title sometimes used to refer to the monarch in their ceremonial role within the justice system, as the ''fount of justice'' in that justice is carried out in their name. Canada The Court of Queen's Bench is the superior court in several Canadian provinces, including: * Alberta (Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta) * Manitoba (Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba) * New Brunswick (Court of Queen's Bench of New Brunswick) * Saskatchewan (Court of Queen's Bench for Saskatchewan) There was formerly a Court of King's Bench created in the British colony of Quebec in 1764; it ...
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Administrative Court (England And Wales)
The Administrative Court is a specialist court within the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. It deals mainly with administrative law matters and exercises the High Court's supervisory jurisdiction over inferior courts and tribunals and other public bodies (exercised mainly through the procedure known as "judicial review"). The Administrative Court may sit with a single judge or as a divisional court (i.e. with two or more judges). A divisional court of the Administrative Court usually consists of a Lord Justice of Appeal sitting with a judge of the High Court. Although the Administrative Court is within the Queen's Bench Division (reflecting the historical role of the Court of Queen's Bench in exercising judicial review), judges from the Chancery Division and the Family Division of the High Court are also assigned to sit. References
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German Reunification
German reunification (german: link=no|Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to form the reunited nation of Germany. The end of the unification process is officially referred to as German unity (german: link=no|Deutsche Einheit), celebrated each year on 3 October as German Unity Day (german: link=no|Tag der deutschen Einheit).Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag)
Unification Treaty signed by the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Repub ...
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East Germany
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, the period when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. Commonly described as a communist state in English usage, it described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state".Patrick Major, Jonathan Osmond, ''The Workers' and Peasants' State: Communism and Society in East Germany Under Ulbricht 1945–71'', Manchester University Press, 2002, It consisted of territory that was administered and occupied by Soviet forces following the end of World War II—the Soviet occupation zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin but did not include it and West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR. The GDR was established in the Soviet zone while the Federal Republic of Germany, commonly referred to as ...
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Communist
Communism (from Latin la|communis|lit=common, universal|label=none)Ball, Terence, and Richard Dagger. 9992019.Communism (revised ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2020. is a philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state. As such, communism is a specific form of socialism. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production, namely that in this system there are two major social classes, conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society and this situation can o ...
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