Actinomycetes
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Actinomycetes
The Actinomycetales is an order of Actinomycetota The ''Actinomycetota'' (synonym ''Actinobacteria'') are a phylum of mostly Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial animal, terrestrial or aquatic animal, aquatic. They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and fo .... A member of the order is often called an actinomycete. Actinomycetales are generally gram-positive and anaerobic and have mycelia in a filamentous and branching growth pattern. Some actinomycetes can form rod- or coccoid-shaped forms, while others can form spores on aerial hyphae A hypha (; ) is a long, branching, filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium. In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium. Structure A hypha consists of one or .... Actinomycetales bacteria can be infected by bacteriophage A bacteriophage (), also known informally as a ''phage'' (), is a duplodnaviria virus that ...
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Actinomycetota
The ''Actinomycetota'' (synonym ''Actinobacteria'') are a phylum of mostly Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial animal, terrestrial or aquatic animal, aquatic. They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. In soil they help to decomposition, decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. While this role is also played by fungus, fungi, ''Actinomycetota'' are much smaller and likely do not occupy the same ecological niche. In this role the colony (biology), colonies often grow extensive mycelium, mycelia, like a fungus would, and the name of an important order of the phylum, ''Actinomycetales'' (the actinomycetes), reflects that they were long believed to be fungi. Some soil actinomycetota (such as ''Frankia'') live symbiosis, symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, nitrogen fixation, fixing nitrogen for the plants in excha ...
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Actinomycetales
The Actinomycetales is an order of Actinomycetota The ''Actinomycetota'' (synonym ''Actinobacteria'') are a phylum of mostly Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial animal, terrestrial or aquatic animal, aquatic. They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and fo .... A member of the order is often called an actinomycete. Actinomycetales are generally gram-positive and anaerobic and have mycelia in a filamentous and branching growth pattern. Some actinomycetes can form rod- or coccoid-shaped forms, while others can form spores on aerial hyphae A hypha (; ) is a long, branching, filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium. In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium. Structure A hypha consists of one or .... Actinomycetales bacteria can be infected by bacteriophage A bacteriophage (), also known informally as a ''phage'' (), is a duplodnaviria virus that ...
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Actinomyces
''Actinomyces'' is a genus of the Actinomycetia class of bacteria. They all are gram-positive. ''Actinomyces'' species are facultative anaerobic organism, facultatively anaerobic and they grow best under anaerobic conditions. ''Actinomyces'' species may form endospores, and while individual bacteria are bacillus (shape), rod-shaped, ''Actinomyces'' colonies form fungus-like branched networks of hyphae. The aspect of these colonies initially led to the incorrect assumption that the organism was a fungus and to the name ''Actinomyces'', "ray fungus" (from Greek language, Greek , ray or beam, and , fungus). ''Actinomyces'' species are wikt:ubiquitous#Adjective, ubiquitous, occurring in soil and in the microbiota of animals, including the human microbiota. They are known for the important role they play in soil ecology; they produce a number of enzymes that help degrade organic plant material, lignin, and chitin. Thus, their presence is important in the formation of compost. Certai ...
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Actinomycin
Dactinomycin, also known as actinomycin D, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving Cell growth#Disorders, abnormal cell growth with the potential to Invasion (cancer), invade or Metastasis, spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Poss .... This includes Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly aggressive form of cancer that develops from mesenchymal cells that have failed to fully differentiate into myocytes of skeletal muscle. Cells of the neoplasm, tumor are identified as rhabdomyoblasts. There are ..., Ewing's sarcoma, trophoblastic neoplasm, testicular cancer Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. Symptoms may include a lump in the testicle, or swelling or pain in the scrotum. Treatment may result in infertility. Risk factors include ..., and certai ...
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Streptomycin
Streptomycin is an antibiotic medication used to treat a number of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, ''Mycobacterium avium'' complex, endocarditis, brucellosis, Burkholderia infection, ''Burkholderia'' infection, plague (disease), plague, tularemia, and rat bite fever. For active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. It is administered by intravenous, injection into a vein or intramuscular, muscle. Common side effects include vertigo, vomiting, numbness of the face, fever, and rash. Use during pregnancy may result in permanent deafness in the developing baby. Use appears to be safe while breastfeeding. It is not recommended in people with myasthenia gravis or other neuromuscular disorders. Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside. It works by blocking the ability of 30S ribosomal subunits to make proteins, which results in bactericidal, bacterial death. Albert Schatz (scientist), Albert Schatz f ...
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Pesticides
Pesticides are substances that are meant to pest control, control pest (organism), pests. This includes herbicide, insecticide, nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, bactericide, insect repellent, animal repellent, microbicide, fungicide, and lampricide. The most common of these are herbicides which account for approximately 80% of all pesticide use. Most pesticides are intended to serve as plant protection products (also known as crop protection products), which in general, protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects. As an example, the fungus ''Alternaria solani'' is used to combat the aquatic weed ''Salvinia''. In general, a pesticide is a chemical (such as carbamate) or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, or entomopathogenic fungus, fungus) that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusca, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and microbes ...
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Antibiotics
An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting pathogenic bacteria, bacterial infections, and antibiotic medications are widely used in the therapy, treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis, prevention of such infections. They may either bactericide, kill or bacteriostatic agent, inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics. Sometimes, the term ''antibiotic''—literally "opposing life", from the Greek language, Greek roots ἀντι ''anti'', "against" and βίος ''bios'', "life"—is broadly used to refer to any substance used against microbes, but in the usual medical usage, antibiotics (such as penicillin) are those produced naturally (by one microorgani ...
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Botanical
Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word (''botanē'') meaning "pasture", "herbs" "Poaceae, grass", or "fodder"; is in turn derived from (), "to feed" or "to Grazing, graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of Embryophyte, land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including approximately 369,000 species of flowering plants), and approximately 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and late ...
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Gastrointestinal
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller compone ... that leads from the mouth In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is also the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on t ... to the anus The anus (Latin, 'ring' or 'circle') is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to control the expulsion of feces, the residual semi-solid waste that remains after food digestion, which, de .... The GI tract contains all the major organ Organ may refer to: Biol ...
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Digestive System
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. The process of digestion has three stages: the cephalic phase, the Regulation of gastric function#Gastric phase, gastric phase, and the Regulation of gastric function#Intestinal phase, intestinal phase. The first stage, the cephalic phase of digestion, begins with secretions from gastric glands in response to the sight and smell of food. This stage includes the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing, and the chemical breakdown by digestive enzymes, that takes place in the human mouth, mouth. Saliva contains the digestive enzymes amylase, and lingual lipase, secreted by the salivary gland, salivary and serous glands on the tongue. Chewing, in which the food is mixed with saliva ...
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Urogenital
The genitourinary system, or urogenital system, are the organs In biology, an organ is a collection of Tissue (biology), tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. In the biological organization, hierarchy of life, an organ lies between Tissue (biology), tissue and an organ system. Tiss ... of the reproductive system The reproductive system of an organism, also known as the genital system, is the biological system made up of all the anatomical sex organs, organs involved in sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pherom ... and the urinary system The urinary system, also known as the urinary tract or renal system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, bladder, and the urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and bl .... These are grouped together because of their proximity to each other, their common embryological origin and the use of c ...
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Nitrogen Fixing
Nitrogen fixation is a chemical process by which molecular nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol N and atomic number 7. Nitrogen is a nonmetal and the lightest member of pnictogen, group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. It is a common element in the ... (), with a strong triple covalent bond A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms or ions that enables the formation of Molecule, molecules and crystals. The bond may result from the Coulomb's law, electrostatic force between oppos ..., in the air The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, known collectively as air, retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing fo ... is converted into ammonia Ammonia is an inorganic chemical compound, compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with th ...
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