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Wislawa Szymborska
Maria Wisława Anna Szymborska[1][2] [vʲiˈswava ʂɨmˈbɔrska] (2 July 1923 – 1 February 2012) was a Polish poet, essayist, translator and recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. Born in Prowent, which has since become part of Kórnik, she later resided in Kraków
Kraków
until the end of her life.[3][4] In Poland, Szymborska's books have reached sales rivaling prominent prose authors: although she once remarked in a poem, "Some Like Poetry" ("Niektórzy lubią poezję"), that no more than two out of a thousand people care for the art.[5] Szymborska was awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality".[6][7] She became better known internationally as a result of this
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Paradox (literature)
In literature, the paradox is an anomalous juxtaposition of incongruous ideas for the sake of striking exposition or unexpected insight. It functions as a method of literary composition – and analysis – which involves examining apparently contradictory statements and drawing conclusions either to reconcile them or to explain their presence.[1] Literary or rhetorical paradoxes abound in the works of Oscar Wilde and G. K. Chesterton. Most literature deals with paradox of situation; Rabelais, Cervantes, Sterne, Borges, and Chesterton are recognized as masters of situation as well as verbal paradox
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Émigré
An émigré is a person who has emigrated, often with a connotation of political or social self-exile. The word is the past participle of the French émigrer, "to emigrate". Whereas emigrants have likely chosen to leave one place and become immigrants in a different clime, not usually expecting to return, émigrés see exile as a temporary expedient forced on them by political circumstances[original research?]
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Sociology
Sociology
Sociology
is the scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.[1][2][3] It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation[4] and critical analysis[5] to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change. Many sociologists aim to conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.[6] The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance
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Jagiellonian University
The Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
(Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland. Founded in 1364 by Casimir III the Great, the Jagiellonian University is the oldest university in Poland, the second oldest university in Central Europe, and one of the oldest surviving universities in the world. Notable alumni include, among others, mathematician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish king John III Sobieski, Pope John Paul II, and Nobel laureates
Nobel laureates
Ivo Andrić
Ivo Andrić
and Wisława Szymborska. The campus of the Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
is centrally located within the city of Kraków. The university consists of fifteen faculties — including the humanities, law, the natural and social sciences, and medicine
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Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
([ˈt͡ʂɛswaf ˈmiwɔʂ] ( listen); 30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish[1][2] poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat. His World War II-era sequence The World is a collection of twenty "naïve" poems. Following the war, he served as Polish cultural attaché in Paris
Paris
and Washington, D.C., then in 1951 defected to the West. His nonfiction book The Captive Mind (1953) became a classic of anti-Stalinism. From 1961 to 1998 he was a professor of Slavic Languages
Slavic Languages
and Literatures at the University of California, Berkeley. He became a U.S. citizen in 1970.[3] In 1978 he was awarded the Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and in 1980 the Nobel Prize in Literature
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Adam Włodek
Adam Włodek (8 August 1922 in Kraków
Kraków
– 19 January 1986 in Kraków) was a Polish poet, editor and translator. He was married to Polish Noble Prize laureate, Wisława Szymborska between 1948 - 1954. He published 10 books, mostly collections of his poems. He was also the editor of several Polish newspapers including Dziennik Polski, and translated works from Czech and Slovak languages into Polish.This article about a poet from Poland is a stub
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People's Republic Of Poland
The Polish People's Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed communist regime imposed after World War II. The name People's Republic was introduced and defined by the Constitution of 1952 which was based on the 1936 Soviet Constitution. Following the Red Army release of Polish territory from German occupation, the name of the Polish state between 1947 and 1952 was the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska) in accordance with the temporary Constitution of 1947.[1] Since 1952 the Sejm exercised no real power,[2] and Poland was regarded as a puppet entity set up and controlled by the Soviet Union.[3] With time, Poland developed into a satellite state of the Soviet Union.[4] The Soviet Union had much influence over both internal and external affairs, and Red Army forces were stationed in Poland (1945: 500,000; until 1955: 120,000 to 150,000; until 1989: 40,000).[4] In 1945, Soviet genera
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Stalinist Show Trial Of The Kraków Curia
The Stalinist show trial of the Kraków Curia[1][2] was a public trial of four Roman Catholic priests – members of the Kraków diocesan Curia – including three lay persons, accused by the Communist authorities in the People's Republic of Poland of subversion and spying for the United States. The staged trial, based on the Soviet formula, was held before the Military District Court of Kraków from January 21 to 26, 1953 at a public-event-hall of the Szadkowski Plant.[3] The court, headed by the hardline Stalinist judge Mieczysław Widaj, announced its verdict on January 27, 1953 sentencing to death Father Józef Lelito, Fr. Michał Kowalik, and Fr. Edward Chachlica. The priests were stripped of all civil and constitutional rights,[4] but their death penalties were subsequently not enforced. The remaining defendants were sentenced to sentences ranging from 6 years in prison to life (Fr. Franciszek Szymonek)
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Nowa Huta
Nowa Huta
Nowa Huta
(pronounced [ˈnɔva ˈxuta], literally The New Steel Mill) is the easternmost district of Kraków, Poland. With more than 200,000 inhabitants, it is one of the most populous areas of the city. Until 1990, the neighboring districts were considered expansions of the original Nowa Huta
Nowa Huta
district, and were linked by the same tramway system. They are now separate districts of Kraków. Nowa Huta
Nowa Huta
is one of only two planned socialist realist settlements or districts ever built and "one of the most renowned examples of deliberate social engineering" in the entire world.[1] Built as a utopian ideal city, its street hierarchy, layout and certain grandeur of buildings often resemble Paris
Paris
or London
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Polish United Workers' Party
The Polish United Workers' Party
Polish United Workers' Party
(PUWP; Polish: Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party
Communist party
which governed the Polish People's Republic
Polish People's Republic
from 1948 to 1989
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Party Line (politics)
In politics, the line or the party line is an idiom for a political party or social movement's canon agenda, as well as ideological elements specific to the organization's partisanship. The common phrase toeing the party line describes a person who speaks in a manner that conforms to his political party's agenda. Likewise, a party-line vote is one in which most or all of the legislators from each political party voted in accordance with that party's policies. In several countries, a whip attempts to ensure this. The Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
concept (see General line of the party) of democratic centralism involves strict adherence to, and defense of, a communist party's positions in public. According to American educator Herbert Kohl, writing about debates in New York in the late 1940s and early 1950s:[1]The term "politically correct" was used disparagingly, to refer to someone whose loyalty to the CP line overrode compassion, and led to bad politics
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Jerzy Giedroyc
Jerzy Władysław Giedroyc (Polish pronunciation: [ˈjɛʐɨ ˈɡʲɛdrɔjt͡s]; 27 July 1906 – 14 September 2000) was a Polish writer and political activist.Contents1 Life and career 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksLife and career[edit] Giedroyc was born into a Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic family; with the title of the kniaź, prince, his studies in Moscow were interrupted by the October Revolution, when he returned home, and during the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921 his family left Minsk for Warsaw, where he graduated from the Jan Zamoyski gymnasium in 1924 and studied law and Ukrainian history and literature at the University of Warsaw.[1] As a journalist and civil servant in interwar Poland, he maintained contacts with leading Ukrainians and urged the Roman Catholic Church to improve relations with the Greek Catholic Church to which most Ukrainians belonged, insisting that Poland's success as a national state depended on satisfying the aspi
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Kultura
Kultura (Polish pronunciation: [kulˈtura], Culture)—sometimes referred to as Kultura Paryska ("Paris Culture")—was a leading Polish-émigré literary-political magazine, published from 1947 to 2000 by Instytut Literacki (the Literary Institute), initially in Rome, then Paris. It was edited and produced by Jerzy Giedroyc and ceased publication upon his death. Giedroyc was one of the main reasons why Kultura enjoyed an unwavering prestige and a constant stream of esteemed contributors that enabled it to play a prominent role in Polish literary life. Kultura published polemics and articles by Nobel laureates Czesław Miłosz and Wisława Szymborska, as well as works by numerous other authors. Literary critics such as Maria Janion, Wojciech Karpiński, Jan Kott, and Ryszard Nycz also contributed. Kultura is essential reading for students of Polish literature
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Occasional Poems
Occasional poetry
Occasional poetry
is poetry composed for a particular occasion. In the history of literature, it is often studied in connection with orality, performance, and patronage.Contents1 Term 2 See also 3 Selected bibliography 4 References 5 External linksTerm[edit] As a term of literary criticism, "occasional poetry" describes the work's purpose and the poet's relation to subject matter. It is not a genre, but several genres originate as occasional poetry, including epithalamia (wedding songs), dirges or funerary poems, paeans, and victory odes. Occasional poems may also be composed exclusive of or within any given set of genre conventions to commemorate single events or anniversaries, such as birthdays, foundings, or dedications
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The Times
The Times
The Times
is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
(founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp
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