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Toad
List of Anuran families Toad
Toad
is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands.[1][2] A distinction between frogs and toads is not made in scientific taxonomy, but is common in popular culture (folk taxonomy), in which toads are associated with drier skin and more terrestrial habitats.[3]Contents1 Biology 2 In human culture 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiology[edit] In scientific taxonomy, toads are found in the families Bufonidae, Bombinatoridae, Discoglossidae, Pelobatidae, Rhinophrynidae, Scaphiopodidae
Scaphiopodidae
and Microhylidae.[4] Usually the largest of the bumps on the skin of a toad are those that cover the parotoid glands
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Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.[1] An ethnobotanist thus strives to document the local customs involving the practical uses of local flora for many aspects of life, such as plants as medicines, foods, and clothing.[2] Richard Evans Schultes, often referred to as the "father of ethnobotany",[3] explained the discipline in this way: Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
simply means ..
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
(also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals. It is an interdisciplinary field that overlaps with other disciplines including anthropology, ethnology, medicine, psychology, veterinary medicine and zoology
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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NPR
National Public Radio
Radio
(usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington DC. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.[2] NPR
NPR
produces and distributes news and cultural programming. Individual public radio stations are not required to broadcast all NPR
NPR
programs; most broadcast a mix of NPR
NPR
programs, content from rival providers American Public Media, Public Radio
Radio
International, Public Radio Exchange and WNYC
WNYC
Studios, and locally produced programs
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Feng Shui
[fə́ŋ.ʂwèi] hanja =風水WuRomanization fon平 sy上GanRomanization Fung1 sui3HakkaRomanization fung24 sui31Yue: CantoneseYale Romanization fùngséui or fūngséuiIPA [fôŋ.sɵ̌y] or [fóŋ.sɵ̌y]Jyutping fung1seoi2Southern Min Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ hong-suíEastern MinFuzhou BUC hŭng-cūiVietnamese nameVietnamese phong thủyThai nameThai ฮวงจุ้ย (Huang Jui)Korean nameHangul 풍수TranscriptionsRevised Romanization pungsuMcCune–Reischauer p'ungsuJapanese name
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Orlando, Florida
Orlando (/ɔːrˈlændoʊ/) is a city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Florida
Florida
and the county seat of Orange County. Located in Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,387,138, according to U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
figures released in March 2016. These figures make it the 24th-largest metropolitan area[7] in the United States, the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States, and the third-largest metropolitan area in Florida. As of 2015, Orlando had an estimated city-proper population of 270,934, making it the 73rd-largest city in the United States, the fourth-largest city in Florida, and the state's largest inland city. The City
City
of Orlando is nicknamed "The City
City
Beautiful", and its symbol is the fountain at Lake Eola
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Magic Kingdom
Magic Kingdom
Magic Kingdom
is a theme park at the Walt Disney World
Walt Disney World
Resort
Resort
in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando. Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks, Experiences and Consumer Products division, the park opened on October 1, 1971, as the first of four theme parks at the resort. Initialized by Walt Disney
Walt Disney
and designed by WED Enterprises, its layout and attractions are based on Disneyland
Disneyland
Park in Anaheim, California, and is dedicated to fairy tales and Disney characters. The park is represented by Cinderella Castle, inspired by the fairy tale castle seen in the 1950 film
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Walt Disney
Walter Elias Disney
Elias Disney
(/ˈdɪzni/;[1] December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. As a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards
Academy Awards
earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry
National Film Registry
by the Library of Congress. Born in Chicago
Chicago
in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing. He took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18
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European Fire-bellied Toad
The European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina) is a fire-bellied toad native to mainland Europe.Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bombina bombina.Contents1 Description 2 Diet 3 Reproduction 4 Cultural references 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] European fire-bellied toads have a bright lime green dorsal traversed by black spots, and orange to bright red bellies with black bars and stripes. The skin is mildly bumpy, the eyes set high to suit a semi-aquatic life style, and also well webbed back feet. Color and body variations will be described for each of the other 3 species commonly sold as or mistaken for Oriental fire-bellied toads. They are the largest of the bombina family. They are commonly darker than Fire-bellied toads from Asia. The European fire-bellied toad is 26–60 mm long and may weigh 2-13.9 g. The body is depressed. Above, the skin is densely covered in low tubercles with black horny spines
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Philopatry
Philopatry
Philopatry
is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area.[1] The causes of philopatry are numerous, but natal philopatry, where animals return to their birthplace to breed, may be the most common.[2] The term derives from the Greek 'home-loving', although in recent years the term has been applied to more than just the animal's birthplace. Recent usage refers to animals returning to the same area to breed despite not being born there, and migratory species that demonstrate site fidelity: reusing stopovers, staging points, and wintering grounds.[3] Some of the known reasons for organisms to be philopatric would be for mating (reproduction), survival, migration, parental care, resources, etc.
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Wart
Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin.[1][3] They typically do not result in symptoms except when on the bottom of the feet where they may be painful.[3] While they usually occur on the hands and feet they can also affect other locations.[1] One or many warts may appear.[3] They are not cancerous.[3] Warts are caused by infection with a type of human papillomavirus (HPV).[1] Factors that increase the risk include use of public showers, working with meat, eczema, and a low immune system.[1][3] The virus is believed to enter the body through skin that has been damaged slightly.[1] A number of types exist including: common warts, plantar warts, filiform warts, and genital warts.[3] Genital warts
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Rhinophrynidae
The Rhinophrynidae are a family of frogs containing one extant genus, the monotypic Rhinophrynus,[1][2][3][4] and a number of fossil genera.[3][5][3] The family is sometimes known as the Mexican burrowing toads[1] or simply burrowing toads.[2] Rhinophrynus occurs in the Central America north from Costa Rica to Mexico and Texas.[1] Fossil finds of Rhinophrynidae come from Mexico, the United States, and Canada.[5] Rhinophrynus is a burrowing ant and termite eater.[2][4] Systematics[edit] The Rhinophrynidae are the sister taxon of the Pipidae.[1] The clade formed by these two genera is sometimes referred to as Xenoanura[4] or superfamily Pipoidea.[6] Genera[edit] Extant genera:[1][2][3]RhinophrynusFossil genera:[3][5]Chelomophrynus Eorhinophrynus RhadinosteusThe affinity of Eorhinophrynus is uncertain.[3] References[edit]^ a b c d e Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Rhinophrynidae Günther, 1859". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
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Inbreeding Depression
Inbreeding
Inbreeding
depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population
Population
biological fitness refers to an organism's ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding
Inbreeding
depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. Hermaphroditic
Hermaphroditic
species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations
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Terrestrial Animal
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts). Terrestrial invertebrates include ants, flies, crickets, grasshoppers and spiders.Contents1 Terrestrial Classes 2 Taxonomy2.1 Difficulties3 Terrestrialization 4 Terrestrial gastropods 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 ReferencesTerrestrial Classes[edit] The term terrestrial is typically applied for species that live primarily on the ground, in contrast to arboreal species, which live primarily in trees. There are other less common terms that apply to specific groups of terrestrial animals:Saxicolous are rock dwelling creatures
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