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Time
_TIME_ is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City . It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce
Henry Luce
, who built a highly profitable stable of magazines. A European edition (_ Time
Time
Europe_, formerly known as _ Time
Time
Atlantic_) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (_ Time
Time
Asia_) is based in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands , is based in Sydney
Sydney
, Australia. In December 2008, _Time_ discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. _Time_ has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States. In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department . Nancy Gibbs has been the managing editor since October 2013
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Time In Physics
TIME IN PHYSICS is defined by its measurement : time is what a clock reads. In classical, non-relativistic physics it is a scalar quantity and, like length , mass , and charge , is usually described as a fundamental quantity . Time
Time
can be combined mathematically with other physical quantities to derive other concepts such as motion , kinetic energy and time-dependent fields . _ Timekeeping _ is a complex of technological and scientific issues, and part of the foundation of _recordkeeping _
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Time (magazine)
_TIME_ is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City . It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce
Henry Luce
, who built a highly profitable stable of magazines. A European edition (_ Time
Time
Europe_, formerly known as _ Time
Time
Atlantic_) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (_ Time
Time
Asia_) is based in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands , is based in Sydney
Sydney
, Australia. In December 2008, _Time_ discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. _Time_ has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States. In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department . Nancy Gibbs has been the managing editor since October 2013
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Time (other)
TIME is a common term for the experience of duration and a fundamental quantity of measuring systems. TIME also may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Other matters of temporal measurement * 2 Businesses * 3 Education * 4 Computing * 5 Places * 6 Titled works * 6.1 Film and television * 6.2 Music * 6.2.1 Albums * 6.2.2 Songs * 6.3 Other media * 7 Other * 8 See also OTHER MATTERS OF TEMPORAL MEASUREMENT * Time
Time
in physics * In music: * Time, musical meter * Time
Time
signature BUSINESSES * Time
Time
(bicycles) , a French bicycle manufacturer * Time
Time
Inc
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME (French : _Temps universel coordonné_), abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), but GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time (SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. This CCIR Recommendation 460 "stated that (a) carrier frequencies and time intervals should be maintained constant and should correspond to the definition of the SI second; (b) step adjustments, when necessary, should be exactly 1 s to maintain approximate agreement with Universal Time (UT); and (c) standard signals should contain information on the difference between UTC and UT." A number of proposals have been made to replace UTC with a new system that would eliminate leap seconds, and the decision to remove them altogether has been tabled until 2023
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Past
The PAST is a term used to indicate the totality of events that occurred before a given point in time. The past is contrasted with and defined by the present and the future . The concept of the past is derived from the linear fashion in which human observers experience time , and is accessed through memory and recollection . In addition, human beings have recorded the past since the advent of written language. The past is the object of study within such fields as history , memory , flashback , recollection , archaeology , archaeoastronomy , chronology , geology , historical geology , historical linguistics , law , ontology , paleontology , paleobotany , paleoethnobotany , palaeogeography , paleoclimatology , terminology and cosmology
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Present
The PRESENT (or HERE AND NOW) is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain). It is a period of time between the past and the future, and can vary in meaning from being an instant to a day or longer. In radiocarbon dating , the "present" is defined as AD 1950 . It is sometimes represented as a hyperplane in space-time , typically called "now", although modern physics demonstrates that such a hyperplane cannot be defined uniquely for observers in relative motion. The present may also be viewed as a duration (see _specious present _). CONTENTS * 1 Historiography * 2 Philosophy and religion * 2.1 Philosophy of time * 2.2 In Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.3 Christianity and eternity * 3 Physical science * 3.1 Special relativity * 3.2 Cosmology * 4 See also * 5 References * 5.1 Citations and notes * 5.2 General information * 6 External links HISTORIOGRAPHY Contemporary history describes the historical timeframe that is immediately relevant to the present time and is a certain perspective of modern history . PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION Quotations There is no present or future, only the past, happening over and over again, now. — Eugene O'Neill There's no present. There's only the immediate future and the recent past
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Future
The FUTURE is what will happen in the time after the present . Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the existence of time and the laws of physics . Due to the apparent nature of reality and the unavoidability of the future, everything that currently exists and will exist can be categorized as either permanent, meaning that it will exist forever, or temporary, meaning that it will end. The future and the concept of eternity have been major subjects of philosophy , religion , and science , and defining them non-controversially has consistently eluded the greatest of minds. In the Occidental view, which uses a linear conception of time, the future is the portion of the projected time line that is anticipated to occur. In special relativity , the future is considered absolute future , or the future light cone . In the philosophy of time , presentism is the belief that only the present exists and the future and the past are unreal . Religions consider the future when they address issues such as karma , life after death , and eschatologies that study what the end of time and the end of the world will be. Religious figures such as prophets and diviners have claimed to see into the future. Organized efforts to predict or forecast the future may have derived from observations by early men of heavenly objects. Future
Future
studies, or futurology , is the science, art and practice of postulating possible futures
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Eternity
ETERNITY in common parlance is either an infinite or an indeterminately long period of time . In classical philosophy , however, eternity is defined as what exists outside time while sempiternity is the concept that corresponds to the colloquial definition of eternity. Eternity
Eternity
is an important concept in many religions , where the god or gods are said to endure eternally. Some, such as Aristotle
Aristotle
, would say the same about the natural cosmos in regard to both past and future eternal duration, and like the eternal Platonic forms , immutability was considered essential. CONTENTS * 1 Philosophy * 2 Symbolism * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PHILOSOPHY See also: Philosophy of space and time Aristotle
Aristotle
argued that the cosmos has no beginning. In Aristotle
Aristotle
's metaphysics, eternity is the unmoved mover (God), understood as the gradient of total synergy ("produces motion by being loved"). Boethius defined eternity as "simultaneously full and perfect possession of interminable life". SYMBOLISM Eternity
Eternity
is often symbolized by the image of a snake swallowing its own tail, known as the Ouroboros
Ouroboros
(or Uroboros). The circle is also commonly used as a symbol for eternity, as is the mathematical symbol of infinity, {displaystyle infty } _
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Eternity Of The World
The question of the ETERNITY OF THE WORLD was a concern for both ancient philosophers and the medieval theologians and philosophers of the 13th century. The question is whether the world has a beginning in time, or whether it has existed from eternity . The problem became a focus of a dispute in the 13th century, when some of the works of Aristotle
Aristotle
, who believed in the eternity of the world, were rediscovered in the Latin West . This view conflicted with the view of the Catholic church
Catholic church
that the world had a beginning in time. The Aristotelian view was prohibited in the Condemnations of 1210–1277 . CONTENTS * 1 Aristotle
Aristotle
* 2 The Neo-Platonists * 2.1 Philoponus\' arguments * 3 Medieval period * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links ARISTOTLEThe ancient philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
argued that the world must have existed from eternity in his _Physics _ as follows. In Book I, he argues that everything that comes into existence does so from a substratum . Therefore, if the underlying matter of the universe came into existence, it would come into existence from a substratum. But the nature of matter is precisely to be the substratum from which other things arise
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Archaeology
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America , archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains. To reiterate, archaeologists do not dig dinosaurs, and tend to find this misconception rather disheartening. Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time
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Chronology
CHRONOLOGY (from Latin _chronologia_, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, _chrónos_, "time"; and -λογία, _-logia_) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time . Consider, for example, the use of a timeline or sequence of events . It is also "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events". Chronology is part of periodization . It is also part of the discipline of history , including earth history , the earth sciences , and study of the geologic time scale . CONTENTS * 1 Related fields * 2 Calendar and era * 2.1 Ab Urbe condita era * 2.2 Astronomical era * 3 Prehistoric chronologies * 4 Chronological synchronism * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 8.1 Published in the 18th–19th century * 8.2 Published in the 20th century * 8.3 Published in the 21st century * 9 External links RELATED FIELDS Chronology is the science of locating historical events in time. It relies upon chronometry , which is also known as timekeeping, and historiography , which examines the writing of history and the use of historical methods. Radiocarbon dating estimates the age of formerly living things by measuring the proportion of carbon-14 isotope in their carbon content
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History
HISTORY (from Greek ἱστορία, _historia_, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory . It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians . History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur ), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends , because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus , a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides , helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history
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Paleontology
PALEONTOLOGY or PALAEONTOLOGY ( /ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi/ , /ˌpeɪliənˈtɒlədʒi/ or /ˌpæliɒnˈtɒlədʒi/ , /ˌpæliənˈtɒlədʒi/ ) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present ). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology ). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier 's work on comparative anatomy , and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, _palaios_, i.e. "old, ancient", ὄν, _on_ (gen. _ontos_), i.e. "being, creature" and λόγος, _logos_, i.e. "speech, thought, study". Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology , but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of anatomically modern humans . It now uses techniques drawn from a wide range of sciences, including biochemistry , mathematics , and engineering . Use of all these techniques has enabled paleontologists to discover much of the evolutionary history of life , almost all the way back to when Earth became capable of supporting life, about 3,800 million years ago
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Futures Studies
FUTURES STUDIES (also called FUTUROLOGY) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history . History
History
studies the past, futures studies considers the future. Futures studies
Futures studies
(colloquially called "FUTURES" by many of the field's practitioners) seeks to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, and to determine the likelihood of future events and trends. Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futures studies concerns a much bigger and more complex world system. The methodology and knowledge are much less proven as compared to natural science or even social science like sociology , economics , and political science
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Philosophy Of Space And Time
PHILOSOPHY OF SPACE AND TIME is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology , epistemology , and character of space and time . While such ideas have been central to philosophy from its inception, the philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and a central aspect of early analytic philosophy . The subject focuses on a number of basic issues, including whether time and space exist independently of the mind, whether they exist independently of one another, what accounts for time's apparently unidirectional flow, whether times other than the present moment exist, and questions about the nature of identity (particularly the nature of identity over time). CONTENTS * 1 Ancient and medieval views * 2 Realism and anti-realism * 3 Absolutism and relationalism * 3.1 Leibniz and Newton * 3.2 Mach * 3.3 Einstein * 4 Conventionalism * 5 Structure of space-time * 5.1 Relativity of simultaneity * 5.2 Invariance vs. covariance * 5.3 Historical frameworks * 5.4 Holes * 6 Direction of time * 6.1 Causation solution * 6.2 Thermodynamics solution * 6.3 Laws solution * 7 Flow of time * 8 Dualities * 9 Presentism and eternalism * 10 Endurantism and perdurantism * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL VIEWSThe earliest recorded Western philosophy of time was expounded by the ancient Egyptian thinker Ptahhotep (c
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