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Sri Ksetra Kingdom
Sri Ksetra
Sri Ksetra
(Śrī Kṣetra, သရေခေတ္တရာ ပြည်, IPA: [θəjè kʰɪʔtəjà pjì]; lit. "Field of Fortune"[1] or "Field of Glory"[2]), located along the Irrawaddy River at present-day Hmawza, was once a prominent Pyu settlement
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Sri Ksetra
The Pyu city states (Burmese: ပျူ မြို့ပြ နိုင်ငံများ) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BCE to c. mid-11th century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar). The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu people, the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant.[2] The thousand-year period, often referred to as the Pyu millennium, linked the Bronze Age to the beginning of the classical states period when the Pagan Kingdom emerged in the late 9th century. The city-states—five major walled cities and several smaller towns have been excavated—were all located in the three main irrigated regions of Upper Burma: the Mu River Valley, the Kyaukse plains and Minbu region, around the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin Rivers. Part of an overland trade route between China and India, the Pyu realm gradually expanded south
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Htin Aung
Htin Aung
Htin Aung
(Burmese: ထင်အောင် [tʰɪ̀ɴ àʊɴ]; also Maung Htin Aung; 18 May 1909 – 10 May 1978) was an important author and scholar of Burmese culture
Burmese culture
and history. Educated at Oxford and Cambridge, Htin Aung
Htin Aung
wrote several books on Burmese history and culture in both Burmese and English. His English-language works brought a much-needed Burmese perspective to the international study of Burmese history, previously written by British historians of the colonial era. His important works include A History of Burma, Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism, Selections from Burmese Folk Tales, Thirty Burmese Tales and Burmese Drama. Htin Aung, as the rector of the University of Rangoon
University of Rangoon
from 1946 to 1958, was the highest ranking academic in the Burmese education system, at the time
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Pagan Dynasty
The Kingdom of Pagan (Burmese: ပုဂံခေတ်, pronounced [bəɡàɴ kʰɪʔ], lit. "Pagan Period"; also commonly known as the Pagan Dynasty and the Pagan Empire) was the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern-day Burma
Burma
(Myanmar). Pagan's 250-year rule over the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery laid the foundation for the ascent of Burmese language and culture, the spread of Burman ethnicity in Upper Burma, and the growth of Theravada Buddhism
Theravada Buddhism
in Burma
Burma
and in mainland Southeast Asia.[1] The kingdom grew out of a small 9th-century settlement at Pagan (Bagan) by the Mranma (Burmans), who had recently entered the Irrawaddy valley from the Kingdom of Nanzhao
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Dhamek Stupa
Dhamek Stupa
Stupa
(also spelled Dhamekh and Dhamekha, traced to Sanskrit version Dharmarajika Stupa, which can be translated as the Stupa
Stupa
of the reign of Dharma) is a massive stupa located at Sarnath, 13 km away from Varanasi
Varanasi
in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.[1] Stupas originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli, in which ascetics were buried in a seated position,[2] called chaitya.[3] After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated and the ashes divided and buried under eight mounds with two further mounds encasing the urn and the embers. Little is known about these early stupas, particularly since it has not been possible to identify the original ten monuments
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Sarnath
Sarnath
Sarnath
is a place located 10 kilometres north-east in Varanasi
Varanasi
near the confluence of the Ganges
Ganges
and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India
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Anawrahta
Anawrahta
Anawrahta
Minsaw (Burmese: အနော်ရထာ မင်းစော, pronounced [ʔənɔ̀jətʰà mɪ́ɴ sɔ́]; 11 May 1014 – 11 April 1077) was the founder of the Pagan Empire. Considered the father of the Burmese nation, Anawrahta
Anawrahta
turned a small principality in the dry zone of Upper Burma
Burma
into the first Burmese Empire that formed the basis of modern-day Burma (Myanmar).[2][3] Historically verifiable Burmese history
Burmese history
begins with his accession to the Pagan throne in 1044.[4] Anawrahta
Anawrahta
unified the entire Irrawaddy valley for the first time in history, and placed peripheral regions such as the Shan States
Shan States
and Arakan (Northern Rakhine) under Pagan's suzerainty
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Pali
Pali
Pali
(Pāli) or Magadhan is a Prakrit
Prakrit
language native to the Indian subcontinent
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Megalith
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word "megalithic" describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For later periods, the term monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word "megalith" comes from the Ancient Greek "μέγας" (transl. mégas meaning "great") and "λίθος" (transl. líthos meaning "stone"). Megalith
Megalith
also denotes an item consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes.[1][2][3] It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods
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Early Pagan Kingdom
Early Pagan Kingdom (Burmese: ခေတ်ဦး ပုဂံ ပြည်) was a city-state that existed in the first millennium CE before the emergence of Pagan Empire
Pagan Empire
in the mid 11th century. The Burmese chronicles
Burmese chronicles
state that the "kingdom" was founded in the second century CE. The seat of power of the small kingdom was first located at Arimaddana, Thiri Pyissaya, and Tampawaddy until 849 CE when it was moved to Pagan (Bagan). Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating
shows the earliest human settlement in the Pagan region dates only from the mid-7th century CE. It existed alongside Pyu city-states
Pyu city-states
that dominated Upper Burma. The city-state of Pagan, according to mainstream scholarship, was founded in the mid 9th century by the Mranma of Nanzhao Kingdom
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Prome Kingdom
The Prome
Prome
Kingdom (Burmese: ဒုတိယ သရေခေတ္တရာ နေပြည်တော်) was a kingdom that existed for six decades between 1482 and 1542 in present-day central Burma
Burma
(Myanmar). Based out of the city of Prome (Pyay), the minor kingdom was one of the several statelets that broke away from the dominant Ava Kingdom
Ava Kingdom
in the late 15th century. Throughout the 1520s, Prome
Prome
was an ally of the Confederation of Shan States, and together they raided Avan territory. After Ava fell to the Confederation armies in 1527, Prome
Prome
itself became a tributary of the Confederation in 1532. In the late 1530s, Prome
Prome
became ensnarled in the Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War (1534–41)
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Arthur Purves Phayre
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Sir Arthur Purves Phayre
Arthur Purves Phayre
GCMG KCSI CB (7 May 1812 – 14 December 1885) was a career
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Thamoddarit
Thamoddarit (Burmese: သမုဒ္ဒရာဇ် pronounced [θəmoʊʔdəɹiʔ]; Pali: Samuddaraj; 76 – 152) was the legendary founder of Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar), who supposedly reigned from 107 to 152 CE. He was proclaimed as the founder of Pagan for the first time by Hmannan Yazawin, the Royal Chronicle of Konbaung Dynasty in 1832.[1] The introduction of Thamoddarit, whose lineage Hmannan traces to the Sakya clan of the Buddha as the founder of Pagan, was part of the early Konbaung kings' efforts to move away from then prevailing pre-Buddhist origin narrative of the monarchy
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Royal Historical Commission Of Burma
The Royal Historical Commission (Burmese: တော်ဝင် မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ သမိုင်း ကော်မရှင်, [tɔ̀wìɴ mjəmà nàɪɴŋàɴ θəmáɪɴ kɔ̀məʃìɴ]) of the Konbaung Dynasty
Konbaung Dynasty
of Burma (Myanmar) produced the standard court chronicles of Konbaung era, Hmannan Yazawin
Hmannan Yazawin
(1832) and Dutiya Yazawin
Dutiya Yazawin
(1869).[1]Contents1 Commission (1829–1832) 2 Commission (1867–1869) 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesCommission (1829–1832)[edit] See also: Hmannan Yazawin In May 1829, three years after the disastrous First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826), King Bagyidaw
Bagyidaw
created the first Royal Historical Commission to write an official chronicle of Konbaung Dynasty
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