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SPARC
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems. Its design was strongly influenced by the experimental Berkeley RISC system developed in the early 1980s. First released in 1987, SPARC
SPARC
was one of the most successful early commercial RISC systems, and its success led to the introduction of similar RISC designs from a number of vendors through the 1980s and 90s. The first implementation of the original 32-bit
32-bit
architecture (SPARC V7) was used in Sun's Sun-4 workstation and server systems, replacing their earlier Sun-3
Sun-3
systems based on the Motorola 68000 series
Motorola 68000 series
of processors
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Call Stack
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program. This kind of stack is also known as an execution stack, program stack, control stack, run-time stack, or machine stack, and is often shortened to just "the stack". Although maintenance of the call stack is important for the proper functioning of most software, the details are normally hidden and automatic in high-level programming languages. Many computer instruction sets provide special instructions for manipulating stacks. A call stack is used for several related purposes, but the main reason for having one is to keep track of the point to which each active subroutine should return control when it finishes executing. An active subroutine is one that has been called but is yet to complete execution after which control should be handed back to the point of call
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Floating Point
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision. For this reason, floating-point computation is often found in systems which include very small and very large real numbers, which require fast processing times. A number is, in general, represented approximately to a fixed number of significant digits (the significand) and scaled using an exponent in some fixed base; the base for the scaling is normally two, ten, or sixteen. A number that can be represented exactly is of the following form: significand × base exponent , displaystyle text significand times text base ^ text exponent , where significand is an integer (i.e., in Z), base is an integer greater than or equal to two, and exponent is also an integer
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Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.[4] Headquartered in Dallas, Texas, United States, TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume.[5] Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 85% of their revenue.[6] TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology[6] products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors
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Panasonic
Panasonic Corporation
Panasonic Corporation
(パナソニック株式会社, Panasonikku Kabushiki-gaisha), formerly known as Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (松下電器産業株式会社, Matsushita Denki Sangyō Kabushiki-gaisha), is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.[1] The company was founded in 1918 as a producer of lightbulb sockets and has grown to become one of the largest Japanese electronics producers alongside Sony, Hitachi, Toshiba
Toshiba
and Canon Inc.
Canon Inc.
In addition to electronics, it offers non-electronic products and services such as home renovation services
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Cypress Semiconductor
Cypress Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Corporation is an American semiconductor design and manufacturing company. It offers NOR flash memories, F- RAM
RAM
and S RAM
RAM
Traveo microcontrollers, and is the only PSoC
PSoC
programmable system-on-chip solutions, analog and PMIC Power Management ICs, CapSense capacitive touch-sensing controllers, Wireless BLE Bluetooth Low-Energy and USB
USB
connectivity solutions. Its headquarters are in San Jose, California, and it has operations in the United States, Ireland, India
India
and the Philippines.[2] Some of its main competitors include Microchip Technology, NXP, Renesas and Micron
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Atmel
Atmel
Atmel
Corporation is an American-based designer and manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in 1984. The company focuses on embedded systems built around microcontrollers. Its products include microcontrollers ( 8-bit AVR, 32-bit
32-bit
AVR, 32-bit
32-bit
ARM-based, automotive grade, and 8-bit Intel 8051
Intel 8051
derivatives) radio frequency (RF) devices including Wi-Fi, EEPROM, and flash memory devices, symmetric and asymmetric security chips, touch sensors and controllers, and application-specific products
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Conformance Testing
Conformance testing — also known as conformity assessment, compliance testing, or type testing — is testing or other activities that determine whether a process, product, or services complies with the requirements of a specification, technical standard, contract, or regulation.[1][2][3][4][5] Testing is often either logical testing or physical testing. The test procedures may involve other criteria from mathematical testing or chemical testing. Beyond simple conformance, other requirements for efficiency, interoperability or compliance may apply. Conformance testing is performed preferably by independent organizations, which may be the standards body itself, to give sound assurance of compliance
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Clock Signal
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits. A clock signal is produced by a clock generator. Although more complex arrangements are used, the most common clock signal is in the form of a square wave with a 50% duty cycle, usually with a fixed, constant frequency
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Non-Uniform Memory Access
Non-uniform memory access
Non-uniform memory access
(NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessing, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to the processor. Under NUMA, a processor can access its own local memory faster than non-local memory (memory local to another processor or memory shared between processors). The benefits of NUMA are limited to particular workloads, notably on servers where the data is often associated strongly with certain tasks or users.[1] NUMA architectures logically follow in scaling from symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) architectures
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Symmetric Multiprocessing
Symmetric multiprocessing
Symmetric multiprocessing
(SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes. Most multiprocessor systems today use an SMP architecture. In the case of multi-core processors, the SMP architecture applies to the cores, treating them as separate processors. SMP systems are tightly coupled multiprocessor systems with a pool of homogeneous processors running independently of each other
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Server (computing)
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers
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Single-precision Floating-point Format
Single-precision floating-point format
Single-precision floating-point format
is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits
32 bits
in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. A floating point variable can represent a wider range of numbers than a fixed point variable of the same bit width at the cost of precision. A signed 32-bit
32-bit
integer variable has a maximum value of 231 − 1 = 2,147,483,647, whereas an IEEE 754
IEEE 754
32-bit
32-bit
base-2 floating-point variable has a maximum value of (2 − 2−23) × 2127 ≈ 3.402823 × 1038
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Double-precision Floating-point Format
Double-precision floating-point format
Double-precision floating-point format
is a computer number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. Floating point
Floating point
is used to represent fractional values, or when a wider range is needed than is provided by fixed point (of the same bit width), even if at the cost of precision. Double precision may be chosen when the range and/or precision of single precision would be insufficient. In the IEEE 754-2008 standard, the 64-bit base-2 format is officially referred to as binary64; it was called double in IEEE 754-1985. IEEE 754 specifies additional floating-point formats, including 32-bit base-2 single precision and, more recently, base-10 representations. One of the first programming languages to provide single- and double-precision floating-point data types was Fortran
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University Of California, Berkeley
Urban Total 1,232 acres (499 ha) Core Campus 178 acres (72 ha)[5] Total land owned 6,679 acres (2,703 ha)[6]Colors Berkeley Blue, California
California
Gold[7]          Athletics NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
FBS – Pac-12Nickname Golden BearsSporting affiliationsAm. East MPSFMascot Oski the BearWebsite www.berkeley.eduThe University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California[8][9]) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.[9] Founded in 1868, Berkeley is the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California
California
system
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Status Register
A status register, flag register, or condition code register is a collection of status flag bits for a processor. An example is the FLAGS register of the x86 architecture or flags in a program status word (PSW) register. The status register is a hardware register that contains information about the state of the processor. Individual bits are implicitly or explicitly read and/or written by the machine code instructions executing on the processor. The status register lets an instruction take action contingent on the outcome of a previous instruction. Typically, flags in the status register are modified as effects of arithmetic and bit manipulation operations. For example, a Z bit may be set if the result of the operation is zero and cleared if it is nonzero. Other classes of instructions may also modify the flags to indicate status
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