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Simple Machine
A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force.[2] In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage (also called leverage) to multiply force.[3] Usually the term refers to the six classical simple machines which were defined by Renaissance scientists:[4]Lever Wheel and axle Pulley Inclined plane Wedge ScrewA simple machine uses a single applied force to do work against a single load force. Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied force. The machine can increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional decrease in the distance moved by the load
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Coefficient Of Friction
Friction
Friction
is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.[2] There are several types of friction:Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces
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Charles-Augustin De Coulomb
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Coulomb
(/ˈkuːlɒm, -loʊm, kuːˈlɒm, -ˈloʊm/;[1] French: [kulɔ̃]; 14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French military engineer and physicist. He is best known for developing what is now known as Coulomb's law, the description of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion, but also did important work on friction. The SI unit
SI unit
of electric charge, the coulomb, was named in his honour in 1908.[2]Contents1 Life 2 Research 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Coulomb
was born in Angoulême, Angoumois
Angoumois
county, France, to Henry Coulomb, an inspector of the royal demesne originally from Montpellier, and Catherine Bajet. He was baptised at the parish church of St. André. The family moved to Paris
Paris
early in his childhood, and he studied at Collège Mazarin
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Screw
A screw is a type of fastener, sometimes similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread) or just a well thread.Contents1 Explanation 2 Differentiation between bolt and screw2.1 Wood
Wood
screws 2.2 Machine screws 2.3 Hex cap screws 2.4 Lug bolts and head bolts 2.5 Lag screw 2.6 United States
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Statics
Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a=0), but rather, are in static equilibrium with their environment. When in static equilibrium, the acceleration of the system is zero and the system is either at rest, or its center of mass moves at constant velocity. The application of Newton's second law
Newton's second law
to a system gives: F = m a . displaystyle textbf F =m textbf a ,. Where bold font indicates a vector that has magnitude and direction. F is the total of the forces acting on the system, m is the mass of the system and a is the acceleration of the system. The summation of forces will give the direction and the magnitude of the acceleration will be inversely proportional to the mass
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Dynamics (mechanics)
Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to its causes. Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
defined the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics, especially his second law of motion.Contents1 Principles 2 Linear and rotational dynamics 3 Force 4 Newton's laws 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingPrinciples[edit] Generally speaking, researchers involved in dynamics study how a physical system might develop or alter over time and study the causes of those changes. In addition, Newton established the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics. By studying his system of mechanics, dynamics can be understood. In particular, dynamics is mostly related to Newton's second law of motion
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Work (physics)
W = F ⋅ s W = τ θPart of a series of articles aboutClassical mechanics F → = m a → displaystyle vec F =m vec a Second
Second
law of motionHistory TimelineBranchesApplied Celestial Continuum Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Statics StatisticalFundamentalsAcceleration Angular momentum Couple D'Alembert's principle Energykinetic potentialForce Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Impulse Inertia / Moment of inertia MassMechanical power Mechanical workMoment Mom
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Simon Stevin
Simon Stevin
Simon Stevin
(Dutch: [ˈsimɔn ˈsteːvɪn]; 1548–1620), sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish / Dutch mathematician, physicist and military engineer. He was active in a great many areas of science and engineering, both theoretical and practical
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Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
(Italian: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath. Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system.[4] He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of th
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Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Italian: [leoˈnardo di ˌsɛr ˈpjɛːro da (v)ˈvintʃi] ( listen); 15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
or simply Leonardo, was an Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time
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Aether (classical Element)
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (Greek: αἰθήρ aithēr[1]), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.[2] The concept of aether was used in several theories to explain several natural phenomena, such as the traveling of light and gravity
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Guillaume Amontons
Guillaume Amontons (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist. He was one of the pioneers in studying the problem of friction, that is the resistance to motion where bodies are in contact.Contents1 Life 2 Work2.1 Scientific instruments 2.2 Thermodynamics 2.3 Friction3 Amontons' laws of friction 4 Honours 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] Guillaume was born in Paris, France. His father was a lawyer from Normandy who had moved to the French capital. While still young, Guillaume lost his hearing, which may have motivated him to focus entirely on science. He never attended a university, but was able to study mathematics, the physical sciences, and celestial mechanics. He also spent time studying the skills of drawing, surveying, and architecture
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Elasticity (physics)
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid objects will deform when adequate forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world. The most elastic body in modern science found is quartz fibre[citation needed] which is not even a perfect elastic body
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Heron Of Alexandria
Hero of Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˈhɪəroʊ/; Greek: Ἥρων[1] ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς, Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria
Alexandria
/ˈhɛrən/; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt. He is considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity[2] and his work is representative of the Hellenistic scientific tradition.[3] Hero published a well recognized description of a steam-powered device called an aeolipile (sometimes called a "Hero engine"). Among his most famous inventions was a windwheel, constituting the earliest instance of wind harnessing on land.[4][5] He is said to have been a follower of the atomists
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Conservation Of Energy
In physics, the law of Conservation of Energy
Energy
states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be conserved over time.[1] This law means that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it can only be transformed from one form to another. For instance, chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy when a stick of dynamite explodes
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