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Simple Machine
A SIMPLE MACHINE is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force . In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage (also called leverage ) to multiply force. Usually the term refers to the six classical simple machines which were defined by Renaissance scientists: * Lever
Lever
* Wheel and axle * Pulley * Inclined plane * Wedge * Screw
Screw
A simple machine uses a single applied force to do work against a single load force. Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied force. The machine can increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional decrease in the distance moved by the load. The ratio of the output to the applied force is called the mechanical advantage
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Simple Machines
A SIMPLE MACHINE is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force . In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage (also called leverage ) to multiply force. Usually the term refers to the six classical simple machines which were defined by Renaissance scientists: * Lever * Wheel and axle * Pulley * Inclined plane * Wedge * Screw
Screw
A simple machine uses a single applied force to do work against a single load force. Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied force. The machine can increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional decrease in the distance moved by the load. The ratio of the output to the applied force is called the mechanical advantage
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Simple Machines Forum
SIMPLE MACHINES FORUM software, or SMF software, is an open source , Internet forum, message-board program developed by Simple Machines. The name reflects the communities' initial goal of providing a program that could be operated by novice programmers and require minimal server resources. Simple Machines won forum-software.org best free forum software award in 2009. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Licensing * 4 Products * 5 Feature add-on modifications * 6 Criticism * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEW This section CONTAINS CONTENT THAT IS WRITTEN LIKE AN ADVERTISEMENT . Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view
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Mechanism (engineering)
A MECHANISM, in engineering , is a device that transforms input forces and movement into a desired set of output forces and movement. Mechanisms generally consist of moving components that can include: * Gears and gear trains * Belt and chain drives * Cam
Cam
and followers * linkage * Friction devices, such as brakes and clutches * Structural components such as a frame, fasteners, bearings, springs, lubricants * Various machine elements , such as splines, pins, and keys The German scientist Reuleaux provides the definition "a machine is a combination of resistant bodies so arranged that by their means the mechanical forces of nature can be compelled to do work accompanied by certain determinate motion." In this context, his use of machine is generally interpreted to mean mechanism. The combination of force and movement defines power , and a mechanism manages power to achieve a desired set of forces and movement
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Chambers' Cyclopædia
CYCLOPæDIA: OR, AN UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES (two volumes in folio ) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London
London
in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English
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Force
In physics , a FORCE is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object . A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest ), i.e., to accelerate . Force
Force
can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction , making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton\'s second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time
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Mechanical Advantage
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. The device preserves the input power and simply trades off forces against movement to obtain a desired amplification in the output force. The model for this is the law of the lever . Machine components designed to manage forces and movement in this way are called mechanisms . An ideal mechanism transmits power without adding to or subtracting from it. This means the ideal mechanism does not include a power source, is frictionless, and is constructed from rigid bodies that do not deflect or wear. The performance of a real system relative to this ideal is expressed in terms of efficiency factors that take into account departures from the ideal
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Lever
A LEVER (/ˈliːvər/ or US : /ˈlɛvər/ ) is a machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge , or FULCRUM . A lever is a rigid body capable of rotating on a point on itself. On the basis of the location of fulcrum, load and effort, the lever is divided into three types . It is one of the six simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists. A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, which is said to provide LEVERAGE. The ratio of the output force to the input force is the mechanical advantage of the lever. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Early use * 3 Force and levers * 4 Classes of levers * 5 Law of the lever * 6 Virtual work and the law of the lever * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "lever" entered English about 1300 from Old French , in which the word was levier. This sprang from the stem of the verb lever, meaning "to raise"
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rᵻˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and modern history . It started as a cultural movement in Italy
Italy
in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete
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Wheel And Axle
The WHEEL AND AXLE is one of six simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists drawing from Greek texts on technology. The wheel and axle consists of a wheel attached to a smaller axle so that these two parts rotate together in which a force is transferred from one to the other. A hinge or bearing supports the axle, allowing rotation. It can amplify force; a small force applied to the periphery of the large wheel can move a larger load attached to the axle. The wheel and axle can be viewed as a version of the lever , with a drive force applied tangentially to the perimeter of the wheel and a load force applied to the axle, respectively, that are balanced around the hinge which is the fulcrum. The mechanical advantage of the wheel and axle is the ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to the applied loads, or what is the same thing the ratio of the diameter of the wheel and axle
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Pulley
A PULLEY is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable, supporting shell is referred to as a "block." A pulley may also be called a SHEAVE or DRUM and may have a groove or grooves between two flanges around its circumference . The drive element of a pulley system can be a rope , cable , belt , or chain that runs over the pulley inside the groove or grooves. Hero of Alexandria identified the _pulley_ as one of six simple machines used to lift weights. Pulleys are assembled to form a block and tackle in order to provide mechanical advantage to apply large forces. Pulleys are also assembled as part of belt and chain drives in order to transmit power from one rotating shaft to another
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Inclined Plane
An INCLINED PLANE, also known as a RAMP, is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other, used as an aid for raising or lowering a load. The inclined plane is one of the six classical simple machines defined by Renaissance
Renaissance
scientists. Inclined planes are widely used to move heavy loads over vertical obstacles; examples vary from a ramp used to load goods into a truck, to a person walking up a pedestrian ramp, to an automobile or railroad train climbing a grade. Moving an object up an inclined plane requires less force than lifting it straight up, at a cost of an increase in the distance moved. The mechanical advantage of an inclined plane, the factor by which the force is reduced, is equal to the ratio of the length of the sloped surface to the height it spans
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Wedge (mechanical Device)
A WEDGE is a triangular shaped tool, and is a portable inclined plane , and one of the six classical simple machines . It can be used to separate two objects or portions of an object, lift up an object, or hold an object in place. It functions by converting a force applied to its blunt end into forces perpendicular (normal ) to its inclined surfaces. The mechanical advantage of a wedge is given by the ratio of the length of its slope to its width. Although a short wedge with a wide angle may do a job faster, it requires more force than a long wedge with a narrow angle. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Use of a wedge * 3 Blades and wedges * 4 Examples for holding fast * 5 Mechanical advantage * 6 See also * 7 References HISTORY Flint
Flint
hand axe found in Winchester
Winchester
Perhaps the first example of a wedge is the hand axe , also see biface and Olorgesailie
Olorgesailie

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Screw (simple Machine)
A SCREW is a mechanism that converts rotational motion to linear motion , and a torque (rotational force) to a linear force . It is one of the six classical simple machines . The most common form consists of a cylindrical shaft with helical grooves or ridges called threads around the outside. The screw passes through a hole in another object or medium, with threads on the inside of the hole that mesh with the screw's threads. When the shaft of the screw is rotated relative to the stationary threads, the screw moves along its axis relative to the medium surrounding it; for example rotating a wood screw forces it into wood. In screw mechanisms, either the screw shaft can rotate through a threaded hole in a stationary object, or a threaded collar such as a nut can rotate around a stationary screw shaft. Geometrically, a screw can be viewed as a narrow inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
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