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Simple Machine
A SIMPLE MACHINE is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force . In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage (also called leverage ) to multiply force. Usually the term refers to the six classical simple machines which were defined by Renaissance scientists: * Lever * Wheel and axle * Pulley * Inclined plane * Wedge * Screw
Screw
A simple machine uses a single applied force to do work against a single load force. Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied force. The machine can increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional decrease in the distance moved by the load. The ratio of the output to the applied force is called the mechanical advantage
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Energy
In physics , ENERGY is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on or to heat the object. It can be converted in form , but not created or destroyed . The SI unit of energy is the joule , which is the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton . Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational , electric or magnetic ), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature . Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Galileo Galilei
GALILEO GALILEI (Italian: ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath . Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution . Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system . He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of the absence of an observed stellar parallax
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Aether (classical Element)
According to ancient and medieval science , AETHER (Greek : αἰθήρ aithēr ), also spelled æTHER or ETHER, also called QUINTESSENCE, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere . The concept of aether was used in several theories to explain several natural phenomena, such as the traveling of light and gravity. In the late 19th century, physicists postulated that aether permeated all throughout space, providing a medium through which light could travel in a vacuum , but evidence for the presence of such a medium was not found in the Michelson–Morley experiment , and this result has been interpreted as meaning that no such luminiferous aether exists
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Guillaume Amontons
GUILLAUME AMONTONS (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist . He was one of the pioneers in studying the problem of friction , that is the resistance to motion where bodies are in contact. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Work * 2.1 Scientific instruments * 2.2 Thermodynamics * 2.3 Friction
Friction
* 3 Amontons\' laws of friction * 4 Honours * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links LIFEGuillaume was born in Paris, France. His father was a lawyer from Normandy
Normandy
who had moved to the French capital. While still young, Guillaume lost his hearing , which may have motivated him to focus entirely on science. He never attended a university , but was able to study mathematics , the physical sciences , and celestial mechanics . He also spent time studying the skills of drawing , surveying , and architecture
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Simon Stevin
SIMON STEVIN (Dutch: ; 1548–1620), sometimes called STEVINUS, was a Flemish mathematician , physicist and military engineer . He was active in a great many areas of science and engineering, both theoretical and practical. He also translated various mathematical terms into Dutch , making it one of the few European languages in which the word for mathematics , wiskunde (wis and kunde, i.e., "the knowledge of what is certain"), was not a loanword from Greek but a calque via Latin
Latin

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Work (physics)
W = F ⋅ S W = τ θ CLASSICAL MECHANICS F = m a {displaystyle {vec {F}}=m{vec {a}}} Second law of motion * History * Timeline Branches * Applied * Celestial * Continuum * Dynamics * Kinematics
Kinematics
* Kinetics * Statics * Statistical Fundamentals *
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Heron Of Alexandria
HERO OF ALEXANDRIA (Greek : Ἥρων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς, Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as HERON OF ALEXANDRIA; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria
Alexandria
, Roman Egypt . He is considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity and his work is representative of the Hellenistic scientific tradition. Hero published a well recognized description of a steam-powered device called an aeolipile (sometimes called a "Hero engine"). Among his most famous inventions was a windwheel , constituting the earliest instance of wind harnessing on land. He is said to have been a follower of the atomists . Some of his ideas were derived from the works of Ctesibius . Much of Hero's original writings and designs have been lost , but some of his works were preserved in Arabic manuscripts
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Screw
A SCREW is a type of fastener , sometimes similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread) or just thread
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Statics
STATICS is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment" ) acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a=0), but rather, are in static equilibrium with their environment. When in static equilibrium, the acceleration of the system is zero and the system is either at rest, or its center of mass moves at constant velocity. The application of Newton\'s second law to a system gives: F = m a . {displaystyle {textbf {F}}=m{textbf {a}},.} Where bold font indicates a vector that has magnitude and direction. F is the total of the forces acting on the system, m is the mass of the system and A is the acceleration of the system. The summation of forces will give the direction and the magnitude of the acceleration will be inversely proportional to the mass. The assumption of static equilibrium of A = 0 leads to: F = 0
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Dynamics (mechanics)
DYNAMICS is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics ) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion , as opposed to kinematics , which studies the motion of objects without reference to its causes. Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
defined the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics, especially his second law of motion . CONTENTS * 1 Principles * 2 Linear and rotational dynamics * 3 Force
Force
* 4 Newton\'s laws * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading PRINCIPLESGenerally speaking, researchers involved in dynamics study how a physical system might develop or alter over time and study the causes of those changes. In addition, Newton established the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics. By studying his system of mechanics, dynamics can be understood. In particular, dynamics is mostly related to Newton's second law of motion
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Charles-Augustin De Coulomb
CHARLES-AUGUSTIN DE COULOMB (French: ; 14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French physicist . He was best known for developing Coulomb\'s law , the definition of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion, but also did important work on friction . The SI unit
SI unit
of electric charge , the coulomb , was named after him. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Research * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIFECharles Augustin de Coulomb
Coulomb
was born in Angoulême
Angoulême
in France. He was born in a small home near France
France
de Revone where he was raised for 7 years before beginning his education. His parents were Henry Coulomb and Catherine Bajet. He went to school in the Collège Mazarin in Paris
Paris
where his father lived. His studies included philosophy, language and literature
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Elasticity (physics)
In physics , ELASTICITY (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence or deforming force and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid objects will deform when adequate forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world. The most elastic body in modern science found is Quartz fibre which is not even a perfect elastic body
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Threaded Fastener
A THREADED FASTENER is a discrete piece of hardware that has internal or external screw threads . It falls into the overall fastener family. They are usually used for the assembly of multiple parts and facilitate disassembly. The most common types are the screw , nut and bolt . Other, more specialized types, include captive threaded fasteners , stud , threaded inserts , and threaded rods . REFERENCES * ^ Groover, Mikell P. (2010), Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems (4th ed.), John Wiley and Sons, p
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Bolt (fastener)
A BOLT is a form of threaded fastener with an external male thread. Bolts are thus closely related to, and often confused with, screws . CONTENTS * 1 Bolts vs. screws * 2 Bolt heads * 3 Bolt types * 4 See also * 5 References BOLTS VS. SCREWS Main article: Screw
Screw
§ Differentiation between bolt and screw Bolted joint
Bolted joint
in vertical section Screw
Screw
joint The distinction between a bolt and a screw is commonly misunderstood. There are several practical differences, but most have some degree of overlap between bolts and screws. The defining distinction, per Machinery\'s Handbook , is in their intended purpose: Bolts are for the assembly of two unthreaded components, with the aid of a nut . Screws in contrast are used with components, at least one of which contains its own internal thread, which even may be formed by the installation of the screw itself
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