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Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
SECONDARY-ION MASS SPECTROMETRY (SIMS) is a technique used to analyze the composition of solid surfaces and thin films by sputtering the surface of the specimen with a focused primary ion beam and collecting and analyzing ejected secondary ions. The mass/charge ratios of these secondary ions are measured with a mass spectrometer to determine the elemental, isotopic, or molecular composition of the surface to a depth of 1 to 2 nm. Due to the large variation in ionization probabilities among different materials, SIMS is generally considered to be a qualitative technique, although quantitation is possible with the use of standards. SIMS is the most sensitive surface analysis technique, with elemental detection limits ranging from parts per million to parts per billion. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Instrumentation * 2.1 Vacuum
Vacuum
* 2.2 Primary ion source * 2.3 Mass analyzer * 2.4 Detector * 3 Detection limits and sample degradation * 4 Static and dynamic modes * 5 Applications * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links HISTORYIn 1910 British physicist J. J. Thomson observed a release of positive ions and neutral atoms from a solid surface induced by ion bombardment. Improved vacuum pump technology in the 1940s enabled the first prototype experiments on SIMS by Herzog and Viehböck in 1949, at the University of Vienna
University of Vienna
, Austria
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CAMECA
CAMECA is a manufacturer of scientific instruments , namely material analysis instruments based on Charged particle beam , ions , or electrons CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The company in 2011 * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe company was founded as a subsidiary of Compagnie générale de la télégraphie sans fil (CSF), en 1929, as « Radio-cinéma » at the time of the emergence of the talkies . The job was to design and manufacture Movie projectors for big cinema screening rooms After World War II , spurred on by Maurice Ponte, director of CSF and a future member of the French Academy of Sciences, the company manufactures scientific instruments developed in French University laboratories: The Spark Spectrometer at the beginning of the 1950s, the Castaing Microprobe from 1958, the Secondary Ion Analysers from 1968. Also in the early 1950s settles the company in the factory of Courbevoie , boulevard Saint-Denis where it will remain more than fifty years. The Spark Spectrometer was abandoned at the end of the 1950s. The name of CAMECA, standing for Compagnie des Applications Mécaniques et Electroniques au Cinéma et à l'Atomistique was given in 1954. The business of movie projectors has been stopped soon after 1960, but in the 1960s, there is a short-lived revival of the film business through the adventure of the Scopitone
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Thin Film
A THIN FILM is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer ) to several micrometers in thickness. The controlled synthesis of materials as thin films (a process referred to as deposition) is a fundamental step in many applications. A familiar example is the household mirror , which typically has a thin metal coating on the back of a sheet of glass to form a reflective interface. The process of silvering was once commonly used to produce mirrors, while more recently the metal layer is deposited using techniques such as sputtering . Advances in thin film deposition techniques during the 20th century have enabled a wide range of technological breakthroughs in areas such as magnetic recording media , electronic semiconductor devices , LEDs , optical coatings (such as antireflective coatings), hard coatings on cutting tools, and for both energy generation (e.g. thin film solar cells ) and storage (thin-film batteries ). It is also being applied to pharmaceuticals, via thin-film drug delivery . A stack of thin films is called a multilayer . In addition to their applied interest, thin films play an important role in the development and study of materials with new and unique properties. Examples include multiferroic materials , and superlattices that allow the study of quantum confinement by creating two-dimensional electron states
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Sputtering
SPUTTERING is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles , particularly, in the laboratory, gas ions . It only happens when the kinetic energy of the incoming particles is much higher than conventional thermal energies (≫ 1 eV ). This process can lead, during prolonged ion or plasma bombardment of a material, to significant erosion of materials, and can thus be harmful. On the other hand, it is commonly used for thin-film deposition, etching and analytical techniques. Sputtering is done either using DC Voltage (DC Sputtering) or using AC Voltage (RF Sputtering). In DC Sputtering, voltage is set from 3-5 kV and in RF Sputtering, power supply is set at 14 MHz. Due to application of alternating current, the ions inside the plasma will oscillate and as a result, the amount of plasma increases. A commercial AJA Orion sputtering system at Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility . CONTENTS * 1 Physics of sputtering * 2 Electronic sputtering * 3 Potential sputtering * 4 Etching and chemical sputtering * 5 Applications and phenomena * 5.1 Film deposition * 5.2 Etching * 5.3 For analysis * 5.4 In space (celestial lights) * 6 References * 7 External links PHYSICS OF SPUTTERINGPhysical sputtering is driven by the momentum exchange between the ions and atoms in the target materials, due to collisions
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Ion Beam
An ION BEAM is a type of charged particle beam consisting of ions . Ion beams have many uses in electronics manufacturing (principally ion implantation ) and other industries. A variety of ion beam sources exists, some derived from the mercury vapor thrusters developed by NASA in the 1960s. CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Ion beam etching or sputtering * 1.2 Biology * 1.3 Medicine * 1.4 Space applications * 1.5 High-energy ion beams * 1.6 Weaponry * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links USESION BEAM ETCHING OR SPUTTERING Carl Zeiss Crossbeam 550 - combines a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with a focused ion beam (FIB). Nanofluidics channels fabricated with a Zeiss Crossbeam 550 L, in a silicon master stamp One type of ion beam source is the duoplasmatron . Ion beams can be used for sputtering or ion beam etching and for ion beam analysis . Ion beam application, etching, or sputtering, is a technique conceptually similar to sandblasting , but using individual atoms in an ion beam to ablate a target. Reactive ion etching is an important extension that uses chemical reactivity to enhance the physical sputtering effect. In a typical use in semiconductor manufacturing , a mask can selectively expose a layer of photoresist on a substrate made of a semiconductor material such as a silicon dioxide or gallium arsenide wafer
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Mass Spectrometry
MASS SPECTROMETRY (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio . In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio . These spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules , and to elucidate the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds . In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons. This may cause some of the sample's molecules to break into charged fragments. These ions are then separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio, typically by accelerating them and subjecting them to an electric or magnetic field: ions of the same mass-to-charge ratio will undergo the same amount of deflection. The ions are detected by a mechanism capable of detecting charged particles, such as an electron multiplier . Results are displayed as spectra of the relative abundance of detected ions as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. The atoms or molecules in the sample can be identified by correlating known masses to the identified masses or through a characteristic fragmentation pattern
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J. J. Thomson
SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON OM PRS (/ˈtɒmsən/ ; 18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics , credited with the discovery and identification of the electron ; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle . In 1897, Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of previously unknown negatively charged particles, which he calculated must have bodies much smaller than atoms and a very large value for their charge-to-mass ratio . Thomson is also credited with finding the first evidence for isotopes of a stable (non-radioactive) element in 1913, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays (positive ions). His experiments to determine the nature of positively charged particles, with Francis William Aston , were the first use of mass spectrometry and led to the development of the mass spectrograph. Thomson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the conduction of electricity in gases
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Vacuum Pump
A VACUUM PUMP is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum . The first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke , and was preceded by the suction pump , which dates to antiquity. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types * 2.1 Positive displacement pump * 2.2 Momentum transfer pump * 2.3 Regenerative pump * 2.4 Entrapment pump * 2.5 Other types * 3 Performance measures * 4 Techniques * 5 Applications * 6 Hazards * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY Tesla's vacuum apparatus, published in 1892 The predecessor to the vacuum pump was the SUCTION PUMP, which was known to the Romans. Dual-action suction pumps were found in the city of Pompeii . Arabic engineer Al-Jazari also described suction pumps in the 13th century. He said that his model was a larger version of the siphons the Byzantines used to discharge the Greek fire . The suction pump later reappeared in Europe from the 15th century. Student of Smolny Institute Catherine Molchanova with vacuum pump, by Dmitry Levitzky , 1776 By the 17th century, water pump designs had improved to the point that they produced measurable vacuums, but this was not immediately understood. What was known was that suction pumps could not pull water beyond a certain height: 18 Florentine yards according to a measurement taken around 1635
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University Of Vienna
The UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA (German: _Universität Wien_) is a public university located in Vienna , Austria . It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world . With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna has developed into one of the biggest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, especially in the Humanities . It is associated with 15 Nobel prize winners and has been the academic home of a large number of figures both of historical and academic importance
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NASA
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
. Currently, NASA
NASA
is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle , the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA
NASA
launches
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Moon Rock
MOON ROCK or LUNAR ROCK is rock that is found on the Earth\'s moon , or lunar material collected during the course of human exploration of the Moon
Moon
. Moon
Moon
rocks on Earth come from three sources: those collected by the US Apollo manned lunar landings from 1969 to 1972; samples returned by three Soviet Luna unmanned probes in the 1970s; and rocks that were ejected naturally from the lunar surface by cratering events and subsequently fell to Earth as lunar meteorites . During the six Apollo landing missions, 2,415 samples weighing 380.96 kilograms (839.87 lb) were collected. Three Luna spacecraft returned with 326 grams (11.5 oz) of samples. Since 1980, over 120 lunar meteorites representing about 60 different meteorite fall events (none witnessed) have been collected on Earth, with a total mass of over 48 kilograms (106 lb). About one third of these were discovered by US and Japanese teams searching for Antarctic meteorites (e.g., ANSMET ), with most of the remainder having been discovered by collectors in the desert regions of northern Africa
Africa
and Oman . Rocks from the Moon
Moon
have been measured by radiometric dating techniques. They range in age from about 3.16 billion years old for the basaltic samples derived from the lunar maria , up to about 4.44 billion years old for rocks derived from the highlands
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Paris-Sud 11 University
UNIVERSITY OF PARIS-SUD (French: _Université Paris-Sud_), also known as UNIVERSITY OF PARIS XI, is a French university distributed among several campuses in the southern suburbs of Paris including Orsay , Cachan , Châtenay-Malabry , Sceaux and Kremlin-Bicêtre campuses. The main campus is located in Orsay (48°42′00″N 2°10′24″E / 48.699890°N 2.173309°E / 48.699890; 2.173309 ). This university is a member of the UniverSud Paris and a constituent university of the federal University of Paris-Saclay . Paris-Sud is one of the largest and most renowned French universities, particularly in science and mathematics. Four Fields Medalists and two Nobel Prize Winners have been affiliated to the university. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable people affiliated with the University of Paris-Sud * 2.1 Fields Medal * 2.2 Nobel Prize * 2.3 Others * 3 Rankings * 4 Points of interest * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYParis-Sud was originally part of the University of Paris , which was subsequently split into several universities. After World War II, the rapid growth of nuclear physics and chemistry meant that research needed more and more powerful accelerators, which required large areas
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Sector Instrument
A SECTOR INSTRUMENT is a general term for a class of mass spectrometer that uses a static electric or magnetic sector or some combination of the two (separately in space) as a mass analyzer. A popular combination of these sectors has been the BEB (magnetic-electric-magnetic). Most modern sector instruments are double-focusing instruments (first developed by A. Dempster , K. Bainbridge and J. Mattauch in 1936 ) in that they focus the ion beams both in direction and velocity. CONTENTS * 1 Theory * 2 Classic Geometries * 2.1 Bainbridge-Jordan * 2.2 Mattauch-Herzog * 2.3 Nier-Johnson * 2.4 Hinterberger-Konig * 2.5 Takeshita * 2.6 Matsuda * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links THEORYThe behavior of ions in a homogeneous, linear, static electric or magnetic field (separately) as is found in a sector instrument is simple. The physics are described by a single equation called the Lorentz force law. This equation is the fundamental equation of all mass spectrometric techniques and applies in non-linear, non-homogeneous cases too and is an important equation in the field of electrodynamics in general. F = q ( E + v B ) , {displaystyle mathbf {F} =q(mathbf {E} +mathbf {v} times mathbf {B} ),} where E is the electric field strength, B is the magnetic field induction, q is the charge of the particle, V is its current velocity (expressed as a vector), and × is the cross product
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Quadrupole Mass Analyzer
The QUADRUPOLE MASS ANALYZER (QMS) is one type of mass analyzer used in mass spectrometry . It is also known as a TRANSMISSION QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER, QUADRUPOLE MASS FILTER, or QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER. As the name implies, it consists of four cylindrical rods, set parallel to each other. In a quadrupole mass spectrometer the quadrupole is the component of the instrument responsible for filtering sample ions, based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Ions are separated in a quadrupole based on the stability of their trajectories in the oscillating electric fields that are applied to the rods. CONTENTS * 1 Principle of operation * 2 Multiple quadrupoles, hybrids and variations * 3 Applications * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Image from "Apparatus For Separating Charged Particles Of Different Specific Charges" Patent number: 2939952 The quadrupole consists of four parallel metal rods. Each opposing rod pair is connected together electrically, and a radio frequency (RF) voltage with a DC offset voltage is applied between one pair of rods and the other. Ions travel down the quadrupole between the rods. Only ions of a certain mass-to-charge ratio will reach the detector for a given ratio of voltages: other ions have unstable trajectories and will collide with the rods
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Static Secondary-ion Mass Spectrometry
STATIC SECONDARY-ION MASS SPECTROMETRY, or STATIC SIMS is a technique for chemical analysis including elemental composition and chemical structure of the uppermost atomic or molecular layer of a solid which may be a metal, semiconductor or plastic with insignificant disturbance to its composition and structure. It is one of the two principal modes of operation of SIMS , which is the mass spectrometry of ionized particles emitted by a solid (or sometimes liquid) surface upon bombardment by energetic primary particles. CONTENTS * 1 Mechanism * 2 Primary Operating Conditions * 3 Spectrum * 4 History of Static SIMS * 5 Application in Surface Science * 5.1 Oxidation study of metals * 5.2 Metal surface characterization * 5.3 Studies of Chemisorption * 6 Instrumentation * 6.1 Vacuum systems * 6.2 Mass spectrometer * 6.3 Primary ion source * 7 References MECHANISMMost energy of the primary ions is dissipated into the near surface region of the solid by a series of binary collisions. This results in ejection (sputtering) of so-called ‘secondary’ particles such as electrons; neutral species, atoms , and molecules; atomic and cluster ions from the surface. In SIMS it is these secondary ions which are detected and analyzed by a mass spectrometer to produce a mass spectrum of a surface for a detailed chemical analysis of the surface or the solid
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Cameca
CAMECA is a manufacturer of scientific instruments , namely material analysis instruments based on Charged particle beam , ions , or electrons CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The company in 2011 * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe company was founded as a subsidiary of Compagnie générale de la télégraphie sans fil (CSF), en 1929, as « Radio-cinéma » at the time of the emergence of the talkies . The job was to design and manufacture Movie projectors for big cinema screening rooms After World War II , spurred on by Maurice Ponte, director of CSF and a future member of the French Academy of Sciences, the company manufactures scientific instruments developed in French University laboratories: The Spark Spectrometer at the beginning of the 1950s, the Castaing Microprobe from 1958, the Secondary Ion Analysers from 1968. Also in the early 1950s settles the company in the factory of Courbevoie , boulevard Saint-Denis where it will remain more than fifty years. The Spark Spectrometer was abandoned at the end of the 1950s. The name of CAMECA, standing for Compagnie des Applications Mécaniques et Electroniques au Cinéma et à l'Atomistique was given in 1954. The business of movie projectors has been stopped soon after 1960, but in the 1960s, there is a short-lived revival of the film business through the adventure of the Scopitone
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