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Polish Language
POLISH (_język polski_, _polszczyzna_) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles
Poles
. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages . Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. It is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet
Polish alphabet
, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script (_ą_, _ć_, _ę_, _ł_, _ń_, _ó_, _ś_, _ź_, _ż_). Polish is closely related to Kashubian , Silesian , Upper Sorbian , Lower Sorbian , Czech and Slovak
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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic of Poland _ Rzeczpospolita Polska_ (Polish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Mazurek Dąbrowskiego _ _ Poland Is Not Yet Lost_ Location of Poland (dark green) – in Europe
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Slovakia
Coordinates : 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500 Slovak Republic _Slovenská republika_ (Slovak ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Nad Tatrou sa blýska " "Lightning Over the Tatras" Location of Slovakia
Slovakia
(dark green) – in Europe
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Polish Minority In The Czech Republic
The POLISH MINORITY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC (Polish : Polska mniejszość narodowa w Republice Czeskiej, Czech : Polská národnostní menšina v České republice) is a Polish national minority living mainly in the Zaolzie
Zaolzie
region of western Cieszyn Silesia . The Polish community is the only national (or ethnic) minority in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
that is linked to a specific geographical area. Zaolzie
Zaolzie
is located in the north-eastern part of the country. It comprises Karviná District
Karviná District
and the eastern part of Frýdek-Místek District . Many Poles
Poles
living in other regions of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
have roots in Zaolzie
Zaolzie
as well
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Poles In Germany
POLES IN GERMANY are the second largest Polish diaspora
Polish diaspora
(Polonia) in the world and the biggest in Europe
Europe
. Estimates of the number of Poles living in Germany
Germany
vary from 2 million to about 3 million people living that might be of Polish descent, although many of them have lost their ancestors' identity. According to the latest census, there are approximately 2,006,410 Poles
Poles
in Germany. The main Polonia organisations in Germany
Germany
are the Union of Poles
Poles
in Germany
Germany
and Congress of Polonia in Germany
Germany
. Polish surnames are relatively common in Germany, especially in the Ruhr area
Ruhr area
(Ruhr Poles
Poles
)
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Hungary
Coordinates : 47°N 20°E / 47°N 20°E / 47; 20 Hungary _Magyarország_ (Hungarian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Himnusz " (Hungarian ) "Hymn" Location of Hungary (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Budapest 47°26′N 19°15′E / 47.433°N 19.250°E / 47.433; 19.250 Official language and national language Hungarian
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Poles In Ukraine
The POLISH MINORITY IN UKRAINE officially numbers about 144,130 (according to the 2001 census), of whom 21,094 (14.6%) speak Polish as their first language. The history of Polish settlement in current territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
dates back to 1030–31. In Late Middle Ages, following the extinction of Rurikid dynasty in 1323, the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
extended east in 1340 to include the lands of Przemyśl
Przemyśl
and in 1366, Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamieniec Podolski). The settlement of Poles
Poles
became common there after the Polish–Lithuanian peace treaty signed in 1366 between Casimir III the Great of Poland, and Liubartas of Lithuania
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Belarus
Coordinates : 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian ) Республика Беларусь (Russian ) _ Flag National emblem ANTHEM: * Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian ) * Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś _ * (English: State Anthem of Belarus) Location of
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Romania
Coordinates : 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25 Romania _România_ (Romanian ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Deșteaptă-te, române! _ '"Awaken thee, Romanian!" Location of Romania (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100 OFFIC
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Moldova
Coordinates : 47°N 29°E / 47°N 29°E / 47; 29 Republic
Republic
of Moldova _Republica Moldova_ (Romanian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: _ Limba Noastră_ "Our Language" Location of MOLDOVA (green) and Transnistria
Transnistria
(light green) in Europe
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Polish Diaspora
The POLISH DIASPORA refers to people of Polish origin who live outside Poland
Poland
. The Polish diaspora
Polish diaspora
is also known in modern Polish language as POLONIA, which is the name for Poland
Poland
in Latin
Latin
and in many other Romance languages
Romance languages
. There are roughly 20 million people of Polish ancestry living outside Poland, making the Polish diaspora
Polish diaspora
one of the largest in the world, as well as one of the most widely dispersed. Reasons for this displacement vary from border shifts, forced expulsions and resettlement, to political and economic emigration
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Poles
1,747 LANGUAGES Polish • Kashubian • Silesian RELIGION Christianity
Christianity
: Predominantly Roman Catholicism RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Other West Slavs
West Slavs
( Kashubians
Kashubians
, Silesians
Silesians
, Sorbs
Sorbs
, Slovaks
Slovaks
, and Czechs
Czechs
)The POLES (Polish : _Polacy_, pronounced ; singular masculine: _Polak_, singular feminine: _Polka_) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland
Poland
who share a common ancestry , culture , history and are native speakers of the Polish language
Polish language
. The population of Poles
Poles
in Poland
Poland
is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000 (based on the 2011 census )
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Balto-Slavic Languages
The BALTO-SLAVIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages . It traditionally comprises the Baltic and Slavic languages . Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other Indo-European branch, which points to a period of common development. Most Indo-Europeanists classify Baltic and Slavic languages into a single branch, even though some details of the nature of their relationship remain in dispute in some circles, usually due to political controversies. Some linguists, however, have recently suggested that Balto-Slavic should be split into three equidistant groups: Eastern Baltic, Western Baltic (which is extinct) and Slavic. A