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Polish Language
POLISH (_język polski_, _polszczyzna_) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles
Poles
. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages . Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. It is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet
Polish alphabet
, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script (_ą_, _ć_, _ę_, _ł_, _ń_, _ó_, _ś_, _ź_, _ż_). Polish is closely related to Kashubian , Silesian , Upper Sorbian , Lower Sorbian , Czech and Slovak . Although the Austrian , German and Russian administrations exerted much pressure on the Polish nation (during the 19th and early 20th centuries) following the Partitions of Poland
Poland
, which resulted in attempts to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has regardless developed over the centuries and the language currently has the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group. It is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian and just ahead of Ukrainian . In history, Polish is known to be an important language, both diplomatically and academically in Central and Eastern Europe
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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic of Poland _ Rzeczpospolita Polska_ (Polish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Mazurek Dąbrowskiego _ _ Poland Is Not Yet Lost_ Location of Poland (dark green) – in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Warsaw
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Slovakia
Coordinates : 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500 Slovak Republic _Slovenská republika_ (Slovak ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Nad Tatrou sa blýska " "Lightning Over the Tatras" Location of Slovakia
Slovakia
(dark green) – in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Bratislava
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Polish Minority In The Czech Republic
The POLISH MINORITY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC (Polish : Polska mniejszość narodowa w Republice Czeskiej, Czech : Polská národnostní menšina v České republice) is a Polish national minority living mainly in the Zaolzie region of western Cieszyn Silesia . The Polish community is the only national (or ethnic) minority in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
that is linked to a specific geographical area. Zaolzie is located in the north-eastern part of the country. It comprises Karviná District
Karviná District
and the eastern part of Frýdek-Místek District . Many Poles living in other regions of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
have roots in Zaolzie as well. Poles formed the largest ethnic group in Cieszyn Silesia in the 19th century, but at the beginning of the 20th century the Czech population grew. The Czechs and Poles collaborated on resisting Germanization movements, but this collaboration ceased after World War I. In 1920 the region of Zaolzie was incorporated into Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
after the Polish–Czechoslovak War . Since then the Polish population demographically decreased. In 1938 it was annexed by Poland
Poland
in the context of the Munich Agreement and in 1939 by Nazi Germany
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Poles In Germany
POLES IN GERMANY are the second largest Polish diaspora (Polonia) in the world and the biggest in Europe
Europe
. Estimates of the number of Poles living in Germany
Germany
vary from 2 million to about 3 million people living that might be of Polish descent, although many of them have lost their ancestors' identity. According to the latest census, there are approximately 2,006,410 Poles in Germany. The main Polonia organisations in Germany
Germany
are the Union of Poles in Germany
Germany
and Congress of Polonia in Germany
Germany
. Polish surnames are relatively common in Germany, especially in the Ruhr area
Ruhr area
(Ruhr Poles ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Today * 3 Population distribution * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYSince the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
in 1772, 1793 and 1795 and Poland's partial incorporation into Prussia, a large Polish ethnic group existed inside Prussia 's borders, especially in the new provinces of Posen and West Prussia . Poles also settled in present-day Germany during the 18th century e.g. in Dresden
Dresden
and Leipzig
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Hungary
Coordinates : 47°N 20°E / 47°N 20°E / 47; 20 Hungary _Magyarország_ (Hungarian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Himnusz " (Hungarian ) "Hymn" Location of Hungary (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Budapest 47°26′N 19°15′E / 47.433°N 19.250°E / 47.433; 19.250 Official language and national language Hungarian ETHNIC GROUPS (2011) * 80.7% Hungarians * 14.7% not declared * 3.1% Roma * 1.3% Germans RELIGION * 76%
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Poles In Ukraine
The POLISH MINORITY IN UKRAINE officially numbers about 144,130 (according to the 2001 census), of whom 21,094 (14.6%) speak Polish as their first language. The history of Polish settlement in current territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
dates back to 1030–31. In Late Middle Ages, following the extinction of Rurikid dynasty in 1323, the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
extended east in 1340 to include the lands of Przemyśl and in 1366, Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamieniec Podolski). The settlement of Poles became common there after the Polish–Lithuanian peace treaty signed in 1366 between Casimir III the Great of Poland, and Liubartas of Lithuania. Following the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
(1569), principalities of Galicia and Western Volhynia
Volhynia
were incorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
as the Ruthenian Voivodeship
Ruthenian Voivodeship
, while the rest of Red Ruthenia together with Kiev
Kiev
came under Lithuanian control
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Belarus
Coordinates : 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian ) Республика Беларусь (Russian ) _ Flag National emblem ANTHEM: * Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian ) * Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś _ * (English: State Anthem of Belarus) Location of Belarus
Belarus
(green) in Europe
Europe
(dark grey) – Capital and largest city Minsk
Minsk
53°55′N 27°33′E / 53.917°N 27.550°E / 53.917; 27.550 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Belarusian * Russian a ETHNIC GROUPS * 83.7% Belarusians
Belarusians
* 8.3% Russians * 3.1% Poles
Poles
* 1.7% Ukrainians * 3.2% Other DEMONYM Belarusian GOVERNMENT Unitary presidential republic • PRESIDENT Alexander Lukashenko • PRIME MINISTER Andrei Kobyakov LEGISLATURE National Assembly • UPPER HOUSE Council of the Republic
Republic
• LOWER HOUSE House of Representatives FORMATION • PRINCIPALITY OF POLOTSK 987 • GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA c
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Romania
Coordinates : 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25 Romania _România_ (Romanian ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Deșteaptă-te, române! _ '"Awaken thee, Romanian!" Location of Romania (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Romanian Recognised minority languages * Albanian * Armenian * Bulgarian * Czech * Croatian * German * Greek * Italian * Macedonian * Hungarian * Polish * Romani * Russian * Rusyn * Serbian * Slovak * Tatar * Turkish * Ukrainian * Yiddish ETHNIC GROUPS (2011 ) * 88.9%
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Moldova
Coordinates : 47°N 29°E / 47°N 29°E / 47; 29 Republic
Republic
of Moldova _Republica Moldova_ (Romanian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: _ Limba Noastră_ "Our Language" Location of MOLDOVA (green) and Transnistria
Transnistria
(light green) in Europe
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Polish Diaspora
The POLISH DIASPORA refers to people of Polish origin who live outside Poland . The Polish diaspora is also known in modern Polish language as _POLONIA_, which is the name for Poland in Latin and in many other Romance languages . There are roughly 20 million people of Polish ancestry living outside Poland, making the Polish diaspora one of the largest in the world, as well as one of the most widely dispersed. Reasons for this displacement vary from border shifts, forced expulsions and resettlement, to political and economic emigration . Major populations of Polish ancestry can be found in Germany, Ukraine , Belarus , Lithuania, Russia, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Ireland and many other European countries, the United States, Brazil, Canada and elsewhere in the Americas and Australasia, particularly Australia and New Zealand. Polish communities are present in most Asian and African countries
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Poles
1,747 LANGUAGES Polish • Kashubian • Silesian RELIGION Christianity
Christianity
: Predominantly Roman Catholicism RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Other West Slavs
West Slavs
( Kashubians
Kashubians
, Silesians
Silesians
, Sorbs
Sorbs
, Slovaks
Slovaks
, and Czechs
Czechs
)The POLES (Polish : _Polacy_, pronounced ; singular masculine: _Polak_, singular feminine: _Polka_) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland
Poland
who share a common ancestry , culture , history and are native speakers of the Polish language
Polish language
. The population of Poles
Poles
in Poland
Poland
is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000 (based on the 2011 census )
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Balto-Slavic Languages
The BALTO-SLAVIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages . It traditionally comprises the Baltic and Slavic languages . Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other Indo-European branch, which points to a period of common development. Most Indo-Europeanists classify Baltic and Slavic languages into a single branch, even though some details of the nature of their relationship remain in dispute in some circles, usually due to political controversies. Some linguists, however, have recently suggested that Balto-Slavic should be split into three equidistant groups: Eastern Baltic, Western Baltic (which is extinct) and Slavic. A Proto-Balto-Slavic language is reconstructable by the comparative method , descending from Proto-Indo-European by means of well-defined sound laws , and out of which modern Slavic and Baltic languages descended. One particularly innovative dialect separated from the Balto-Slavic dialect continuum and became ancestral to the Proto-Slavic language, from which all Slavic languages descended
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Slavic Languages
The SLAVIC LANGUAGES (also called SLAVONIC LANGUAGES) are the Indo-European languages native to the Slavic peoples , originally from Eastern Europe . They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages , which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language , linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages are divided intro three subgroups: East , West , and South , which together constitute more than twenty languages. Of these, ten have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian , Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish , Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Slovene , Serbo-Croatian , Macedonian and Bulgarian (of the South group). The current geographic distribution of natively spoken Slavic languages covers Eastern Europe, the Balkans , the eastern parts of Central Europe and all of the territory of Russia , which includes northern and north-central Asia. Furthermore, the diasporas of many Slavic peoples have established isolated minorities of speakers of their languages all over the world