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Polarizer
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.[1][2][3][4] It can convert a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam of well-defined polarization, that is polarized light. The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular polarizers. Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments, and polarizing filters find applications in photography and LCD technology
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Refraction
Refraction
Refraction
is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium. The phenomenon is explained by the conservation of energy and the conservation of momentum. Owing to the change of medium, the phase velocity of the wave is changed but its frequency remains constant. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another at any angle other than 0° from the normal. Refraction
Refraction
of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another or when water waves move into water of a different depth
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Valence Electron
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair. The presence of valence electrons can determine the element's chemical properties, such as its valence—whether it may bond with other elements and, if so, how readily and with how many. For a main group element, a valence electron can exist only in the outermost electron shell; in a transition metal, a valence electron can also be in an inner shell. An atom with a closed shell of valence electrons (corresponding to an electron configuration s2p6) tends to be chemically inert
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Crystal Optics
Crystal
Crystal
optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in anisotropic media, that is, media (such as crystals) in which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating. The index of refraction depends on both composition and crystal structure and can be calculated using the Gladstone–Dale relation. Crystals are often naturally anisotropic, and in some media (such as liquid crystals) it is possible to induce anisotropy by applying an external electric field.Contents1 Isotropic
Isotropic
media1.1 Electric susceptibility2 Anisotropic
Anisotropic
media 3 Other effects 4 References 5 External links Isotropic
Isotropic
media[edit] Typical transparent media such as glasses are isotropic, which means that light behaves the same way no matter which direction it is travelling in the medium
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Dichroism
In optics, a dichroic material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths (colours) (not to be confused with dispersion), or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts.[1]Contents1 In beam splitters 2 With polarized light2.1 In liquid crystals3 See also 4 ReferencesIn beam splitters[edit] Main article: Beam splitter The original meaning of dichroic, from the Greek dikhroos, two-coloured, refers to any optical device which can split a beam of light into two beams with differing wavelengths. Such devices include mirrors and filters, usually treated with optical coatings, which are designed to reflect light over a certain range of wavelengths, and transmit light which is outside that range
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Tourmaline
Tourmaline
Tourmaline
( /ˈtʊərməliːn/ TOOR-mə-leen) is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline
Tourmaline
is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. According to the Madras Tamil Lexicon [3] the name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thoramalli" (තෝරමල්ලි) or "tōra- molli", which is applied to a group of gemstones found in Sri Lanka. According to the Madras Tamil Lexicon, the Tamil "tuvara-malli" (துவரைமல்லி) and Toramalli are also derived from the Sinhalese root word
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Herapathite
Herapathite, or iodoquinine sulfate, is a chemical compound whose crystals are dichroic and thus can be used for polarizing light. The composition of herapathite has been shown by the Danish chemist Sophus Mads Jørgensen in 1877 and others to be 4QH2·3SO4·2I3·6H2O, where Q denotes the quinine molecule C20H24N2O2. The crystal can give up at least some of its water without losing its form and optical properties.[1] According to Edwin H. Land, it was discovered in 1852[2] by William Bird Herapath, a Bristol
Bristol
surgeon and chemist. One of his pupils found that adding iodine to the urine of a dog that had been fed quinine produced unusual green crystals. Herapath noticed while studying the crystals under a microscope that they appeared to polarize light.[3] In the 1930s, Prof
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Polyvinyl Alcohol
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer. It has the idealized formula [CH2CH(OH)]n. It is used in papermaking, textiles, and a variety of coatings. It is white (colourless) and odorless. It is sometimes supplied as beads or as solutions in water.[2]Contents1 Uses1.1 Fishing2 Preparation 3 Structure and properties 4 Tradenames of Polyvinyl Alcohol 5 Safety 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksUses[edit]Polyvinyl acetals: Polyvinyl acetals are prepared by reacting aldehydes with polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral
Polyvinyl butyral
(PVB) and polyvinyl formal (PVF) are examples of this family of polymers. They are prepared from polyvinyl alcohol by reaction with butyraldehyde and formaldehyde, respectively. Preparation of polyvinyl butyral is the largest use for polyvinyl alcohol in the U.S
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Iodine
Iodine
Iodine
is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811. It was named two years later by Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac from this property, after the Greek ἰώδης "violet-coloured". Iodine
Iodine
occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I−), iodate (IO− 3), and the various periodate anions. It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths. It is the heaviest essential mineral nutrient
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Canada Balsam
Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) of boreal North America. The resin, dissolved in essential oils, is a viscous, sticky, colourless or yellowish liquid that turns to a transparent yellowish mass when the essential oils have been allowed to evaporate. Canada balsam
Canada balsam
is amorphous when dried. Since it does not crystallize with age, its optical properties do not deteriorate.[citation needed] However, it has poor thermal and solvent resistance.[1] Uses[edit]Slide of 60-year-old holotype specimen of a flatworm (Lethacotyle fijiensis) permanently mounted in Canada balsamDue to its high optical quality and the similarity of its refractive index to that of crown glass (n = 1.55), purified and filtered Canada balsam was traditionally used in optics as an invisible-when-dry glue for glass, such as lens elements
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Cartesian Coordinate System
A Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis (plural axes) of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, at ordered pair (0, 0)
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Silver Nanoparticle
Silver
Silver
nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size.[1] While frequently described as being 'silver' some are composed of a large percentage of silver oxide due to their large ratio of surface-to-bulk silver atoms. Numerous shapes of nanoparticles can be constructed depending on the application at hand. Commonly used are spherical silver nanoparticles but diamond, octagonal and thin sheets are also popular.[1] Their extremely large surface area permits the coordination of a vast number of ligands
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Infrared
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Optical Fiber Communications
Fiber-optic communication
Fiber-optic communication
is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.[1] Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. Optical fiber
Optical fiber
is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet
Internet
communication, and cable television signals
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Laser
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation".[1][2] The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman
Theodore H. Maiman
at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes
Charles Hard Townes
and Arthur Leonard Schawlow. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently, spatially and temporally. Spatial coherence
Spatial coherence
allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence
Spatial coherence
also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances (collimation), enabling applications such as laser pointers
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Plane Of Incidence
In describing reflection and refraction in optics, the plane of incidence (also called the meridional plane[citation needed]) is the plane which contains the surface normal and the propagation vector of the incoming radiation. In wave optics, the latter is the k-vector, or wavevector, of the incoming wave. When reflection is specular, as it is for a mirror or other shiny surface, the reflected light also lies in the plane of incidence. The orientation of the incident light's polarization with respect to the plane of incidence has an important effect on the strength of the reflection. S and p polarizations[edit] See also: Polarization (waves)
Polarization (waves)
§ s and p P-polarized light is incident linearly polarized light with polarization direction lying in the plane of incidence. S-polarized light has polarization perpendicular to the plane of incidence. The s in s-polarized comes from the German word senkrecht, meaning perpendicular
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