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Polarizer
A POLARIZER or POLARISER is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass and blocks light waves of other polarizations. It can convert a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam of well-defined polarization, that is polarized light . The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular polarizers . Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments , and polarizing filters find applications in photography and liquid crystal display technology. Polarizers can also be made for other types of electromagnetic waves besides light, such as radio waves , microwaves , and X-rays
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Polarizing Filter (photography)
A POLARIZING / POLARISING FILTER is often placed in front of the camera lens in photography in order to darken skies, manage reflections, or suppress glare from the surface of lakes or the sea. Since reflections (and sky-light) tend to be at least partially linearly-polarized, a linear polarizer can be used to change the balance of the light in the photograph. The rotational orientation of the filter is adjusted for the preferred artistic effect. For modern cameras, a circular polarizer is typically used; this comprises firstly a linear polarizer which performs the artistic function just described, followed by a quarter-wave plate which further transforms the now-linearly polarized light into circularly-polarised light before entering the camera. This additional step avoids problems with auto-focus and light-metering sensors within some cameras, which otherwise may not function reliably with a simple linear polariser
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Brewster's Angle
BREWSTER\'S ANGLE (also known as the POLARIZATION ANGLE) is an angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection . When unpolarized light is incident at this angle, the light that is reflected from the surface is therefore perfectly polarized. This special angle of incidence is named after the Scottish physicist Sir David Brewster (1781–1868). CONTENTS * 1 Explanation * 2 Applications * 2.1 Brewster windows * 3 Pseudo-Brewster\'s angle * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links EXPLANATIONWhen light encounters a boundary between two media with different refractive indices , some of it is usually reflected as shown in the figure above. The fraction that is reflected is described by the Fresnel equations
Fresnel equations
, and is dependent upon the incoming light's polarization and angle of incidence
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Fresnel Equations
The FRESNEL EQUATIONS (or FRESNEL CONDITIONS), deduced by Augustin-Jean Fresnel (/freɪˈnɛl/ ), describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices . The reflection of light that the equations predict is known as FRESNEL REFLECTION. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 S and p polarizations * 2 Power or intensity equations * 2.1 Special
Special
cases * 2.1.1 Normal incidence * 2.1.2 Brewster\'s angle and total internal reflection * 2.1.3 Magnetic materials * 3 Amplitude or field equations * 3.1 Conventions used here * 3.2 Formulas * 4 Multiple surfaces * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links OVERVIEWWhen light moves from a medium of a given refractive index , _n_1, into a second medium with refractive index, _n_2, both reflection and refraction of the light may occur
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Optical Filter
Optical
Optical
filters are devices that selectively transmit light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as plane glass or plastic devices in the optical path which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings. The optical properties of filters are completely described by their frequency response, which specifies how the magnitude and phase of each frequency component of an incoming signal is modified by the filter. Filters mostly belong to one of two categories. The simplest, physically, is the absorptive filter; then there are interference or dichroic filters . Optical
Optical
filters selectively transmit light in a particular range of wavelengths , that is, colours , while blocking the remainder. They can usually pass long wavelengths only (longpass), short wavelengths only (shortpass), or a band of wavelengths, blocking both longer and shorter wavelengths (bandpass)
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Light Waves
LIGHT is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum . The word usually refers to VISIBLE LIGHT, which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight . Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), or 4.00 × 10−7 to 7.00 × 10−7 m, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430–750 terahertz (THz). The main source of light on Earth
Earth
is the Sun
Sun
. Sunlight
Sunlight
provides the energy that green plants use to create sugars mostly in the form of starches, which release energy into the living things that digest them. This process of photosynthesis provides virtually all the energy used by living things
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Polarization (waves)
POLARIZATION (also POLARISATION) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations . In a transverse wave, the direction of the oscillation is transverse to the direction of motion of the wave, so the oscillations can have different directions perpendicular to the wave direction. A simple example of a polarized transverse wave is vibrations traveling along a taut string (see image); for example, in a musical instrument like a guitar string . Depending on how the string is plucked, the vibrations can be in a vertical direction, horizontal direction, or at any angle perpendicular to the string. In contrast, in longitudinal waves , such as sound waves in a liquid or gas, the displacement of the particles in the oscillation is always in the direction of propagation, so these waves do not exhibit polarization
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Polarized Light
POLARIZATION (also POLARISATION) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations . In a transverse wave, the direction of the oscillation is transverse to the direction of motion of the wave, so the oscillations can have different directions perpendicular to the wave direction. A simple example of a polarized transverse wave is vibrations traveling along a taut string (see image); for example, in a musical instrument like a guitar string . Depending on how the string is plucked, the vibrations can be in a vertical direction, horizontal direction, or at any angle perpendicular to the string. In contrast, in longitudinal waves , such as sound waves in a liquid or gas, the displacement of the particles in the oscillation is always in the direction of propagation, so these waves do not exhibit polarization
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Linear Polarizer
A POLARIZER or POLARISER is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass and blocks light waves of other polarizations. It can convert a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam of well-defined polarization, that is polarized light . The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular polarizers . Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments , and polarizing filters find applications in photography and liquid crystal display technology. Polarizers can also be made for other types of electromagnetic waves besides light, such as radio waves , microwaves , and X-rays
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Circular Polarizer
A POLARIZER or POLARISER is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass and blocks light waves of other polarizations. It can convert a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam of well-defined polarization, that is polarized light . The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular polarizers . Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments , and polarizing filters find applications in photography and liquid crystal display technology. Polarizers can also be made for other types of electromagnetic waves besides light, such as radio waves , microwaves , and X-rays
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Optics
OPTICS is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light , including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics
Optics
usually describes the behaviour of visible , ultraviolet , and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave , other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays , microwaves , and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics , treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces
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Optical Instrument
An OPTICAL INSTRUMENT either processes light waves to enhance an image for viewing, or analyzes light waves (or photons ) to determine one of a number of characteristic properties. CONTENTS * 1 Image enhancement * 2 Analysis * 3 Other optical devices * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links IMAGE ENHANCEMENT An illustration of some of the optical devices available for laboratory work in England in 1858. Further information: Viewing instrument The first optical instruments were telescopes used for magnification of distant images, and microscopes used for magnifying very tiny images. Since the days of Galileo
Galileo
and Van Leeuwenhoek
Van Leeuwenhoek
, these instruments have been greatly improved and extended into other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum . The binocular device is a generally compact instrument for both eyes designed for mobile use
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Filter (photography)
In photography and videography , a FILTER is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path. The filter can be of a square or oblong shape and mounted in a holder accessory, or, more commonly, a glass or plastic disk in a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed into the front of or clipped onto the camera lens . Filters modify the images recorded. Sometimes they are used to make only subtle changes to images; other times the image would simply not be possible without them. In monochrome photography coloured filters affect the relative brightness of different colours; red lipstick may be rendered as anything from almost white to almost black with different filters. Others change the colour balance of images, so that photographs under incandescent lighting show colours as they are perceived, rather than with a reddish tinge
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Photography
PHOTOGRAPHY is the science , art , application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation , either electronically by means of an image sensor , or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film . Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure . With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel , which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image , which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing
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Liquid Crystal Display
A LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals . Liquid crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce images in colour or monochrome . LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and 7-segment displays, as in a digital clock . They use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels , while other displays have larger elements. LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors , televisions , instrument panels , aircraft cockpit displays , and indoor and outdoor signage
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Electromagnetic Wave
In physics , ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EM RADIATION or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons ) of the electromagnetic field , propagating (radiating) through space carrying electromagnetic radiant energy . It includes radio waves , microwaves , infrared , (visible) light , ultraviolet , X- , and gamma radiation. Classically , electromagnetic radiation consists of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum . The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave . The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a lightbulb) is a sphere . The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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