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Polarizer
A POLARIZER or POLARISER is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass and blocks light waves of other polarizations. It can convert a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam of well-defined polarization, that is polarized light . The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular polarizers . Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments , and polarizing filters find applications in photography and liquid crystal display technology. Polarizers can also be made for other types of electromagnetic waves besides light, such as radio waves , microwaves , and X-rays
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Total Internal Reflection
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirely reflected . The CRITICAL ANGLE is the angle of incidence above which the total internal reflection occurs. This is particularly common as an optical phenomenon , where light waves are involved, but it occurs with many types of waves, such as electromagnetic waves in general or sound waves . When a wave reaches a boundary between different materials with different refractive indices, the wave will in general be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e
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Polyvinyl Alcohol
POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAL) is a water -soluble synthetic polymer . It has the idealized formula n. It is used in papermaking, textiles, and a variety of coatings. It is white (colourless) and odorless. It is sometimes supplied as beads or as solutions in water. CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Fishing * 2 Preparation * 3 Structure and properties * 4 Tradenames of Polyvinyl Alcohol * 5 Safety * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links USES * Polyvinyl acetals : Polyvinyl acetals are prepared by reacting aldehydes with polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and polyvinyl formal (PVF) are examples of this family of polymers. They are prepared from polyvinyl alcohol by reaction with butyraldehyde and formaldehyde , respectively. Preparation of polyvinyl butyral is the largest use for polyvinyl alcohol in the U.S
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Iodine
IODINE is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens , it exists as a lustrous, purple-black metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811. It was named two years later by Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac from this property, after the Greek ἰωδης "violet-coloured". Iodine
Iodine
occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I−), iodate (IO− 3), and the various periodate anions. It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths . It is the heaviest essential mineral nutrient
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Herapathite
HERAPATHITE, or IODOQUININE SULFATE , is a chemical compound whose crystals are dichroic and thus can be used for polarizing light. The composition of herapathite has been shown by the Danish chemist Sophus Mads Jørgensen in 1877 and others to be 4QH2·3SO4·2I3·6H2O, where Q denotes the quinine molecule C20H24N2O2. The crystal can give up at least some of its water without losing its form and optical properties. According to Edwin H. Land , it was discovered in 1852 by William Bird Herapath , a Bristol
Bristol
surgeon and chemist. One of his pupils found that adding iodine to the urine of a dog that had been fed quinine produced unusual green crystals. Herapath noticed while studying the crystals under a microscope that they appeared to polarize light. In the 1930s, Prof
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Tourmaline
TOURMALINE ( /ˈtʊərməliːn/ TOOR-mə-leen ) is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium , iron, magnesium , sodium , lithium , or potassium . Tourmaline
Tourmaline
is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. The name comes from the Tamil and Sinhalese word "Turmali" (තුරමලි) or "Thoramalli" (තෝරමල්ලි), which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

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Crystal
A CRYSTAL or CRYSTALLINE SOLID is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms , molecules , or ions ) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography . The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification . The word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both "ice " and "rock crystal ", from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes , diamonds , and table salt
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Crystal Optics
CRYSTAL OPTICS is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in anisotropic media, that is, media (such as crystals ) in which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating . The index of refraction depends on both composition and crystal structure and can be calculated using the Gladstone–Dale relation . Crystals are often naturally anisotropic, and in some media (such as liquid crystals ) it is possible to induce anisotropy by applying an external electric field. CONTENTS* 1 Isotropic
Isotropic
media * 1.1 Electric susceptibility * 2 Anisotropic
Anisotropic
media * 3 Other effects * 4 References * 5 External links ISOTROPIC MEDIATypical transparent media such as glasses are isotropic , which means that light behaves the same way no matter which direction it is travelling in the medium
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Dichroism
In optics , a DICHROIC material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths (colours ) (not to be confused with dispersion ), or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts. CONTENTS * 1 In beam splitters * 2 With polarized light * 2.1 In liquid crystals * 3 See also * 4 References IN BEAM SPLITTERS Main article: Beam splitter
Beam splitter
The original meaning of dichroic, from the Greek dikhroos, two-coloured, refers to any optical device which can split a beam of light into two beams with differing wavelengths. Such devices include mirrors and filters , usually treated with optical coatings , which are designed to reflect light over a certain range of wavelengths, and transmit light which is outside that range
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Valence Electron
In chemistry , a VALENCE ELECTRON is an electron that is associated with an atom , and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond ; in a single covalent bond , both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair . The presence of valence electrons can determine the element 's chemical properties, such as its valence —whether it may bond with other elements and, if so, how readily and with how many. For a main group element , a valence electron can exist only in the outermost electron shell ; in a transition metal , a valence electron can also be in an inner shell. An atom with a closed shell of valence electrons (corresponding to an electron configuration s2p6) tends to be chemically inert
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Canada Balsam
CANADA BALSAM, also called CANADA TURPENTINE or BALSAM OF FIR, is a turpentine made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) of boreal North America
North America
. The resin, dissolved in essential oils , is a viscous , sticky, colourless or yellowish liquid that turns to a transparent yellowish mass when the essential oils have been allowed to evaporate. Canada balsam
Canada balsam
is amorphous when dried. Since it does not crystallize with age, its optical properties do not deteriorate. However, it has poor thermal and solvent resistance
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Quartz
QUARTZ is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra , with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2 . Quartz
Quartz
is the second most abundant mineral in Earth 's continental crust , behind feldspar . Quartz
Quartz
crystals are chiral , and exist in two forms, the normal α-quartz and the high-temperature β-quartz. The transformation from α-quartz to beta-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C (846 K). Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant change in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature limit. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones . Since antiquity, varieties of quartz have been the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings , especially in Eurasia
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Calcite
CALCITE is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (Ca C O 3). The Mohs scale of mineral hardness , based on scratch hardness comparison , defines value 3 as "calcite". Other polymorphs of calcium carbonate are the minerals aragonite and vaterite . Aragonite
Aragonite
will change to calcite at 380–470 °C, and vaterite is even less stable. CONTENTS* 1 Etymology * 1.1 "Alabaster", as used by archaeologists * 2 Properties * 3 Use and applications * 4 Natural occurrence * 5 Formation processes * 6 In Earth history * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading ETYMOLOGY Calcite
Calcite
is derived from the German Calcit, a term coined in the 19th century from the Latin word for lime , calx (genitive calcis) with the suffix -ite used to name minerals. It is thus etymologically related to chalk
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Refraction
REFRACTION is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium . The phenomenon is explained by the conservation of energy and the conservation of momentum . Due to the change of medium, the phase velocity of the wave is changed but its frequency remains constant. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another at any angle other than 0° from the normal. Refraction
Refraction
of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another or when water waves move into water of a different depth
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Plane Of Incidence
In describing reflection and refraction in optics , the PLANE OF INCIDENCE (also called the MERIDIONAL PLANE) is the plane which contains the surface normal and the propagation vector of the incoming radiation . In wave optics , the latter is the k-vector , or wavevector, of the incoming wave. When reflection is specular , as it is for a mirror or other shiny surface, the reflected light also lies in the plane of incidence. The orientation of the incident light's polarization with respect to the plane of incidence has an important effect on the strength of the reflection. S AND P POLARIZATIONS See also: Polarization (waves)
Polarization (waves)
§ s and p P-polarized light is incident linearly polarized light with polarization direction lying in the plane of incidence. S-polarized light has polarization perpendicular to the plane of incidence. The s in s-polarized comes from the German word senkrecht, meaning perpendicular
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Laser
A LASER is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation . The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION". The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories , based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes
Charles Hard Townes
and Arthur Leonard Schawlow . A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently . Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography . Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances (collimation ), enabling applications such as laser pointers
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