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Pastry
Pastry
Pastry
is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers' confectionery. The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or without the accent) for the same foods. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches and pasties.[1][2] Pastry
Pastry
can also refer to the pastry dough,[3] from which such baked products are made. Pastry
Pastry
dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked products. Pastry
Pastry
is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture
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Fruit Preserves
Fruit
Fruit
preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, and savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies, and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the fruit used
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Pie
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Starch Gelatinization
Starch
Starch
gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water. Water
Water
acts as a plasticizer. Three main processes happen to the starch granule: granule swelling, crystal or double helical melting, and amylose leaching.During heating, water is first absorbed in the amorphous space of starch, which leads to a swelling phenomenon.[1] Water
Water
then enters via amorphous regions the tightly bound areas of double helical structures of amylopectin. At ambient temperatures these crystalline regions do not allow water to enter
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Athens
Athens
Athens
(/ˈæθɪnz/;[3] Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina], Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece
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Chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate
(from náhuatl: xocolātl ) (/ˈtʃɒklɪt, -kəlɪt, -lət, ˈtʃɔːk-/ ( listen)) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs (Mexico), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE.[1] The majority of Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs.[2] The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted
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Pork Pie
A pork pie is a traditional British cold meat pie. It consists of roughly chopped pork and pork jelly sealed in a hot water crust pastry.[1] It is normally eaten as a snack or with a salad.Contents1 Types1.1 Common pie 1.2 Melton Mowbray
Melton Mowbray
pork pie 1.3 Yorkshire pork pie (Growler)2 Variations 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTypes[edit]Traditional pork pie is served coldCommon pie[edit] The common pie uses cured meat, giving the inside filling a pink colour. They are often produced in moulds or forms, giving the outside of the pie a very regular shape
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Game Pie
Game pie
Game pie
is a form of meat pie featuring game. The dish dates from Roman times when the main ingredients were wild birds and animals such as partridge, pheasant, deer, and hare. The pies reached their most elaborate form in Victorian England, with complex recipes and specialized moulds and serving dishes. Modern versions are simpler but savoury combinations of rabbit, venison, pigeon, pheasant, and other commercially available game.[1]Contents1 Early history 2 Tudor and Stuart periods 3 France 4 Golden age of game pies in England 5 Moulds and dishes 6 Later Victorians and the 20th century 7 Modern variants 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEarly history[edit] Game pies were consumed by the wealthy in the days of the Roman Empire
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Steak And Kidney Pie
Steak
Steak
and kidney pie is a savoury pie that is filled principally with a mixture of diced beef, diced kidney (often of beef, lamb, or pork), fried onion, and brown gravy. Steak
Steak
and kidney pie is a representative dish of British cuisine.Contents1 Pie 2 Popular culture 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksPie[edit] The gravy typically consists of salted beef broth flavoured with Worcestershire sauce
Worcestershire sauce
and black pepper, and thickened with refined flour, beurre manié, or corn starch. The gravy may also contain ale or stout
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Lard
Lard
Lard
is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high proportion of adipose tissue. It can be rendered by steaming it or boiling it in water and then separating the insoluble fat from the water, or by the use of dry heat. It is a semi-soft white fat with a high saturated fatty acid content and no transfats. Refined lard is usually sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Lard
Lard
is commonly used in many cuisines around the world as a cooking fat or shortening, or as a spread similar to butter. It is an ingredient in various savoury dishes such as sausages, pâtés and fillings, and it is particularly favored for the preparation of pastry because of the "flakiness" it brings to the product
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Yeast
Ascomycota
Ascomycota
p. p. Saccharomycotina
Saccharomycotina
(true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina
Taphrinomycotina
p. p. Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
p. p. Agaricomycotina
Agaricomycotina
p. p.Tremellomycetes Pucciniomycotina
Pucciniomycotina
p. p.MicrobotryomycetesYeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom
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Kneading
Kneading
Kneading
is a process in the making of bread or pasta dough, used to mix the ingredients and add strength to the final product. Its importance lies in the mixing of flour with water. When these two ingredients are combined and kneaded, the gliadin and glutenin proteins in the flour expand and form strands of gluten, which gives bread its texture.[1] (To aid gluten production, many recipes use bread flour, which is higher in protein than all-purpose flour.) The kneading process warms and stretches these gluten strands, eventually creating a springy and elastic dough. If bread dough is not kneaded enough, it will not be able to hold the tiny pockets of gas (CO2) created by the leavening agent (such as yeast or baking powder), and will collapse, leaving a heavy and dense loaf. Kneading
Kneading
can be performed by hand (the traditional way), with a mixer equipped with a dough hook, or with a bread machine
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Bread
Bread
Bread
is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been popular around the world and is one of the oldest artificial foods, having been of importance since the dawn of agriculture. Proportions of types of flour and other ingredients vary widely, as do modes of preparation. As a result, types, shapes, sizes, and textures of breads differ around the world. Bread
Bread
may be leavened by processes such as reliance on naturally occurring sourdough microbes, chemicals, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Some bread is cooked before it can leaven, including for traditional or religious reasons. Non-cereal ingredients such as fruits, nuts and fats may be included
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Cream
Cream
Cream
is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream
Cream
has high levels of saturated fat.[1][2] Cream
Cream
skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making
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Cabbage
Cabbage
Cabbage
or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea, and belongs to the "cole crops", meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. botrytis); Brussels sprouts (var. gemmifera); and savoy cabbage (var. sabauda). Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa
is commonly named Chinese, celery or napa cabbage and has many of the same uses. Cabbage
Cabbage
heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms (1 to 9 lb), and can be green, purple or white. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common. Smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors are more rare. It is a multi-layered vegetable
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Ingredients
An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture (in a general sense). For example, in cooking, recipes specify which ingredients are used to prepare a specific dish. Many commercial products contain a secret ingredient that is purported to make them better than competing products. In the pharmaceutical industry, an active ingredient is that part of a formulation that yields the effect expected by the customer. National laws usually require prepared food products to display a list of ingredients, and specifically require that certain additives be listed. In most developed countries, the law requires that ingredients be listed according to their relative weight[1] in the product
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