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Pastry
PASTRY is a dough of flour, water and shortening that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers\' confectionery . The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour , sugar , milk , butter , shortening , baking powder , and eggs . Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called PASTRIES. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or without the accent) for the same foods. Common pastry dishes include pies , tarts , quiches and pasties . Pastry
Pastry
can also refer to the PASTRY DOUGH , from which such baked products are made. Pastry
Pastry
dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked products. Pastry
Pastry
is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is light and airy and fatty, but firm enough to support the weight of the filling. When making a shortcrust pastry , care must be taken to blend the fat and flour thoroughly before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less likely to develop gluten . On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry
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Pastry (DHT)
PASTRY is an overlay and routing network for the implementation of a distributed hash table (DHT) similar to Chord . The key-value pairs are stored in a redundant peer-to-peer network of connected Internet hosts. The protocol is bootstrapped by supplying it with the IP address of a peer already in the network and from then on via the routing table which is dynamically built and repaired. It is claimed that because of its redundant and decentralized nature there is no single point of failure and any single node can leave the network at any time without warning and with little or no chance of data loss. The protocol is also capable of using a routing metric supplied by an outside program, such as ping or traceroute , to determine the best routes to store in its routing table. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Routing * 3 Applications built on Pastry
Pastry
* 3.1 PAST * 3.2 SCRIBE * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OVERVIEWAlthough the distributed hash table functionality of Pastry
Pastry
is almost identical to other DHTs , what sets it apart is the routing overlay network built on top of the DHT concept. This allows Pastry
Pastry
to realize the scalability and fault tolerance of other networks, while reducing the overall cost of routing a packet from one node to another by avoiding the need to flood packets
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Palmier
A PALMIER (French for "palm tree"), PIG\'S EAR or ELEPHANT EAR is a French pastry in a palm leaf shape or a butterfly shape, sometimes called palm leaves, cœur de France, French hearts, shoe-soles, jalebi or glasses. Palmiers are made from puff pastry , a laminated dough similar to the dough used for croissant , but without the yeast . Puff pastry is made with alternating layers of dough and butter, rolled and folded over to create possibly hundreds of flaky layers. The puff pastry is rolled out, coated with sugar, and then the two sides are rolled up together so that they meet in the middle, making a roll that is then cut into about 1⁄4 in (6 mm) slices and baked. Usually it is rolled in sugar before baking . In the Puerto Rican version, it is topped with honey. In Mexico they are known as orejas (ears). An arlette is a cinnamon -flavoured palmier biscuit
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Flour
FLOUR is a substance, generally a powder , made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods . Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread , which is a staple food for many cultures, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at various times throughout history. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic , European , South American , North American , Middle Eastern , North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries . While wheat is the most common base for flour, maize flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Diet food substitutes for sugar , include aspartame and sucralose , a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sugarcane and sugar beet in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction. The world production of sugar in 2011 was about 168 million tonnes. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in developed countries ), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day
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Milk
MILK is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum , which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose . As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy
Dairy
farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India
India
is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products. The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India
India
being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China
China
and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia
Russia
were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, there are more than six billion consumers of milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households
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Butter
BUTTER is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk . It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking , such as baking , sauce making, and pan frying . Butter consists of butterfat , milk proteins and water, and in some types, added salt. Butter may also be sold with added flavourings, such as garlic butter . Most frequently made from cows ' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals , including sheep , goats , buffalo , and yaks . Salt such as dairy salt , flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or _ghee _, which is almost entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream; in a water-in-oil emulsion, the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated , but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature , and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). The density of butter is 911 g/L (0.950 lb per US pint). It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white
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Shortening
SHORTENING is any fat that is a solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry and other food products. Shortening
Shortening
is used in pastries that should not be elastic, such as cake . Although butter is solid at room temperature and is frequently used in making pastry, the term "shortening" seldom refers to butter, but is more closely related to margarine . CONTENTS * 1 History and market * 2 Shortened dough * 3 Health concerns and reformulation * 4 References * 5 Bibliography HISTORY AND MARKET A 1918 advertisement for shortening Originally shortening was synonymous with lard , but with the invention of margarine by French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès in 1869, margarine also came to be included in the term. Since the invention of hydrogenated vegetable oil in the early 20th century, "shortening" has come almost exclusively to mean hydrogenated vegetable oil. Vegetable shortening shares many properties with lard: Both are semi-solid fats with a higher smoke point than butter and margarine. They contain less water and are thus less prone to splattering, making them safer for frying. Lard and shortening have a higher fat content compared to about 80% for butter and margarine. Cake margarines and shortenings tend to contain a few percent of monoglycerides whereas other margarines typically have less
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Baking Powder
BAKING POWDER is a dry chemical leavening agent , a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture. Baking powder is used instead of yeast for end-products where fermentation flavors would be undesirable or where the batter lacks the elastic structure to hold gas bubbles for more than a few minutes, or to speed the production. Because carbon dioxide is released at a faster rate through the acid-base reaction than through fermentation, breads made by chemical leavening are called quick breads . CONTENTS* 1 Formulation and mechanism * 1.1 Starch component * 2 Single vs double-acting baking powders * 3 History * 4 How much to use * 5 Substituting in recipes * 5.1 Substitute acids * 6 Usage of aluminium compounds * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links FORMULATION AND MECHANISMMost commercially available baking powders are made up of sodium bicarbonate (also known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda) and one or more acid salts . Typical formulations (by weight) call for 30% sodium bicarbonate, 5-12% monocalcium phosphate , and 21-26% sodium aluminum sulfate
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Egg (food)
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds , reptiles , amphibians , and fish , and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird
Bird
and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell , albumen (egg white ), and vitellus (egg yolk ), contained within various thin membranes. The most popular choice for egg consumption are chicken eggs. Other popular choices for egg consumption are duck , quail , roe , and caviar . Egg
Egg
yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline , and are widely used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid . Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage, and individual allergies. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are widely kept throughout the world, and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens. There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union
European Union
banned battery husbandry of chickens
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Blackberry Pie
BLACKBERRY PIE is a pie composed of blackberry filling, usually in the form of either blackberry jam, actual blackberries themselves, or some combination thereof. Blackberry pie is tart , so it requires more sugar than blueberry pie . Blackberries can be stewed or soaked in water before baking to prevent burning, an issue not present in preparing blueberry pie. SEE ALSO * List of pies, tarts and flans
List of pies, tarts and flans
NOTES Wikimedia Commons has media related to BLACKBERRY PIES . * ^ Farmer, Fannie. Boston Cooking School Cook Book
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Savoriness
SAVORINESS (also spelled _savouriness_) is a quality of food that deals with a rich, salty flavor, as contrasted with sweetness , which is a sugary flavor. Savory foods include potato chips , cheeseburgers , tacos and pizza , while excluding foods like cinnamon rolls or lollipops . Analyses of different food markets often break down the snack food market into sweet and savory snacks. In addition, countries where the word "cookie " or "muffin " is ambiguous might, for example, clarify using either the phrase "sweet muffin" or "savory muffin". REFERENCES _ This food -related article is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Savoriness additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Flour Confections
CONFECTIONERY, also called SWEETS or CANDY, is sweet food. The term varies among English-speaking countries. In general, though, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, BAKERS\' CONFECTIONS and SUGAR CONFECTIONS. Bakers' confectionery, also called FLOUR CONFECTIONS, includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, and similar baked goods . In the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections are more dominant. Sugar
Sugar
confectionery includes sweets, candy, candied nuts, chocolates, chewing gum and bubblegum, sweetmeats, pastillage , and other confections that are made primarily of sugar. In some cases, CHOCOLATE CONFECTIONS (confections made of chocolate ) are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. The words candy (US and Canada), sweets (UK and Ireland), and lollies (Australia and New Zealand) are common words for the most common varieties of sugar confectionery . The confectionery industry also includes specialized training schools and extensive historical records. Traditional confectionery goes back to ancient times, and continued to be eaten through the Middle Ages into the modern era
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Baking
BAKING is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven , but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking
Baking
can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking
Baking
is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit . Because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally been performed at home by women for domestic consumption and by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories. The art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods, especially breads, are a common and important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker
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Tarts
A TART is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a pastry base with an open top not covered with pastry. The pastry is usually shortcrust pastry ; the filling may be sweet or savoury, though modern tarts are usually fruit-based, sometimes with custard . TARTLET refers to a miniature tart; an example would be egg tarts . The categories of 'tart', 'flan ', 'quiche ', and 'pie ' overlap, with no sharp distinctions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Varieties * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Apple Tart The French word tarte can be translated to mean either pie or tart, as both are mainly the same with the exception of a pie usually cove