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Pastry
PASTRY is a dough of flour, water and shortening that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers\' confectionery . The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour , sugar , milk , butter , shortening , baking powder , and eggs . Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called PASTRIES. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or without the accent) for the same foods. Common pastry dishes include pies , tarts , quiches and pasties . Pastry
Pastry
can also refer to the PASTRY DOUGH , from which such baked products are made. Pastry
Pastry
dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked products. Pastry
Pastry
is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture
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Cream
CREAM is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization . In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators ". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream
Cream
has high levels of saturated fat . Cream
Cream
skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey , a by-product of cheese -making. Whey
Whey
cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy". In many countries, cream is usually sold partially fermented: sour cream , crème fraîche , and so on
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Cabbage
CABBAGE or HEADED CABBAGE (comprising several cultivars of BRASSICA OLERACEA ) is a leafy green or purple biennial plant , grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea , and is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. botrytis), Brussels sprouts (var. gemmifera) and savoy cabbage (var. sabauda) which are sometimes called cole crops . Cabbage
Cabbage
heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms (1 to 9 lb), and can be green, purple and white. Smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. It is a multi-layered vegetable. Under conditions of long sunlit days such as are found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow much larger. Some records are discussed at the end of the history section
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Starch Gelatinization
STARCH GELATINIZATION is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water. Water
Water
acts as a plasticizer . Three main processes happen to the starch granule: granule swelling, crystal or double helical melting, and amylose leaching. * During heating, water is first absorbed in the amorphous space of starch, which leads to a swelling phenomenon. * Water
Water
then enters via amorphous regions the tightly bound areas of double helical structures of amylopectin . At ambient temperatures these crystalline regions do not allow water to enter. Heat causes such regions to become diffuse, the amylose chains begin to dissolve, to separate into an amorphous form and the number and size of crystalline regions decreases
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Chocolate
CHOCOLATE /ˈtʃɒklᵻt, -kəlᵻt/ ( listen ) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala
Guatemala
), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs , who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation: , a Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor
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Fruit Preserves
FRUIT PRESERVES are preparations of fruits , vegetables and sugar , often canned or sealed for long-term storage. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot , and savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash . The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies, and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the fruit used. In English, the word, in plural form, "preserves" is used to describe all types of jams and jellies
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Pork Pie
A PORK PIE is a traditional British cold meat pie . It consists of roughly chopped pork and pork jelly sealed in a hot water crust pastry . It is normally eaten as a snack or with a salad. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Common pie * 1.2 Melton Mowbray pork pie * 1.3 Yorkshire pork pie (Growler) * 2 Variations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPES Traditional pork pie is served cold COMMON PIEThe common pie uses cured meat , giving the inside filling a pink colour. They are often produced in moulds or forms, giving the outside of the pie a very regular shape. It is easier, simpler and cheaper to produce in volume, and hence the more common choice for commercial manufacturers. An annual pork pie competition is held in April at The Old Bridge Inn, Ripponden , Yorkshire
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Pasta
PASTA (Italian pronunciation: ) is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine
Italian cuisine
, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily
Sicily
. Also commonly used to refer to the variety of pasta dishes , pasta is typically a noodle made from an unleavened dough of a durum wheat flour mixed with water or eggs and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking . It can also be made with flour from other cereals or grains . Pastas may be divided into two broad categories, dried (pasta secca) and fresh (pasta fresca). Most dried pasta is commercially produced via an extrusion process although it can be produced in most homes. Fresh pasta was traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines, but today many varieties of fresh pasta are also commercially produced by large-scale machines, and the products are widely available in supermarkets
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Laminated Dough
LAMINATED DOUGH is a culinary preparation consisting of many thin layers of dough separated by butter , produced by repeated folding and rolling . Such doughs may contain over eighty layers. During baking, water in the butter vaporizes and expands, causing the dough to puff up and separate, while the lipids in the butter essentially fry the dough, resulting in a light, flaky product. Examples of laminated doughs include: * Croissant
Croissant
pastry * Danish pastry * Flaky pastry * Kubaneh * Puff pastry SEE ALSO * Food portal * Dough
Dough
sheeting , an industrial preparation technique * Filo pastry, used in applications such as baklava , strudel , and spanikopita , where the dough itself is not laminatedREFERENCES * ^ King, Andy; King, Jackie. "Laminated Dough: A Guest Post from Bakery Owner Andy King". King Arthur Flour
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Bread
BREAD is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water , usually by baking . Throughout recorded history it has been popular around the world and is one of the oldest artificial foods, having been of importance since the dawn of agriculture . Proportions of types of flour and other ingredients vary widely, as do modes of preparation. As a result, types, shapes, sizes, and textures of breads differ around the world. Bread
Bread
may be leavened by processes such as reliance on naturally occurring sourdough microbes, chemicals, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Some bread is cooked before it can leaven, including for traditional or religious reasons. Non-cereal ingredients such as fruits, nuts and fats may be included. Commercial bread commonly contains additives to improve flavor, texture, color, shelf life, and ease of manufacturing. Bread
Bread
is served in various forms with any meal of the day
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Game Pie
GAME PIE is a form of meat pie featuring game . The dish dates from Roman times when the main ingredients were wild birds and animals such as partridge , pheasant , deer , and hare . The pies reached their most elaborate form in Victorian England , with complex recipes and specialized moulds and serving dishes. Modern versions are simpler but savoury combinations of rabbit , venison , pigeon , pheasant, and other commercially available game. CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 Tudor and Stuart periods * 3 France * 4 Golden age of game pies in England * 5 Moulds and dishes * 6 Later Victorians and the 20th century
20th century
* 7 Modern variants * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links EARLY HISTORYGame pies were consumed by the wealthy in the days of the Roman Empire . Wilhelm Adolf Becker states that the emperor Augustus consumed pies that contained chicken, pheasants, pigeon, and duck
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Savoriness
SAVORINESS (also spelled savouriness) is a quality of food that deals with a rich, salty flavor, as contrasted with sweetness , which is a sugary flavor. Savory foods include potato chips , cheeseburgers , tacos and pizza , while excluding foods like cinnamon rolls or lollipops . Analyses of different food markets often break down the snack food market into sweet and savory snacks. In addition, countries where the word "cookie " or "muffin " is ambiguous might, for example, clarify using either the phrase "sweet muffin" or "savory muffin". REFERENCES This food -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Lard
LARD is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high proportion of adipose tissue . It can be rendered by steaming it or boiling it in water and then separating the insoluble fat from the water, or by the use of dry heat. It is a semi-soft white fat with a high saturated fatty acid content and no transfats. Refined lard is usually sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Lard
Lard
is commonly used in many cuisines around the world as a cooking fat or shortening , or as a spread similar to butter . It is an ingredient in various savoury dishes such as sausages, pâtés and fillings, and it is particularly favored for the preparation of pastry because of the "flakiness" it brings to the product. Its use in western contemporary cuisine has diminished with the increased popularity of vegetable oils, but many contemporary cooks and bakers still favor it over other fats for certain select uses
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Milk
MILK is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum , which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose . As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy
Dairy
farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India
India
is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
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Flour
FLOUR is a substance, generally a powder , made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods . Cereal
Cereal
flour is the main ingredient of bread , which is a staple food for many cultures, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at various times throughout history. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic , European , South American , North American , Middle Eastern , North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries . While wheat is the most common base for flour, maize flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye
Rye
flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe
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