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Manis Mastodon Site
78002736 ADDED TO NRHP March 21, 1978The MANIS MASTODON SITE is a 2-acre (1 ha) archaeological site on the Olympic Peninsula
Olympic Peninsula
near Sequim, Washington
Sequim, Washington
, United States. During the dig, the remains of an American mastodon was recovered which had a projectile made of the bone from a different mastodon embedded in its rib. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. HISTORYOn August 8, 1977, a farmer named Emanuel Manis was excavating his property with a backhoe , when he found the tusks of an American mastodon . After making several calls, Manis soon had an archaeological dig on his property, led by Dr. Carl Gustafson of Washington State University
Washington State University
. On the first day of digging, a rib bone was excavated, that had what appeared to be a spear point made from the bone of a different mastodon embedded in it. The "spear point" had bone growth around it, indicating that the point had not caused the mastodon's death. Because of this, Gustafson deemed the point the earliest known evidence of interaction between humans and mastodons. However, there was no consensus in the archaeological field as to whether or not this was provable, because of the lack of indisputable proof that the point was made by humans
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National Register Of Historic Places
The NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (NRHP) is the United States federal government 's official list of districts , sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts . Each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service(NPS), an agency within the United States Department of the Interior . Its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation , coordinate, identify, and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed
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Sequim, Washington
SEQUIM /ˈskwɪm/ ( listen ) is a city in Clallam County, Washington , United States. The 2010 census counted a population of 6,606. Sequim with the surrounding area has a population of about 28,000. Sequim is located along the Dungeness River near the base of the Olympic Mountains . The population served by the Sequim School District population is a little over 29,000. The city has been increasing in population in recent years due to the influx of retirees seeking good weather and a relaxed lifestyle. Sequim lies within the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains and receives on average less than 16 inches (410 mm) of rain per year—about the same as Los Angeles, California—and has given itself the nickname of Sunny Sequim. Yet the city is fairly close to some of the wettest temperate rainforests of the contiguous United States . This climate anomaly is sometimes called the blue hole of Sequim. Fogs and cool breezes from the Juan de Fuca Strait make Sequim's environment more humid than would be expected from the low average annual precipitation. Some places have surprisingly luxuriant forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western red cedar . Black cottonwood , red alder , bigleaf maple , Pacific madrone , lodgepole pine , and Garry oak can also be large
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Archaeological Site
An ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record . Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. An archaeological site with human presence dating from 4th century BC, Fillipovka, South Urals, Russia . This site has been interpreted as a Sarmatian Kurgan . Pulli settlement is the oldest known settlement in Estonia and it dates back around 11,000 years. Archaeological excavations here were carried out in the 1960s and 70s. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a "site" can vary widely, depending on the period studied and the theoretical approach of the archaeologist. It is almost invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must also define the limits of human activity around the settlement. Any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage (or the benefit) of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development
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Olympic Peninsula
The OLYMPIC PENINSULA is the large arm of land in western Washington that lies across Puget Sound
Puget Sound
from Seattle
Seattle
. It is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean , the north by the Strait of Juan de Fuca , and the east by Hood Canal. Cape Alava , the westernmost point in the contiguous United States
United States
, and Cape Flattery , the northwesternmost point, are on the peninsula. Comprising about 3600 square miles, the Olympic Peninsula
Olympic Peninsula
contained many of the last unexplored places in the contiguous United States
United States
. It remained largely unmapped until Arthur Dodwell and Theodore Rixon mapped most of its topography and timber resources between 1898 and 1900. CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 Climate * 2 Politics * 3 Gallery * 4 Cities and towns * 4.1 Population of at least 10,000 * 4.2 Population of at least 5,000 * 4.3 Population of at least 1,000 * 4.4 Population of less than 1,000 * 5 References * 6 External links GEOGRAPHYThe Olympic Peninsula
Olympic Peninsula
is home to temperate rain forests , including the Hoh , Queets Rain Forest, and Quinault
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American Mastodon
MASTODONS (Greek : μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct mammutid proboscideans in the genus MAMMUT, distantly related to elephants , that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene
Miocene
or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago. Mastodons lived in herds and were predominantly forest dwelling animals that fed on a mixed diet obtained by browsing and grazing with a seasonal preference for browsing, similar to living elephants. M. americanum, the American mastodon, is the youngest and best-known species of the genus. They disappeared from North America
North America
as part of a mass extinction of most of the Pleistocene megafauna , widely presumed to have been related to overexploitation by Clovis hunters , and possibly also to climate change. CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy * 1.1 Evolution * 2 Description * 3 Paleobiology * 3.1 Social behavior * 3.2 Diet * 4 Distribution and habitat * 5 Extinction * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links TAXONOMY Exhuming the First American Mastodon, 1806 painting by Charles Willson Peale The first remnant of Mammut, a tooth some 2.2 kg (5 lb) in weight, was discovered in the village of Claverack, New York , in 1705. The mystery animal became known as the "incognitum"
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Backhoe
A BACKHOE, also called a REAR ACTOR or BACK ACTOR, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader , the latter forming a 'backhoe loader ' (colloquially known as a JCB in Ireland and UK). The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the DIPPER or dipper-stick, terms derived from steam shovels ). The boom is generally attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the king-post, which allows the arm to pivot left and right, usually through a total of around 180–200 degrees. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Thumb * 3 Origins * 4 Backhoe
Backhoe
fade * 5 Notable manufacturers * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links CHARACTERISTICS Kobelco Excavator
Excavator
in shovel configuration The name "backhoe" refers to the action of the shovel, not its location on the vehicle: a backhoe digs by drawing earth backwards, rather than lifting it with a forward motion like a man shovelling, a steam shovel or a bulldozer
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Washington State University
WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY (WSU) is a public research university in Pullman, Washington , in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. Founded in 1890, WSU (colloquially "Wazzu") is a land-grant university with programs in chemical engineering, veterinary medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, neuroscience, food science, plant science, mathematics, business, architecture, and communications. It is ranked in the top 140 universities in America with high research activity, as determined by U.S. News "> Thompson and Bryan Halls in 1925 Enoch A. Bryan, appointed July 22, 1893, was the first influential president of WSU. Bryan held graduate degrees from Harvard and Columbia and previously served as the president of Vincennes University in Indiana. Prior to Bryan's arrival, the fledgling university suffered through significant organizational instability. Bryan guided WSU toward respectability and is arguably the most influential figure in the history of the university. The landmark clock tower in the center of campus is his namesake. WSU's role as a statewide institution became clear in 1894 with the launch of its first agricultural experiment station west of the Cascade Mountains
Cascade Mountains
near Puyallup . WSU has subsequently established extension offices and research centers in all regions of the state, with major research facilities in Prosser , Mount Vernon , and Wenatchee
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Spear
A SPEAR is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood , with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint , obsidian , iron , steel or bronze . The most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge , or leaf. The heads of fishing spears usually feature barbs or serrated edges. The word _spear_ comes from the Old English _spere_, from the Proto-Germanic _speri_, from a Proto-Indo-European root _*sper-_ "spear, pole". Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting in melee combat and those designed for throwing (usually referred to as javelins ). The spear has been used throughout human history both as a hunting and fishing tool and as a weapon. Along with the axe , knife and club , it is one of the earliest and most important tools developed by early humans. As a weapon, it may be wielded with either one hand or two. It was used in virtually every conflict up until the modern era , where even then it continues on in the form of the bayonet , and is probably the most commonly used weapon in history
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Mount Mazama
MOUNT MAZAMA is a volcano in the Oregon
Oregon
segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascade Range located in the United States
United States
. The volcano 's collapsed caldera holds Crater Lake , and the entire mountain is located within Crater Lake National Park . Its caldera was created by an eruption 42 times greater than the one of Mount St. Helens in 1980. Mazama's summit was destroyed by a volcanic eruption that occurred around 5677 BC, ± 150 years. The eruption reduced Mazama's approximate 12,000-foot (3,700 m) height by about 1 mile (1,600 m). Much of the volcano fell into the volcano's partially emptied neck and magma chamber . At 8,159 feet (2,487 m), Hillman Peak is now the highest point on the rim. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Name * 3 Geology * 3.1 Growth phase * 3.2 Silica
Silica
enrichment * 3.3 Explosive phase * 3.4 Aftermath * 3.5 Post-collapse phase * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References HISTORYThe Klamath Native Americans of the area believed that the mountain was inhabited by Llao , their god of the underworld . After the mountain destroyed itself the Klamaths recounted the events as a great battle between Llao and his rival Skell, their sky god
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Carex
CAREX is a vast genus of almost 2,000 species of grassy plants in the family Cyperaceae , commonly known as sedges (or seg, in older books). Other members of the Cyperaceae family are also called sedges, however those of genus Carex
Carex
may be called "true" sedges, and it is the most species-rich genus in the family. The study of Carex
Carex
is known as CARICOLOGY. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Ecology and distribution * 3 Taxonomy and cytogenetics * 4 Uses * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONAll species of Carex
Carex
are perennial , although some species, such as C. bebbii and C. viridula can fruit in their first year of growth, and may not survive longer. They typically have rhizomes , stolons or short rootstocks , but some species grow in tufts (caespitose ). The culm – the flower-bearing stalk – is unbranched and usually erect. It is usually distinctly triangular in section. The leaves of Carex
Carex
comprise a blade, which extends away from the stalk, and a sheath, which encloses part of the stalk. The blade is normally long and flat, but may be folded, inrolled, channelled or absent. The leaves have parallel veins and a distinct midrib. Where the blade meets the culm there is a structure called the ligule
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Cattail
TYPHA /ˈtaɪfə/ is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae . These plants have many common names, in British English as BULRUSH, or REEDMACE, in American English as CATTAIL, PUNKS, or CORN DOG GRASS, in Australia
Australia
as CUMBUNGI or BULRUSH, in Canada
Canada
as BULRUSH or CATTAIL, and in New Zealand as RAUPō. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush , including some sedges in Scirpus and related genera. The genus is largely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats. The rhizomes are edible. Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were already eaten in Europe
Europe
30,000 years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 General ecology * 3 Accepted species and natural hybrids * 4 Uses * 4.1 Chair seating * 4.2 Culinary uses * 4.3 Agriculture * 4.4 Building material * 4.5 Paper
Paper
* 4.6 Fiber * 4.7 Biofuel * 4.8 Other uses * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTION Typha
Typha
are aquatic or semi-aquatic, rhizomatous, herbaceous perennial plants . :925 The leaves are glabrous (hairless), linear, alternate and mostly basal on a simple, jointless stem that bears the flowering spikes
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Shepherdia Canadensis
SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS, commonly called CANADA BUFFALOBERRY, RUSSET BUFFALOBERRY, SOOPOLALLIE, SOAPBERRY, or FOAMBERRY (Ktunaxa : kupaʔtiǂ, ) is one of a small number of shrubs of the genus Shepherdia that bears edible berries . The fruit is usually red, but one species has yellow berries . The berries have a bitter taste. The species is widespread in all of Canada
Canada
, except in Prince Edward Island , and in the western and northern United States
United States
, including Alaska
Alaska
and Idaho
Idaho
. The plant is a deciduous shrub of open woodlands and thickets, growing to a maximum of 1–4 m (3.3–13.1 ft). CONTENTS * 1 Harvest and consumption * 2 Etymology of "soopolallie" * 3 Gallery * 4 References * 5 External links HARVEST AND CONSUMPTIONSome Canadian First Nations peoples such as Nlaka\'pamux (Thompson), St\'at\'imc (Lillooet), and Secwepemc (Shuswap) in the Province of British Columbia extensively collect the berries
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Rubus
_RUBUS_ is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae , subfamily Rosoideae , with 250–700 species. Raspberries , blackberries , and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The _Rubus_ fruit , sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets . The term "cane fruit" (or "cane-fruit") applies to any _Rubus_ species or hybrid which is commonly grown with supports such as wires or canes, including raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids such as loganberry , boysenberry , marionberry and tayberry . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Hybrid berries * 3 Scientific classification * 4 Fossil record * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWMost species are hermaphrodites , _ Rubus chamaemorus _ being an exception. The blackberries, as well as various other _Rubus_ species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles . However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species, such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species. The generic name means blackberry in Latin and was derived from the word _ruber_, meaning "red"
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Rose
See List of _Rosa_ species SYNONYMS * _Hulthemia_ Dumort. * ×_Hulthemosa_ Juz. (_Hulthemia_ × _Rosa_)A ROSE is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus _ROSA_, in the family Rosaceae , or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars . They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles . Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia , with smaller numbers native to Europe , North America , and northwestern Africa . Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses . The name _rose_ comes from French, itself from Latin _rosa_, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan , from Greek ρόδον _rhódon_ (Aeolic βρόδον _wródon_), itself borrowed from Old Persian _wrd-_ (_wurdi_), related to Avestan _varəδa_, Sogdian _ward_, Parthian _wâr_
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Willow
About 400. See List of _Salix_ species WILLOWS, also called SALLOWS, and OSIERS, form the genus _SALIX_, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs , found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere . Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called OSIER, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as SALLOW (from Old English _sealh_, related to the Latin
Latin
word _salix_, willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow (_Salix herbacea _) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2.4 in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Flowers * 2 Cultivation * 3 Hybrids * 4 Ecological issues * 5 Pests and diseases * 6 Uses * 6.1 Medicine * 6.2 Manufacturing * 6.3 Other * 7 Culture * 8 Selected species * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links DESCRIPTION At the base of the petiole a pair of stipules form. These may fall in spring, or last for much of the summer or even for more than one year (marcescence ). Willows all have abundant watery bark sap , which is heavily charged with salicylic acid , soft, usually pliant, tough wood , slender branches, and large, fibrous, often stoloniferous roots
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