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Light
LIGHT is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum . The word usually refers to VISIBLE LIGHT, which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight . Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), or 4.00 × 10−7 to 7.00 × 10−7 m, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430–750 terahertz (THz). The main source of light on Earth
Earth
is the Sun
Sun
. Sunlight
Sunlight
provides the energy that green plants use to create sugars mostly in the form of starches, which release energy into the living things that digest them. This process of photosynthesis provides virtually all the energy used by living things
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Mathematical Constant
A MATHEMATICAL CONSTANT is a special number , usually a real number , that is "significantly interesting in some way". Constants arise in many areas of mathematics , with constants such as e and π occurring in such diverse contexts as geometry , number theory , and calculus . What it means for a constant to arise "naturally", and what makes a constant "interesting", is ultimately a matter of taste, and some mathematical constants are notable more for historical reasons than for their intrinsic mathematical interest. The more popular constants have been studied throughout the ages and computed to many decimal places. All mathematical constants are definable numbers and usually are also computable numbers (Chaitin\'s constant being a significant exception)
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Visual Perception
VISUAL PERCEPTION is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, EYESIGHT, SIGHT, or VISION (adjectival form : visual, optical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system , and are the focus of much research in linguistics , psychology , cognitive science , neuroscience , and molecular biology , collectively referred to as vision science
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Nanometre
The NANOMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI symbol: NM) or NANOMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one billionth of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms . When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as in "nanoscience"), NANO refers to nanotechnology , or phenomena typically occurring on a scale of nanometres (see nanoscopic scale )
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Physicist
A PHYSICIST is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics , the exploration of the interactions of matter and energy across the physical universe. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Education * 3.1 Honors and awards * 4 Careers * 5 Professional Certification * 5.1 United Kingdom * 5.2 Canada * 5.3 South Africa * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links OVERVIEWA physicist is a scientist who specializes or works in the field of physics. The field generally includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments, and theoretical physicists who employ mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena
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Infrared Sensing In Snakes
The ability to sense infrared thermal radiation evolved independently in several different families of snakes . Essentially, it allows these animals to "see" radiant heat at wavelengths between 5 and 30 μm to a degree of accuracy such that a blind rattlesnake can target vulnerable body parts of the prey at which it strikes, and other snakes with the organ may detect warm bodies from a metre away. It was previously thought that the organs evolved primarily as prey detectors, but recent evidence suggests that it may also be used in thermoregulation and predator detection, making it a more general-purpose sensory organ than was supposed. CONTENTS * 1 Phylogeny and evolution * 2 Anatomy
Anatomy
* 2.1 Neuroanatomy * 2.2 Molecular mechanism * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTIONThe facial pit underwent parallel evolution in pitvipers and some boas and pythons
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Thermal Imaging
INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY (IRT), THERMAL IMAGING, and THERMAL VIDEO are examples of infrared imaging science . Thermographic cameras usually detect radiation in the long-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 9,000–14,000 nanometers or 9–14 µm ) and produce images of that radiation, called THERMOGRAMS. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero according to the black body radiation law , thermography makes it possible to see one's environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; humans and other warm-blooded animals become easily visible against the environment, day or night
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Metre Per Second
METRE PER SECOND ( American English
American English
: METER PER SECOND) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar ) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds . The SI unit symbols are m·s−1, m s−1, m/s, or m/s, sometimes (unofficially) abbreviated as "mps". Where metres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in kilometres per second, where 1 km/s is 1000 metres per second, sometimes unofficially abbreviated as "kps"
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Galileo Galilei
GALILEO GALILEI (Italian: ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath . Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution . Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system . He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of the absence of an observed stellar parallax
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Visible Light (other)
VISIBLE LIGHT may refer to light , or to: * The visible spectrum * A work included in The Collected Short Fiction of C. J
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Rod Cell
ROD CELLS are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells . Rods are usually found concentrated at the outer edges of the retina and are used in peripheral vision . On average, there are approximately 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Rod cells are more sensitive than cone cells and are almost entirely responsible for night vision. However, rods have little role in color vision , which is one of the main reasons why colors are much less apparent in darkness. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Function * 2.1 Photoreception * 2.2 Reversion to the resting state * 2.3 Desensitization * 2.4 Sensitivity * 3 References * 4 External links STRUCTURERods are a little longer and leaner than cones but have the same basic structure
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Intensity (physics)
In physics , INTENSITY is the power transferred per unit area , where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy. In the SI system, it has units watts per square metre (W/m2). It is used most frequently with waves (e.g. sound or light ), in which case the average power transfer over one period of the wave is used. Intensity can be applied to other circumstances where energy is transferred. For example, one could calculate the intensity of the kinetic energy carried by drops of water from a garden sprinkler . The word "intensity" as used here is not synonymous with "strength", "amplitude", "magnitude", or "level", as it sometimes is in colloquial speech. Intensity can be found by taking the energy density (energy per unit volume) at a point in space and multiplying it by the velocity at which the energy is moving. The resulting vector has the units of power divided by area (i.e., surface power density )
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Near And Far Field
The NEAR FIELD and FAR FIELD are regions of the electromagnetic field around an object, such as a transmitting antenna , or the result of radiation scattering off an object. Non-radiative 'near-field' behaviours of electromagnetic fields dominate close to the antenna or scattering object, while electromagnetic radiation 'far-field' behaviours dominate at greater distances. Far-field E and B field strength decreases inversely with distance from the source, resulting in an inverse-square law for the radiated power intensity of electromagnetic radiation . By contrast, near-field E and B strength decrease more rapidly with distance (with inverse-distance squared or cubed), resulting in relative lack of near-field effects within a few wavelengths of the radiator
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Cone Cell
CONE CELLS, or CONES, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye ). They are responsible for color vision and function best in relatively bright light , as opposed to rod cells , which work better in dim light. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea centralis , a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones which quickly reduce in number towards the periphery of the retina. There are about six to seven million cones in a human eye and are most concentrated towards the macula . The commonly cited figure of six million cone cells in the human eye was found by Osterberg in 1935. Oyster's textbook (1999) cites work by Curcio et al. (1990) indicating an average close to 4.5 million cone cells and 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Cones are less sensitive to light than the rod cells in the retina (which support vision at low light levels), but allow the perception of colour
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Microwave
MICROWAVES are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (100 cm) and 300 GHz (0.1 cm). Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter wave ) bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz (300 and 3 mm). In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S , C , X , Ku , K , or Ka band , or by similar NATO or EU designations. The prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. It indicates that microwaves are "small", compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology, in that they have shorter wavelengths
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Spectrum
A SPECTRUM (plural spectra or spectrums ) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum . The word was first used scientifically in optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible light after passing through a prism . As scientific understanding of light advanced, it came to apply to the entire electromagnetic spectrum . Spectrum
Spectrum
has since been applied by analogy to topics outside of optics. Thus, one might talk about the "spectrum of political opinion ", or the "spectrum of activity" of a drug, or the "autism spectrum ". In these uses, values within a spectrum may not be associated with precisely quantifiable numbers or definitions. Such uses imply a broad range of conditions or behaviors grouped together and studied under a single title for ease of discussion. Nonscientific uses of the term spectrum are sometimes misleading
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