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Kris
Javanese (mainly & originally) * Also familiar to Malays, Filipinos, Sundanese, Banjar, Madurese, Balinese, Moro, Siamese, Bugis, MakassarWars Pamalayu expedition, Mongol invasion of Java, Battle of Bubat, Majapahit
Majapahit
civil war, Burmese-Siamese wars, Siege of Batavia, Diponegoro War, Indonesian National Revolution, Spanish–Moro conflict, Philippine–American War, Pacific WarProduction historyProduced disputed (?) to presentVariants KalisSpecificationsBlade type Double edged nickelous iron or steelHilt type Ivory, bone, horn, wooden or metals. Sometimes coated with gold or silver and decorated with gemstonesScabbard/sheath Wooden frame covered and decorated with ivory or metals (gold, silver, copper, iron, brass, or steel)This article contains letters from the Javanese script
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Jawi Alphabet
Jawi (Jawi: جاوي‬ Jāwī; Pattani: Yawi; Acehnese: Jawoë) is an Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
for writing the Malay language, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two official scripts in Brunei
Brunei
and is used as an alternative script in Malaysia
Malaysia
and Malay-dominated areas in Indonesia. It used to be the standard script for the Malay language
Malay language
but has since been replaced by a Latin alphabet, called Rumi. Jawi has since been relegated to a script used for religious, cultural and some administrative purposes Jawi can be typed with the Jawi keyboard
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Steel
Steel
Steel
is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Iron
Iron
is the base metal of steel. Iron
Iron
is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its temperature. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube
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Indonesian National Revolution
Indonesian victoryDutch recognition of the United States of Indonesia
United States of Indonesia
in the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table ConferenceBelligerents IndonesiaPDRI TNI Japanese volunteers (from 1946)  Indian defectors (from 1946)  Netherlands
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Java War
Dutch victory; rebellion crushed Diponegoro
Diponegoro
deported to Makassar[1]Belligerents Dutch Empire Pro-Dutch Javanese Javanese rebels Chinese mercenariesCommanders and leaders Hendrik Merkus de Kock Diponegoro (POW)Units involvedTentara Republik Indonesia
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Siege Of Batavia
Dutch victory The Mataram siege repelledBelligerents The Sultanate of Mataram The Dutch East Indies CompanyCommanders and leaders Sultan Agung
Sultan Agung
of Mataram Jan Pieterszoon CoenStrength10,000 (first siege) 14,000 (second siege) 530 (first siege)  ? (second siege)v t eCampaigns of the Mataram SultanateEast Java
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Burmese-Siamese Wars
The Burmese–Siamese wars were a series of wars fought between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries.[1][2]Contents1 Toungoo–Ayutthaya 2 Konbaung–Ayutthaya 3 Konbaung–Thonburi 4 Konbaung–Rattanakosin 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesToungoo–Ayutthaya[edit]No. Name Results Notes1 Burmese–Siamese War (1547–49) Siamese defensive victory First Siege of Ayutthaya Siam defeats first Burmese invasion[3]:14–262 Burmese–Siamese War (1563–64) Burmese victory Second Siege of Ayutthaya also called the War over the White Elephants. Siam becomes Burmese vassal (1564–1568)[3]:27–413 Burmese–Siamese War (1568–70) Burmese victory Third Siege of Ayutthaya Siam again becomes Burmese vassal (1569–1584)[3]:42–64
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Paregreg War
Paregreg war was the Majapahit
Majapahit
civil war that took place in 1404-1406. The war was fought as the contest of succession between Western court led by Wikramawardhana, against Eastern court led by Bhre Wirabhumi. This war of rivalry and succession had caused the calamity, crisis, court's preoccupation, the drain of financial resources, and exhaustion, that is thought to be one of the causes of Majapahit decline in the following years.[1]Contents1 The division of West and East courts 2 Bhre Wirabhumi and Wikramawardhana rivalry 3 Paregreg war 4 The aftermath 5 Paregreg war in Javanese literature 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyThe division of West and East courts[edit] The Majapahit
Majapahit
kingdom was established in 1293 by Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
with the help of cunning and able Arya Wiraraja, the Regent of Madura
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Battle Of Bubat
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Mongol Invasion Of Java
The Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Java
Java
was a military effort made by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(one of the fragments of the Mongol Empire), to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia. In 1293, he sent a large invasion fleet to Java
Java
with 20,000[1] to 30,000 soldiers. This was a punitive expedition against King Kertanegara
Kertanegara
of Singhasari, who had refused to pay tribute to the Yuan and maimed one of its ministers. However, it ended with failure for the Mongols.Contents1 Background 2 Invasion 3 Aftermath 4 References 5 Further readingBackground[edit] Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty, the principal khanate of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, had sent envoys to many states to ask them to put themselves under his protection and pay tribute
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Pamalayu Expedition
The Pamalayu campaign was a military expeditionary force sent by Javanese King Kertanegara
Kertanegara
of Singhasari
Singhasari
to conquer the Sumatran Melayu Kingdom. It was decreed in 1275, though perhaps not undertaken until later.[1] Little is known about the results of the expedition. Padang Roco Inscription dated from 1286 CE states a religious statue of Amoghapasa were established at Dharmasraya on the orders of Kertanagara, and that all the inhabitants of Melayu and especially their king rejoiced at the presentation of the gifts.[2] The expedition arguably established Javanese domination upon Malayu and trade in Strait of Malacca. To cement the relationship between the two kingdoms, a political marriage was arranged. According to Pararaton two Malay princesses, Dara Petak and Dara Jingga went to Java, originally intended for Kertanegara
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Makassar People
The Makassar
Makassar
people (also known as Mangasara, Mengkasara, Macassar, Taena, Tena, or Gowa) are an ethnic group that inhabits the southern part of the South Peninsula, Sulawesi
South Peninsula, Sulawesi
(formerly Celebes) in Indonesia. They live around Makassar, the capital city of the province of South Sulawesi, as well as the Konjo highlands, the coastal areas, and the Selayar and Spermonde islands
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Nickel
Nickel
Nickel
is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks,[4][5] and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis
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Balinese People
Javanese, Bali
Bali
Aga, Sasak, Tenggerese, Polynesians, and AustronesiansThe Balinese (Indonesian: Suku Bali) are an Austronesian
Austronesian
ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali. The Balinese population of 4.2 million (1.7% of Indonesia's population) live mostly on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population.[3] There are also significant populations on the island of Lombok, and in the eastern-most regions of Java
Java
(e.g. the Municipality of Banyuwangi).Contents1 Origins 2 Culture2.1 Puputan3 Religion 4 Festivals 5 See also 6 ReferencesOrigins[edit] Main article: History of Bali For other uses, see Balinese mythology.Balinese dancers, circa 1920–1940.The Balinese originated from three periods of migration
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Madurese People
The Madurese (sometimes Madurace or Madhure) also known as Orang Madura
Madura
and Suku Madura
Madura
in Indonesian are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura
Madura
now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. Common to most Madurese throughout the archipelago is the Islamic religion and the use of the Madurese language. The Madurese are a religious ethnicity, often affiliated with Nahdlatul Ulama, a moderate Indonesian Muslim organization. Pesantren has a pivotal role in Madurese life. While the Madurese have their roots on Madura
Madura
off the northeastern coast of Java, the majority of Madurese do not now live on that island
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Sundanese People
Minority: Protestantism, Sunda Wiwitan, Roman Catholicism, HinduismRelated ethnic groupsBaduys Bantenese Banyumasan Betawi Cirebonese Javanese BalineseThe Sundanese (Sundanese: ᮅᮛᮀ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, Urang Sunda) are an Austronesian
Austronesian
ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. They number approximately 40 million, and form Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, after the neighboring Javanese
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