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Hammerstone
In archaeology , a HAMMERSTONE is a hard cobble used to strike off lithic flakes from a lump of tool stone during the process of lithic reduction . The hammerstone is a rather universal stone tool which appeared early in most regions of the world including Europe
Europe
, India
India
and North America
North America
. This technology was of major importance to prehistoric cultures before the age of metalworking. CONTENTS * 1 Materials * 2 Usage * 3 See also * 4 References MATERIALSA hammerstone is made of a material such as sandstone , limestone or quartzite , is often ovoid in shape (to better fit the human hand), and develops telltale battering marks on one or both ends. In archaeological recovery, hammerstones are often found in association with other stone tool artifacts, debitage and/or objects of the hammer such as ore
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English Lake District
The LAKE DISTRICT, also known as THE LAKES or LAKELAND, is a mountainous region in North West England
England
. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells ) and its associations with the early 19th century writings of William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
and the other Lake
Lake
Poets , Beatrix Potter
Beatrix Potter
and John Ruskin . Covering an area of approximately 2,362 square kilometres, the region was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
in 2017. It is located entirely within the county of Cumbria
Cumbria
, and all the land in England
England
higher than 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike , the highest mountain in England
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Malachite
MALACHITE is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu 2CO3 (OH) 2. This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system , and most often forms botryoidal , fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground, where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicular prisms. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also occur
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Bronze Age
The BRONZE AGE is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze , proto-writing , and other early features of urban civilization . The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system , as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin , arsenic , or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze
Bronze
itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze
Bronze
Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage
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Archaeology
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America
North America
, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains
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Jadeite
JADEITE is a pyroxene mineral with composition Na Al Si 2O 6. It is monoclinic . It has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of about 6.5 to 7.0 depending on the composition. The mineral is dense, with a specific gravity of about 3.4. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Chemistry * 3 Colors * 4 Stone Age use * 5 Jade
Jade
* 6 See also * 7 References NAMEThe name jadeite is derived (via French : l'ejade and Latin
Latin
: ilia ) from the Spanish phrase "piedra de ijada" which means "stone of the side". It was believed to cure kidney stones if it was rubbed against the side of the afflicted person's body. The Latin
Latin
version of the name, lapis nephriticus, is the origin of the term nephrite , which is also a variety of jade
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Impact Force
In mechanics , an IMPACT is a high force or shock applied over a short time period when two or more bodies collide. Such a force or acceleration usually has a greater effect than a lower force applied over a proportionally longer period. The effect depends critically on the relative velocity of the bodies to one another. At normal speeds, during a perfectly inelastic collision , an object struck by a projectile will deform, and this deformation will absorb most or all of the force of the collision. Viewed from a conservation of energy perspective, the kinetic energy of the projectile is changed into heat and sound energy, as a result of the deformations and vibrations induced in the struck object. However, these deformations and vibrations cannot occur instantaneously. A high-velocity collision (an impact) does not provide sufficient time for these deformations and vibrations to occur
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Jade
JADE is an ornamental rock, mostly known for its green varieties, which feature prominently in ancient Asian art. The term jade is applied to two different metamorphic rocks that are composed of different silicate minerals : * Nephrite consists of a microcrystalline interlocking fibrous matrix of the calcium, magnesium-iron rich amphibole mineral series tremolite (calcium-magnesium)-ferroactinolite (calcium-magnesium-iron). The middle member of this series with an intermediate composition is called actinolite (the silky fibrous mineral form is one form of asbestos ). The higher the iron content, the greener the colour. * Jadeite is a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene
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Cassiterite
CASSITERITE is a tin oxide mineral , SnO2 . It is generally opaque , but it is translucent in thin crystals. Its luster and multiple crystal faces produce a desirable gem. Cassiterite
Cassiterite
has been the chief tin ore throughout ancient history and remains the most important source of tin today. CONTENTS * 1 Occurrence * 2 Crystallography * 3 Etymology * 4 References OCCURRENCE Cassiterite
Cassiterite
bipyramids , edge length ca. 30 mm, Sichuan
Sichuan
, China Most sources of cassiterite today are found in alluvial or placer deposits containing the resistant weathered grains. The best sources of primary cassiterite are found in the tin mines of Bolivia
Bolivia
, where it is found in hydrothermal veins. Rwanda
Rwanda
has a nascent cassiterite mining industry
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Tin
TIN is a chemical element with symbol SN (from Latin Latin : stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table . It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite , which contains tin dioxide , SnO2. Tin
Tin
shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead , and has two main oxidation states , +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin
Tin
is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes : at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air
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Haematite
HEMATITE, also spelled as HAEMATITE, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides . Hematite
Hematite
crystallizes in the rhombohedral lattice system , and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum . Hematite
Hematite
and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C (1,740 °F). Hematite
Hematite
is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron . Varieties include kidney ore, martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite ), iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite
Hematite
is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle. Maghemite is a hematite- and magnetite -related oxide mineral. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations
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Hazel Nut
The HAZELNUT is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana . It also is known as COBNUT or FILBERT NUT according to species. A cob is roughly spherical to oval, about 15–25 mm (0.59–0.98 in) long and 10–15 mm (0.39–0.59 in) in diameter, with an outer fibrous husk surrounding a smooth shell. A filbert is more elongated, being about twice as long as its diameter. The nut falls out of the husk when ripe, about 7 to 8 months after pollination. The kernel of the seed is edible and used raw or roasted, or ground into a paste. The seed has a thin, dark brown skin, which sometimes is removed before cooking. Hazelnuts are used in confectionery to make praline , and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and products such as Nutella and Frangelico liqueur. Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly flavoured and used as a cooking oil
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Sharpening Stone
SHARPENING STONES, WATER STONES or WHETSTONES (often misspelled wetstones) are used to sharpen the edges of steel tools and implements through grinding and honing . Examples of items that can be sharpened with a sharpening stone include scissors , scythes , knives , razors , and tools such as chisels , hand scrapers , and plane blades. Sharpening
Sharpening
stones come in a wide range of shapes, sizes, and material compositions. Stones may be flat, for working flat edges, or shaped for more complex edges, such as those associated with some wood carving or woodturning tools. They may be composed of natural quarried material, or from man-made material. Stones are usually available in various grades, which refers to the grit size of the particles in the stone. Generally, the finer the grit, the denser the material, which leads to a finer finish of the surface of the tool. Finer grits cut more slowly because they remove less material
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Reducing Agent
A REDUCING AGENT (also called a REDUCTANT or REDUCER) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction. Since the reducing agent is losing electrons, it is said to have been oxidized. If any chemical is an electron donor (reducing agent), another must be an electron recipient (oxidizing agent ). A reducing agent is oxidized because it loses electrons in the redox reaction. Thus reducers are "oxidized" by oxidizers and oxidizers are "reduced" by reducers; reducers are by themselves reduced (have more electrons) and oxidizers are by themselves oxidized (have fewer electrons). A reducing agent typically is in one of its lower possible oxidation states and is known as the electron donor. Examples of reducing agents include the earth metals, formic acid , and sulfite compounds
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Charcoal
CHARCOAL is a lightweight, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash , obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal
Charcoal
is usually produced by slow pyrolysis — the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen (see char and biochar )
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Iron Ores
IRON ORES are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe 3O 4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe 2O 3, 69.9% Fe), goethite (FeO(OH), 62.9% Fe), limonite (FeO(OH)·n(H2O), 55% Fe) or siderite (FeCO3, 48.2% Fe). Ores containing very high quantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than about 60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces . Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron , which is one of the main raw materials to make steel —98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil"
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