HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Hammerstone
In archaeology, a hammerstone is a hard cobble used to strike off lithic flakes from a lump of tool stone during the process of lithic reduction.[1] The hammerstone is a rather universal stone tool which appeared early in most regions of the world including Europe, India[2] and North America. This technology was of major importance to prehistoric cultures before the age of metalworking.Contents1 Materials 2 Usage 3 See also 4 ReferencesMaterials[edit] A hammerstone is made of a material such as sandstone, limestone or quartzite, is often ovoid in shape (to better fit the human hand), and develops telltale battering marks on one or both ends
[...More...]

"Hammerstone" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
[...More...]

"Archaeology" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Tin
Tin
Tin
is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, SnO2. Tin
Tin
shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin
Tin
is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure
[...More...]

"Tin" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Jade
Jade
Jade
is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art. The term jade is applied to two different minerals: Nephrite
Nephrite
consists of a microcrystalline interlocking fibrous matrix of the calcium, magnesium-iron rich amphibole mineral series tremolite (calcium-magnesium)-ferroactinolite (calcium-magnesium-iron). The middle member of this series with an intermediate composition is called actinolite (the silky fibrous mineral form is one form of asbestos). The higher the iron content, the greener the colour. Jadeite
Jadeite
is a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene
[...More...]

"Jade" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Jadeite
Jadeite
Jadeite
is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6. It is monoclinic. It has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of about 6.5 to 7.0 depending on the composition. The mineral is dense, with a specific gravity of about 3.4.Contents1 Name 2 Chemistry 3 Colors 4 Stone Age use 5 Jade 6 See also 7 ReferencesName[edit] The name jadeite is derived (via French: l'ejade and Latin: ilia[5]) from the Spanish phrase "piedra de ijada" which means "stone of the side". The Latin
Latin
version of the name, lapis nephriticus, is the origin of the term nephrite, which is also a variety of jade. Chemistry[edit] Jadeite
Jadeite
forms solid solutions with other pyroxene endmembers such as augite and diopside (CaMg-rich endmembers), aegirine (NaFe endmember), and kosmochlor (NaCr endmember). Pyroxenes rich in both the jadeite and augite endmembers are known as omphacite
[...More...]

"Jadeite" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Hornstone
Hornfels (German, meaning "hornstone") is called so because of its exceptional toughness and texture both reminiscent of animal horns. These properties are due to fine grained non-aligned crystals with platy or prismatic habits. Hornfels is the group designation for a series of contact metamorphic rocks that have been baked and indurated by the heat of intrusive igneous masses and have been rendered massive, hard, splintery, and in some cases exceedingly tough and durable. Hornfels rocks were referred to by miners in northern England as whetstones.[1][2] Most hornfels are fine-grained, and while the original rocks (such as sandstone, shale, slate, limestone and diabase) may have been more or less fissile owing to the presence of bedding or cleavage planes, this structure is effaced or rendered inoperative in the hornfels
[...More...]

"Hornstone" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Malachite
Malachite
Malachite
is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, and most often forms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground, where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicular prisms
[...More...]

"Malachite" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Bronze Age
The Bronze
Bronze
Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere
[...More...]

"Bronze Age" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Cassiterite
Cassiterite
Cassiterite
is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2. It is generally opaque, but it is translucent in thin crystals. Its luster and multiple crystal faces produce a desirable gem. Cassiterite
Cassiterite
has been the chief tin ore throughout ancient history and remains the most important source of tin today.[2]Contents1 Occurrence 2 Crystallography 3 Etymology 4 References 5 External linksOccurrence[edit] Cassiterite
Cassiterite
bipyramids, edge length ca. 30 mm, Sichuan, ChinaMost sources of cassiterite today are found in alluvial or placer deposits containing the resistant weathered grains. The best sources of primary cassiterite are found in the tin mines of Bolivia, where it is found in hydrothermal veins. Rwanda
Rwanda
has a nascent cassiterite mining industry
[...More...]

"Cassiterite" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Iron Ores
Iron ores[1] are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe 3O 4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe 2O 3, 69.9% Fe), goethite (FeO(OH), 62.9% Fe), limonite (FeO(OH)·n(H2O), 55% Fe) or siderite (FeCO3, 48.2% Fe). Ores containing very high quantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than about 60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces
[...More...]

"Iron Ores" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Chert
Chert
Chert
( /ˈtʃɜːrt/) is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica. Depending on its origin, it can contain either microfossils, small macrofossils, or both
[...More...]

"Chert" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Iron Age
Iron
Iron
Age metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalThe Iron
Iron
Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age
Stone Age
(Neolithic) and the Bronze
Bronze
Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World
[...More...]

"Iron Age" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Charcoal
Charcoal
Charcoal
is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal
Charcoal
is usually produced by slow pyrolysis — the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen (see char and biochar)
[...More...]

"Charcoal" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Reducing Agent
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction. Since the reducing agent is losing electrons, it is said to have been oxidized. If any chemical is an electron donor (reducing agent), another must be an electron recipient (oxidizing agent). A reducing agent is oxidized because it loses electrons in the redox reaction. Thus, reducers (reducing agents) "reduce" (or, seen another way, are "oxidized" by) oxidizers (oxidizing agents), and oxidizers "oxidize" (that is, are "reduced" by) reducers. In their pre-reaction states, reducers have more electrons (that is, they are by themselves reduced) and oxidizers have fewer electrons (that is, they are by themselves oxidized). A reducing agent typically is in one of its lower possible oxidation states and is known as the electron donor
[...More...]

"Reducing Agent" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Haematite
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. It is the oldest known[clarify] iron oxide mineral and is widespread in rocks and soils[5]. Hematite crystallizes in the rhombohedral lattice system, and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C (1,740 °F). Hematite is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite), iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle. Maghemite is a hematite- and magnetite-related oxide mineral. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations
[...More...]

"Haematite" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Hazel Nut
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana. It also is known as cobnut or filbert nut according to species.[1] A cob is roughly spherical to oval, about 15–25 mm (0.59–0.98 in) long and 10–15 mm (0.39–0.59 in) in diameter, with an outer fibrous husk surrounding a smooth shell. A filbert is more elongated, being about twice as long as its diameter. The nut falls out of the husk when ripe, about 7 to 8 months after pollination. The kernel of the seed is edible and used raw or roasted, or ground into a paste. The seed has a thin, dark brown skin, which sometimes is removed before cooking. Hazelnuts are used in confectionery to make praline, and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and products such as Nutella and Frangelico liqueur
[...More...]

"Hazel Nut" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.