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Hafez
Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī (Persian: خواجه شمس‌‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی‎), known by his pen name Hafez
Hafez
(حافظ Ḥāfeẓ 'the memorizer; the (safe) keeper'; 1315-1390), was a Persian poet[1][2] who "lauded the joys of love and wine but also targeted religious hypocrisy."[3] His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature
Persian literature
and are often found in the homes of people in the Persian speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings
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Yazd
Yazd
Yazd
(یزد,  /jæzd/ (help·info)),[2] formerly also known as Yezd,[3][4] is the capital of Yazd
Yazd
Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, and it is currently 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd
Yazd
is recognized as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO.[5] Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the "City of Windcatchers" (شهر بادگیرها Shahr-e Badgirha) from its many examples
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Irfan
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi JaririSunni schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t ePart of a series on Islam Sufism
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Mohammad Ghazvini
Mohammad Ghazvini (Tehran, 1874-1949; also spelled Muḥammad Qazvīnī) was a prominent figure in modern Iranian culture
Iranian culture
and literature. Education and Activities[edit] Ghazvini studied at literary and philosophical seminaries, studying culture, jurisprudence, principles, theology, ancient wisdom and gained knowledge of the various branches of Arabic literature. His brother Mirza Ahmad Khan invited 28-year-old Ghazvini to London. Orientalist Edward Granville Browne
Edward Granville Browne
was familiar and interested in Ghazvini's research and expertise and met him at the University of Cambridge
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Hafiz (Quran)
Hafiz (Arabic: حافظ‎, translit. ḥāfiẓ, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Qur'an. Hafiza is the female equivalent.[1]Contents1 History 2 Study 3 Etymology 4 Practice 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
lived in the 7th century CE, in Arabia
Arabia
in a time when few people were literate. The Arabs
Arabs
preserved their histories, genealogies, and poetry by memory alone. Muslims believe that when Muhammad
Muhammad
proclaimed the verses later collected as the Qur'an, his followers preserved the words by memorizing them
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Quran
The Quran
Quran
(/kɔːrˈɑːn/[a] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎ al-Qurʾān,[b] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran[c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
God
(Allah).[1] It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature
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Tazkira
Tadhkirah (تذكرة, also transliterated Tazkera, Tadkera , Tazkirah, etc.) is an Arabic term for "memorandum" or "admonition". It is frequently used as part of the title of literary works of the nature of authoritative collections or summaries. It is also the modern Arabic term for "ticket" (in the sense of a receipt for payment of a fee for transportation, admission etc.) Examples of the use of the word Tadhkirah include:al-Tadhkira al-Harawiya fi al-hiyal al-harabiya ("al-Harawi's admonition regarding war stratagems") by Ali ibn abi bakr al-Harawi (d. 1215) Tazkirat ul Khwas by Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1256) Tazkirat al-Awliya (13th century), biographies of Sufi saints Al- Tadhkirah fi'ilm (13th century) by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
(d
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Patronage
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices, the business given to a store by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints. The word "patron" derives from the Latin: patronus ("patron"), one who gives benefits to his clients (see Patronage in ancient Rome). In some countries the term is used to describe political patronage, which is the use of state resources to reward individuals for their electoral support
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Persian Calligraphy
Persian calligraphy
Persian calligraphy
(Persian:خوشنویسی فارسی) or Iranian calligraphy (Persian:خوشنویسی ایرانی) is the calligraphy of the Persian language. It is one of the most revered arts throughout history of Iran.Contents1 History1.1 History of Nasta'liq2 Contemporary Persian calligraphy2.1 Modernist movement 2.2 Post modernism 2.3 Genres3 Most notable figures 4 See also 5 External linksHistory[edit]Example showing Nastaʿlīq's proportion rules.[1]Further information: Nastaʿlīq History of Nasta'liq[edit] After the introduction of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to Persian and developed the contemporary Persian alphabet. The Arabic alphabet has 28 characters
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Lyric Poetry
Lyric poetry
Lyric poetry
is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.[1] The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature, the lyric, which was defined by its musical accompaniment, usually on a stringed instrument known as a lyre.[2] The term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle
Aristotle
between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical, dramatic, and epic.Contents1 Meters 2 History2.1 Antiquity2.1.1 Greece 2.1.2 Rome 2.1.3 China2.2 Medieval verse 2.3 16th century 2.4 17th century 2.5 18th century 2.6 19th century 2.7 20th century3 References 4 Further readingMeters[edit] Much lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress
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Literary Genre
A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by literary technique, tone, content, or even (as in the case of fiction) length. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups. The most general genres in literature are (in loose chronological order) epic, tragedy,[1] comedy, and creative nonfiction.[citation needed] They can all be in the form of prose or poetry. Additionally, a genre such as satire, allegory or pastoral might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre (see below), but as a mixture of genres. Finally, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. Genre
Genre
should not be confused with age categories, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's
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Islamic Holy Books
Islamic holy books
Islamic holy books
are the texts which Muslims believe were authored by Allah
Allah
via various prophets throughout humanity's history
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Chang (instrument)
The chang (Persian: چنگ‎ [t͡ʃʰæŋɡ]) is a Persian musical instrument similar to harp. The Turkish name is çeng and the Arabic name is al-ǧank (ṣanǧ). It was very popular and used widely during the times of ancient Persia, especially during the Sasanian Dynasty where it was often played in the shahs' court. It was also played until the 19th century in the Ottoman Empire but has disappeared now from the classical Ottoman music and Turkish folk music.Contents1 History 2 Structure 3 Musicians 4 Other usages in music 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The chang has appeared in paintings and wall art in Persia
Persia
since its introduction in about 4000 B.C.[1] In these paintings and mosaics, the chang went from the original arched harp to an angular harp in the early 1900s B.C
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Isfahan (city)
Isfahan
Isfahan
(Persian: اصفهان‎, translit. Esfahān [esfæˈhɒːn] ( listen)), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province
Isfahan Province
in Iran, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran. The Greater Isfahan Region
Greater Isfahan Region
had a population of 2,101,220 in the 2016 Census, the third most populous metropolitan area in Iran
Iran
after Tehran and Mashhad
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Parviz Natel-Khanlari
Parviz Natel Khanlari (1914 in Tehran, [1] Iran
Iran
– August 23, 1990 in Tehran) (Persian: پرویز ناتل خانلری‎), was an Iranian literary scholar, linguist, author, researcher and professor at Tehran University.Contents1 Biography1.1 The Eagle2 See also 3 References 4 Bibliography 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Parviz Natel Khanlari graduated from Tehran
Tehran
University in 1943 with a doctorate degree in Persian literature, and began his academic career in the faculty of arts and letters. He also studied linguistics at Paris University
Paris University
for two years. from then on, Khanlari founded a new course named history of Persian language
Persian language
in Tehran
Tehran
University. Khanlari's contributions fall into several categories
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Harp
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers. Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia, Africa and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BCE. The instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, and was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, and other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era. Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played on the lap, whereas larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor
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