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Hafez
KHWāJA SHAMS-UD-DīN MUḥAMMAD ḤāFEẓ-E SHīRāZī (Persian : خواجه شمس‌‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی‎‎), known by his pen name HAFEZ (حافظ Ḥāfeẓ 'the memorizer; the (safe) keeper'; 1315-1390), was a Persian poet who "lauded the joys of love and wine but also targeted religious hypocrisy." His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are to be found in the homes of most people in the Persian speaking world (mostly Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran), who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings. His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-14th century Persian writing more than any other author
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Tazkira
TADHKIRAH (تذكرة, also transliterated Tazkera, Tadkera , Tazkirah, etc.) is an Arabic term for "memorandum" or "admonition". It is frequently used as part of the title of literary works of the nature of authoritative collections or summaries. It is also the modern Arabic term for "ticket" (in the sense of a receipt for payment of a fee for transportation, admission etc.) Examples of the use of the word Tadhkirah include: * al-Tadhkira al-Harawiya fi al-hiyal al-harabiya ("al-Harawi's admonition regarding war stratagems") by Ali ibn abi bakr al-Harawi (d. 1215) * Tazkirat ul Khwas by Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1256) * Tazkirat al-Awliya (13th century), biographies of Sufi saints * Al-Tadhkirah fi'ilm (13th century) by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (d. 1274) * Tadhkirat al-huffaz (14th century), biographies of hadith masters * Sharh al-tadhkirah (16th century), a commentary on al-Tusi's tadhkirah by Al-Birjandi * a work by Dawud al-Antaki (d
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Quran
The QURAN (/kɔːrˈɑːn/ kor-AHN ; Arabic : القرآن‎ al-Qurʾān, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized QUR\'AN or KORAN ) is the central religious text of Islam
Islam
, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
God
( Allah
Allah
). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature . The Quran
Quran
is divided into chapters (surah in Arabic), which are then divided into verses (ayah )
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Hafiz (Quran)
HAFIZ (Arabic : حافظ‎, translit. ḥāfiẓ‎, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer," depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Qur\'an . HAFIZA is the female equivalent. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Study * 3 Etymology * 4 Practice * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
lived in the 7th Century CE, in Arabia in a time when few people were literate . The Arabs
Arabs
preserved their histories, genealogies, and poetry by memory alone. Muslims believe that when Muhammad
Muhammad
proclaimed the verses later collected as the Qur'an, his followers preserved the words by memorizing them
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Patronage
PATRONAGE is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, ARTS PATRONAGE refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices , the business given to a store by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints . The word "patron" derives from the Latin : 'PATRONUS\' ("patron"), one who gives benefits to his clients (see Patronage in ancient Rome ). In some countries the term is used to describe POLITICAL PATRONAGE, which is the use of state resources to reward individuals for their electoral support
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Persian Calligraphy
PERSIAN CALLIGRAPHY (Persian :خوشنویس فارسی) or IRANIAN CALLIGRAPHY (Persian :خوشنویسی ایرانی) is the calligraphy of the Persian language
Persian language
. It is one of the most revered arts throughout history of Iran . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 History of Nasta\'liq * 2 Contemporary Persian calligraphy
Persian calligraphy
* 2.1 Modernist movement * 2.2 Post modernism * 2.3 Genres * 3 Most notable figures * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORY Example showing Nastaʿlīq's proportion rules. Further information: Nastaʿlīq HISTORY OF NASTA\'LIQAfter the introduction of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to Persian and developed the contemporary Persian alphabet. The Arabic alphabet has 28 characters. An additional four letters were added by Iranians , which resulted in the 32 letters currently present in the Persian alphabet
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Literary Genre
A LITERARY GENRE is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by literary technique , tone , content , or even (as in the case of fiction) length. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups. The most general genres in literature are (in loose chronological order) epic , tragedy , comedy , and creative nonfiction . They can all be in the form of prose or poetry . Additionally, a genre such as satire , allegory or pastoral might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre (see below), but as a mixture of genres. Finally, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. Genre
Genre
should not be confused with age categories, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult , or children\'s . They also must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book
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Lyric Poetry
LYRIC POETRY is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature , the lyric , which was defined by its musical accompaniment, usually on a stringed instrument known as a lyre . The term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical, dramatic and epic . CONTENTS * 1 Meters * 2 History * 2.1 Antiquity * 2.1.1 Greece * 2.1.2 Rome * 2.1.3 China * 2.2 Medieval verse * 2.3 16th century * 2.4 17th century * 2.5 18th century * 2.6 19th century * 2.7 20th century * 3 References * 4 Further reading METERSMuch lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress
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Mohammad Ghazvini
MOHAMMAD GHAZVINI ( Tehran
Tehran
, 1874-1949; also spelled Muḥammad Qazvīnī) was a prominent figure in modern Iranian culture and literature. EDUCATION AND ACTIVITIESGhazvini studied at literary and philosophical seminaries, studying culture, jurisprudence, principles, theology, ancient wisdom and gained knowledge of the various branches of Arabic literature. His brother Mirza Ahmad Khan invited 28-year-old Ghazvini to London. Orientalist Edward Granville Browne
Edward Granville Browne
was familiar and interested in Ghazvini's research and expertise and met him at the University of Cambridge. Ghazvini remained in Europe for almost thirty five years
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Parviz Natel-Khanlari
PARVIZ NATEL KHANLARI (1914 in Tehran , Iran – August 23, 1990 in Tehran) (Persian : پرویز ناتل خانلری‎‎), was an Iranian literary scholar, linguist , author , researcher and professor at Tehran University . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 The Eagle * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYParviz Natel Khanlari graduated from Tehran University in 1943 with a doctorate degree in Persian literature , and began his academic career in the faculty of arts and letters. He also studied linguistics at Paris University for two years. from then on, Khanlari founded a new course named history of Persian language in Tehran University . Khanlari's contributions fall into several categories. apart from his academic career which continued until the 1979 revolution, he held numerous administrative positions in the Iran in the 1960s through the late 1970s
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Bukhara
BUKHARA (Uzbek : Buxoro; Tajik : Бухоро; Persian : بخارا‎‎), is one of the cities (viloyat ) of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. Bukhara
Bukhara
is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments. The nation's fifth-largest city, it had a population as of 31 August 2016 of approximately 247,644. Humans have inhabited the region around Bukhara
Bukhara
for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time. The mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara
Bukhara
is Tajik . Located on the Silk Road
Silk Road
, the city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. UNESCO
UNESCO
has listed the historic center of Bukhara
Bukhara
(which contains numerous mosques and madrassas ) as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site

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Persian Miniature
A PERSIAN MINIATURE (Persian :نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa . The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts . Although there is an equally well-established Persian tradition of wall-painting, the survival rate and state of preservation of miniatures is better, and miniatures are much the best-known form of Persian painting in the West, and many of the most important examples are in Western, or Turkish, museums. Miniature painting became a significant genre in Persian art in the 13th century, receiving Chinese influence after the Mongol conquests , and the highest point in the tradition was reached in the 15th and 16th centuries. The tradition continued, under some Western influence, after this, and has many modern exponents
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Samarkand
SAMARKAND (Uzbek : Samarqand; Persian : سمرقند‎‎; Cyrillic /Russian : Самарканд), alternatively SAMARQAND or SAMARCAND, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia
Central Asia
. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic
Paleolithic
era, though there is no direct evidence of when exactly Samarkand
Samarkand
was founded; some theories indicate that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand
Samarkand
was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia. By the time of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
of Persia, it was the capital of the Sogdian satrapy
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Yazd
YAZD (Persian : یزد‎‎, /jæzd/ (help ·info )), formerly also known as YEZD, is the capital of Yazd Province , Iran
Iran
. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Esfahan . At the 2011 census, the population was 486,152. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd
Yazd
is recognized as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
. Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd
Yazd
has a unique Persian architecture . It is nicknamed the "City of Windcatchers " (Persian : شهر بادگیرها Shahr-e Badgirha) from its many examples. It is also very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples , ab anbars , qanats , yakhchals , Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth (Persian termeh), silk weaving, Persian Cotton Candy , and its time-honored confectioneries
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Muzaffarids Of Iran
The MUZAFFARID DYNASTY (Persian : مظفریان‎‎) was a Persian dynasty of possibly Arab descent which came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. At their zenith, they ruled a kingdom comprising Iranian Azerbaijan , Central Persia, and Persian Iraq . CONTENTS * 1 Rise to power * 2 Reign of Shah Shoja * 3 Mozaffari decline * 4 Muzaffarid rulers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources RISE TO POWERThe Muzaffarids were originally from Arabia and had settled in Khorasan from the beginning of Caliphal rule there. They stayed in Khorasan up until the Mongol invasion of that province, at which point they fled to Yazd . Serving under the Il-Khans, they gained prominence when Sharaf al-Din Muzaffar was made governor of Maibud . He was tasked with crushing the robber-bands that were roaming around the country
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Isfahan (city)
ISFAHAN (Persian : اصفهان‎, translit. Esfahān‎: pronounced esfæˈhɒːn (help ·info )), historically also rendered in English as ISPAHAN, SEPAHAN, ESFAHAN or HISPAHAN, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran
Iran
, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran
Tehran
. The Greater Isfahan Region had a population of 3,793,104 in the 2011 Census, the second most populous metropolitan area in Iran
Iran
after Tehran. The counties of Isfahan, Borkhar , Najafabad , Khomeynishahr
Khomeynishahr
, Shahinshahr , Mobarakeh
Mobarakeh
, Falavarjan
Falavarjan
, Tiran o Karvan , Lenjan and Jay all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan
Isfahan

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