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Gribenes
GRIBENES or GRIEVEN (Yiddish : גריבענעס‎, , "scraps") Hebrew : גלדי שומן‎‎) are crisp chicken or goose skin cracklings with fried onions, a kosher food somewhat similar to pork rinds . Gribenes
Gribenes
are a byproduct of schmaltz preparation. A favored food in the past among Ashkenazi Jews , _gribenes_ is frequently mentioned in Jewish stories and parables . CONTENTS * 1 Holiday food * 2 Servings * 3 Etymology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HOLIDAY FOODThis food is often associated with the Jewish holidays Hanukkah and Rosh Hashanah . Traditionally, _gribenes_ were served with potato kugel or latkes during Hannukkah. _Gribenes_ is also associated with Passover , as large amounts of schmaltz, with its resulting gribenes, were traditionally used in Passover recipes. SERVINGS_Gribenes_ can be eaten as a snack , typically on rye or pumpernickel bread with salt, or used in recipes such as chopped liver , or all of the above. It is often served as a side dish with pastrami on rye or hot dogs . This food has also been eaten as a midnight snack , or as an appetizer . Some Jews in Louisiana
Louisiana
add _gribenes_ to Jambalaya in place of non- Kosher
Kosher
shrimp . It was served to children on _challah _ bread as a treat
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Yiddish Language
YIDDISH (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish ", pronounced ; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe , providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic , as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages . Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew alphabet . The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German . Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון (mame-loshn, lit. "mother tongue"), distinguishing it from לשון־קדש (loshn koydesh , "holy tongue"), meaning Hebrew and Aramaic. The term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh "Jewish German", did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more commonly called "Jewish", especially in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Kosher
KASHRUT (also KASHRUTH or KASHRUS, כַּשְׁרוּת‎) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws . Food that may be consumed according to halakha (Jewish law) is termed KOSHER /ˈkoʊʃər/ in English, from the Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér (כָּשֵׁר‎), meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for consumption). Among the numerous laws that form part of kashrut are the prohibitions on the consumption of unclean animals (such as pork , shellfish (both Mollusca and Crustacea )) and most insects , with the exception of certain species of kosher locusts ), mixtures of meat and milk , and the commandment to slaughter mammals and birds according to a process known as shechita . There are also laws regarding agricultural produce that might impact the suitability of food for consumption. Most of the basic laws of kashrut are derived from the Torah
Torah
's Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy . Their details and practical application, however, are set down in the oral law (eventually codified in the Mishnah and Talmud
Talmud
) and elaborated on in the later rabbinical literature. While the Torah
Torah
does not state the rationale for most kashrut laws, many reasons have been suggested, including philosophical, practical and hygienic
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Pork Rind
PORK RIND is the skin of a pig . It can also be fried or roasted in pork fat as a snack . The frying renders much of the fat that is attached to the uncooked rind, causing the cooked product to reduce considerably in size. This product may be known by alternative names, such as "chicharon" in the Philippines, "kaiings" in South Africa
South Africa
, PORK SCRATCHINGS or PORK CRACKLING in the UK , although crackling may also refer to the rind on a roasted pork joint
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Schmaltz
SCHMALTZ (also spelled SCHMALZ or SHMALZ) is rendered (clarified) chicken or goose fat used for frying or as a spread on bread in Central European cuisine , and in the United States, particularly identified with Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine . Rendered waterfowl fat is also used in the cuisine of Southwestern France. As an effect of cross-cultural influences of the Jewish Ashkenazi, Polish, and Ukrainian cuisine, it is also popular in Poland and Ukraine, where rendered fats (including lard ) are called smalec, with schmaltz derived from geese being popular as gęsi smalec. The English term "schmaltz" is derived from Yiddish , and is cognate with the German term Schmalz, meaning "rendered animal fat", regardless of source: both tallow and lard are considered forms of Schmalz in German, as is clarified butter . English usage tends to follow Yiddish, where it means poultry fat. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Process * 4 Uses * 5 Vegetarian schmaltz * 6 Derived meanings * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term "schmaltz" entered English usage through Yiddish -speaking Ashkenazi Jews who used it to refer to kosher poultry fat; the word שמאַלץ shmalts is the Yiddish word for rendered chicken fat
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Ashkenazi Jews
ASHKENAZI JEWS, also known as ASHKENAZIC JEWS or simply ASHKENAZIM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‎, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: , singular: , Modern Hebrew: ; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‎ _Y'hudey Ashkenaz_), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium . The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
is Yiddish (a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music, and science. Ashkenazim originate from the Jews
Jews
who settled along the Rhine River, in Western Germany
Germany
and Northern France. There they became a distinct diaspora community with a unique way of life that adapted traditions from Babylon, The Land of Israel, and the Western Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to their new environment. The Ashkenazi religious rite developed in cities such as Mainz
Mainz
, Worms, and Troyes. The eminent French _Rishon _ Rabbi
Rabbi
Shlomo Itzhaki ( Rashi ) would have a significant impact on the Jewish religion
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Parables
A PARABLE is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from a fable in that fables employ animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature as characters, whereas parables have human characters. A parable is a type of analogy . Some scholars of the canonical gospels and the New Testament apply the term "parable" only to the parables of Jesus , though that is not a common restriction of the term. Parables such as "The Prodigal Son " are central to Jesus' teaching method in the canonical narratives and the apocrypha . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Characteristics * 3.1 Jesus\' parables * 3.2 Other figures of speech * 4 Examples * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word parable comes from the Greek παραβολή (parabolē), meaning "comparison, illustration, analogy." It was the name given by Greek rhetoricians to an illustration in the form of a brief fictional narrative . HISTORYParables are often used to explore ethical concepts in spiritual texts. The Bible contains numerous parables in the Gospels section of the New Testament (Jesus\' parables ). These are believed by some scholars (such as John P. Meier ) to have been inspired by mashalim , a form of Hebrew comparison
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Hanukkah
HANUKKAH (/ˈhɑːnəkə/ _HAH-nə-kə_ ; Hebrew : חֲנֻכָּה‎ _khanuká_, Tiberian : _khanuká_, usually spelled חנוכה, pronounced in Modern Hebrew , or in Yiddish ; a transliteration also romanized as CHANUKAH or ḤANUKAH) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple ) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire . Hanukkah is observed for eight nights and days, starting on the 25th day of Kislev according to the Hebrew calendar , which may occur at any time from late November to late December in the Gregorian calendar . It is also known as the FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS and the FEAST OF DEDICATION. The festival is observed by the kindling of the lights of a unique candelabrum , the nine-branched _menorah _ (also called a _Chanukiah_/_Hanukiah_), one additional light on each night of the holiday, progressing to eight on the final night. The typical menorah consists of eight branches with an additional visually distinct branch. The extra light, with which the others are lit, is called a _shamash _ (Hebrew : שמש‎‎, "attendant") and is given a distinct location, usually above or below the rest. Other Hanukkah festivities include playing dreidel and eating oil-based foods such as doughnuts and latkes
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Rosh Hashanah
ROSH HASHANAH ( Hebrew : רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה‎, literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year") is the Jewish New Year . The biblical name for this holiday is _YOM TERUAH_ (יוֹם תְּרוּעָה‎), literally "day shouting/blasting", sometimes translated as the FEAST OF TRUMPETS. It is the first of the Jewish High Holy Days
High Holy Days
(יָמִים נוֹרָאִים‎ _Yamim Nora'im_, lit. "Days Awe") specified by Leviticus 23:23–32, which usually occur in the early autumn of the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
. Rosh Hashanah is a two-day celebration, which begins on the first day of Tishrei
Tishrei
. Tishrei
Tishrei
is the first month of the Jewish civil year, but the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year . According to Judaism, the fact that Rosh Hashanah is the beginning of the year is explained by it being the traditional anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
, the first man and woman according to the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, and their first actions toward the believed realization of humanity's role in God 's world. According to one secular opinion its origin is in the beginning of the economic year in the ancient Near East, marking the start of the agricultural cycle
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Kugel
KUGEL (קוגל kugl, pronounced IPA: ) is a baked pudding or casserole , most commonly made from egg noodles (Lokshen kugel) or potato . It is a traditional Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jewish dish, often served on Shabbat
Shabbat
and Yom Tov . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Jewish festivals * 4 South African slang usage * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe name of the dish comes from the Middle High German kugel meaning "sphere, globe, ball"; thus the Yiddish name likely originated as a reference to the round, puffed-up shape of the original dishes (compare to German Gugelhupf —a type of ring-shaped cake). Nowadays, however, kugels are often baked in square pans. While Litvaks ( Jews
Jews
from Lithuania
Lithuania
, northern Poland
Poland
and northern Russia ) call the pudding "kugel," Galitzianers ( Jews
Jews
from southeastern Poland
Poland
and the western Ukraine ) call it "kigel." HISTORY Yerushalmi or Jerusalem
Jerusalem
kugel The first kugels were made from bread and flour and were savory rather than sweet. About 800 years ago, cooks in Germany replaced bread mixtures with noodles or farfel . Eventually eggs were incorporated
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Latke
POTATO PANCAKES, LATKES or BOXTIES are shallow-fried pancakes of grated or ground potato , flour and egg , often flavored with grated garlic or onion and seasoning . They may be topped with a variety of condiments , ranging from the savory (such as sour cream or cottage cheese ), to the sweet (such as apple sauce or sugar ), or they may be served plain. The dish is sometimes made from mashed potatoes to make pancake-shaped croquettes
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Passover
PASSOVER or PESACH (/ˈpɛsɑːx, ˈpeɪsɑːx/ ; from Hebrew פֶּסַח‎ _Pesah, Pesakh_), is an important, biblically-derived Jewish holiday . Jews celebrate Passover as a commemoration of their liberation by God from slavery in ancient Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses . It commemorates the story of the Exodus as described in the Hebrew Bible , especially in the Book of Exodus , in which the Israelites were freed from slavery in Egypt. According to standard biblical chronology , this event would have taken place at about 1300 BCE (AM 2450). Passover is a spring festival which during the existence of the Temple in Jerusalem was connected to the offering of the "first-fruits of the barley", barley being the first grain to ripen and to be harvested in the Land of Israel . Passover commences on the 15th of the Hebrew month of Nisan and lasts for either seven days (in Israel and for Reform Jews and other progressive Jews around the world who adhere to the Biblical commandment) or eight days for Orthodox , Hasidic , and most Conservative Jews (in the diaspora )
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Snack
A SNACK is a portion of food , smaller than a regular meal , generally eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged snack foods and other processed foods, as well as items made from fresh ingredients at home. Traditionally, snacks are prepared from ingredients commonly available in the home. Often cold cuts , fruits , leftovers , nuts , sandwiches, and the like are used as snacks. The Dagwood sandwich was originally the humorous result of a cartoon character's desire for large snacks. With the spread of convenience stores , packaged snack foods became a significant business. Snack foods are typically designed to be portable, quick, and satisfying. Processed snack foods, as one form of convenience food , are designed to be less perishable, more durable, and more portable than prepared foods. They often contain substantial amounts of sweeteners , preservatives , and appealing ingredients such as chocolate , peanuts , and specially-designed flavors (such as flavored potato chips ). Beverages, such as coffee , are not generally considered snacks though they may be consumed along with or in lieu of snack foods. A snack eaten shortly before going to bed or during the night may be called a (mid)night snack
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Chopped Liver
CHOPPED LIVER is a liver pâté popular in Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine . It is a common menu item in kosher delicatessens in Britain, Canada, the U.S., and South Africa. CONTENTS * 1 Preparation and serving * 2 Variations and alternatives * 3 Chopped liver
Chopped liver
as an expression * 4 Similar dishes * 5 References PREPARATION AND SERVINGIt is often made by sautéing or broiling liver and onions , adding hard-boiled eggs , salt and pepper , and grinding that mixture. The liver used is generally calf , beef , or chicken . The quintessential fat used is schmaltz , but different methods and materials exist, and the exact process and ingredients may vary from chef to chef. Shortening or oil is often substituted for the schmaltz. Chopped liver
Chopped liver
is often served with rye bread as sandwiches . * Chopped liver
Chopped liver
* A chopped liver meal VARIATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES Chopped liver
Chopped liver
is high in protein but also high in fat and cholesterol . Thus, low fat versions of, as well as mock and vegetarian alternatives to chopped liver exist that are frequently made of a combination or base of peas, string beans, eggplant, or mushrooms. Parve alternatives include the Israeli eggplant salad and vorschmack (chopped herring)
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Side Dish
A SIDE DISH, sometimes referred to as a SIDE ORDER, SIDE ITEM, or simply a SIDE, is a food item that accompanies the entrée or main course at a meal . CONTENTS * 1 Common types * 2 "On the side" * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links COMMON TYPES A side dish of macaroni and cheese A side dish of Greek salad Side dishes such as salad , potatoes and bread are commonly used with main courses throughout many countries of the western world. New side orders introduced within the past decade, such as rice and couscous , have grown to be quite popular throughout Europe, especially at formal occasions (with couscous appearing more commonly at dinner parties with Middle Eastern dishes). When used as an adjective qualifying the name of a dish, the term "SIDE" usually refers to a smaller portion served as a side dish, rather than a larger, main dish-sized serving. For example, a "side salad" usually served in a small bowl or salad plate, in contrast to a large dinner-plate-sized entrée salad. A typical American meal with a meat-based main dish might include one vegetable side dish, sometimes in the form of a salad, and one starch side dish, such as bread, potatoes, rice, or pasta
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