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Friulian Language
FRIULIAN or FRIULAN ( furlan (help ·info ) or, affectionately, marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian , Furlanisch in German , furlanščina in Slovene ; also Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli
Friuli
region of northeastern Italy
Italy
. Friulian has around 600,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian . It is sometimes called EASTERN LADIN since it shares the same roots as Ladin , but, over the centuries, it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including German , Italian , Venetian , and Slovene . Documents in Friulian are attested from the 11th century and poetry and literature date as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language that has continued to this day
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Province Of Gorizia
The PROVINCE OF GORIZIA (Italian : Provincia di Gorizia, Slovene : Goriška pokrajina) is a province in the autonomous Friuli–Venezia Giulia region of Italy
Italy
. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links OVERVIEWIts capital is the city of Gorizia
Gorizia

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Alps
The ALPS (/ælps/ ; French : Alpes ; German : Alpen ; Italian : Alpi ; Romansh : Alps; Slovene : Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe
Europe
, stretching approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries : Austria
Austria
, France
France
, Germany
Germany
, Italy
Italy
, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, Monaco
Monaco
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, and Switzerland
Switzerland
. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn
Matterhorn

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Province Of Venice
The PROVINCE OF VENICE (Provincia di Venezia) was a province in the Veneto
Veneto
region of northern Italy
Italy
. Its capital is the city of Venice
Venice
. It had an area of 2,467 km², and a total population of 846,962 (2011). The province became the Metropolitan City of Venice
Venice
in 2015. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demography * 3.1 Comunes * 4 Economy * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe area was settled by 11th century BC. According to legend, Antenor fled from Troy
Troy
, leading the people of Eneti from Paphlagonia
Paphlagonia
to inhabit the shores of the Adriatic. In 102 B.C., The Romans defeated the Cimbri and the Germanic tribes in the area, thus increasing their influence in the region to form the Regio X Venetia et Histria
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Gospel
A GOSPEL (a contraction of Old English "god spel" meaning "good news/glad tidings (of the kingdom of God)", comparable to Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion) is a written account of the career and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth . The term originally meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out. The four gospels of the New Testament — Matthew , Mark , Luke and John — are the main source of information on the life of Jesus
Jesus
. For various reasons modern scholars are cautious of relying on them uncritically, but nevertheless they do provide a good idea of the public career of Jesus, and critical study can attempt to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus
Jesus
from those of the later authors
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Istria
ISTRIA (/ˈɪstriə/ ; Croatian , Slovene : Istra; Istriot : Eîstria; German : Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Kvarner Gulf . It is shared by three countries: Croatia
Croatia
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, and Italy
Italy

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Historical Linguistics
HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS, also called DIACHRONIC LINGUISTICS, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: * to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages * to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and to determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics ) * to develop general theories about how and why language changes * to describe the history of speech communities * to study the history of words, i.e
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Muggia
MUGGIA (Slovenian : Milje, Venetian , local italian dialect: Muja, German : Mulgs, Friulian : Mugle) is an Italian town and comune in the extreme south-east of the Province of Trieste in the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
on the border with Slovenia
Slovenia
. Lying on the eastern flank of the Gulf of Trieste
Gulf of Trieste
in the northern Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
, Muggia
Muggia
is the only Italian port town in Istria. The town's architecture is marked by its Venetian and Austrian history, and its harbour hosts a modern 500-berth marina for yachts (Porto San Rocco). Muggia
Muggia
lies in northern Istra . Its territory, limited on the sea-side by a shoreline of more than 7 kilometres (4 mi) featuring a coastal road and on the border side by a hill system, Monti di Muggia , including Mt
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Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
GRAZIADIO ISAIA ASCOLI (16 July 1829 – 21 January 1907) was an Italian linguist . CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Political views * 3 Bibliography * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND WORKAscoli was born in an Italian -speaking Jewish family in the multiethnic town of Gorizia
Gorizia
, then part of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(now in Italy
Italy
). Already as a boy, he learned some of the other languages traditionally spoken in the town, German , Friulian
Friulian
, Slovene and Venetian . An autodidact , he published his first important work on the languages of the orient in 1854. In 1860, he was appointed professor of linguistics at the Accademia scientifico-letteraria in Milan
Milan
and introduced the study of comparative philology , Romance studies , and Sanskrit
Sanskrit

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Conservative (language)
In linguistics , a CONSERVATIVE form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change. It is the opposite of INNOVATIVE or ADVANCED forms or varieties, which have undergone relatively larger or more recent changes. A conservative linguistic form, such as a word , is one that remains closer to an older form from which it evolved, relative to cognate forms from the same source. For example, the Spanish word caro and the French word cher both evolved from the Latin
Latin
word cārum. The Spanish word, which is more similar to the common ancestor, is more conservative than its French cognate. A language or language variety is said to be conservative if it has fewer innovations (in other words, more conservative forms) than related varieties do
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Carni
The CARNI (Greek Καρνίοι) were a tribe of the Eastern Alps in classical antiquity , settling in the mountains separating Noricum
Noricum
and Venetia . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Roman expansion * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography HISTORYThey are usually considered a Gaulish tribe , although some associate them with the Venetic peoples, a group closely related to but probably distinct from the Celts
Celts
. Their area of settlement isn't known with precision. Strabo
Strabo
confines them to the mountains, while Ptolemy
Ptolemy
assigns them two cities near the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast. They are likely eponymous of the regions of Carnia
Carnia
, Carniola
Carniola
and Carinthia
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