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Eutriconodonta
EUTRICONODONTA is an order of early mammals . Eutriconodonts existed in Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
, North and South America
South America
during the Jurassic
Jurassic
and the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods. The order was named by Kermack et al. in 1973 as a replacement name for the paraphyletic Triconodonta . Traditionally seen as the classical Mesozoic
Mesozoic
small mammalian insectivores, discoveries over the years have ironically shown them to be among the best examples of the diversity of mammals in this time period, including a vast variety of bauplans, ecological niches and locomotion methods
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia
Asia
List of cities in Asia List * Bangkok
Bangkok

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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Amphilestidae
The AMPHILESTIDAE are a family of Mesozoic
Mesozoic
mammals , generally regarded as eutriconodonts . They may form a paraphyletic or polyphyletic assemblage, though they share with gobiconodontids their similar tooth occlusion patterns and may be especially closely related to them. They occur from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
to Cenomanian , and have a distribution across both Laurasian landmasses and Gondwanan , with the Tanzanian Tendagurodon from the Tendaguru Formation and the Argentinian Condorodon being among the earliest representatives of this group. TAXONOMY * Amphilestes * Condorodon * Kemchugia * Kryptotherium * Liaotherium * Paikasigudodon * Phascolotherium * Tendagurodon REFERENCES * ^ Percy M. Butler; Denise Sigogneau-Russell (2016)
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Synapsid
Theropsida Seeley , 1895 SYNAPSIDS (Greek , 'fused arch'), synonymous with THEROPSIDS (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes . They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra , an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each; this accounts for their name. Primitive synapsids are usually called pelycosaurs or pelycosaur-grade synapsids; more advanced mammal-like ones, therapsids . The non-mammalian members are described as MAMMAL-LIKE REPTILES in classical systematics; they can also be called STEM MAMMALS or PROTO-MAMMALS. Synapsids evolved from basal amniotes and are one of the two major groups of the later amniotes; the other is the sauropsids , a group that includes modern reptiles and birds
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Extinction
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Early Jurassic
The EARLY JURASSIC epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the LOWER JURASSIC series ) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic
Jurassic
period. The Early Jurassic
Jurassic
starts immediately after the Triassic- Jurassic
Jurassic
extinction event , 201.3 Ma (million years ago), and ends at the start of the Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
174.1 Ma. Certain rocks of marine origin of this age in Europe are called "Lias " and that name was used for the period, as well, in 19th century geology. In southern Germany rocks of this age are called Black Jurassic
Jurassic

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South America
SOUTH AMERICA is a continent located in the western hemisphere , mostly in the southern hemisphere , with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere . It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy , a group is PARAPHYLETIC if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a PARAPHYLY. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology ) and in linguistics . The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles (Reptilia) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids —except for mammals and birds . Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish , monkeys and lizards . If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Mandible
The MANDIBLE, LOWER JAW or JAWBONE is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face. It forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place. The mandible sits beneath the maxilla . The mandible is the only movable bone of the skull not counting the ossicles of the middle ear. The bone is formed from a fusion of left and right processes, and the point where these sides join, the mandibular symphysis , is still visible as a faint ridge in the midline. Like other symphyses in the body, this is a midline articulation where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage , but this articulation fuses together in early childhood. The word mandible derives from Latin
Latin
mandibula, "jawbone" - literally, 'one used for chewing', from mandere "to chew" and -bula instrumental suffix
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Long Branch Attraction
In phylogenetics , LONG BRANCH ATTRACTION (LBA) is a form of systematic error whereby distantly related lineages are incorrectly inferred to be closely related. LBA arises when the amount of molecular or morphological change accumulated within a lineage is sufficient to cause that lineage to appear similar (thus closely related) to another long-branched lineage, solely because they have both undergone a large amount of change, rather than because they are related by descent. Such bias is more common when the overall divergence of some taxa results in long branches within a phylogeny . Long-branches are often attracted to the base of a phylogenetic tree , because the lineage included to represent an outgroup is often also long-branched. The frequency of true LBA is unclear and often debated. Although often viewed as a failing of parsimony-based methodology, LBA can result from a variety of scenarios and be inferred under multiple analysis paradigms
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Crown Group
In phylogenetics , the CROWN GROUP of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants. It is thus a clade , a group consisting of a species and all its descendants. The concept was developed by Willi Hennig
Willi Hennig
, the formulator of phylogenetic systematics , as a way of classifying living organisms relative to their extinct relatives in his "Die Stammesgeschichte der Insekten", and the "crown" and "stem" group terminology was coined by R. P. S. Jefferies in 1979. Though formulated in the 1970s, the term was not commonly used until its reintroduction in 2000 by Graham Budd and Sören Jensen
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Tooth
A TOOTH (plural TEETH) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths ) of many vertebrates and used to break down food . Some animals, particularly carnivores , also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are covered by gums . Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm . The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position. The teeth of mammals have deep roots, and this pattern is also found in some fish, and in crocodilians . In most teleost fish, however, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side
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