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Eutriconodonta
Eutriconodonta
Eutriconodonta
is an order of early mammals. Eutriconodonts existed in Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America
South America
during the Jurassic
Jurassic
and the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods. The order was named by Kermack et al
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Early Jurassic
The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Amphidontidae
The Amphidontidae are a family of extinct mammals from the Early Cretaceous, belonging to the triconodonts. It contains most of the species previously belonged to Amphilestidae.[1] Phylogeny[edit] Cladogram
Cladogram
after Marisol Montellano, James A. Hopson, James M. Clark (2008)[2] and Gao et al
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Late Cretaceous
The Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period is divided in the geologic timescale. Rock strata from this epoch form the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series
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Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in AsiaList Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Taipei[4] Tehran Tokyo Ulaanbaatar Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a paraphyly. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology) and in linguistics. The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like Reptilia (reptiles) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids—except for mammals and birds. Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish, monkeys and lizards.[1] If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Chordate
And see textA chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system. In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata, which includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; the Tunicata, which includes salps and sea squirts; and the Cephalochordata, which include the lancelets. There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Mesozoic
The Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era ( /ˌmɛsəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ or /ˌmɛzəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/[1][2]) is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the Age of Reptiles, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell
Gideon Mantell
who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, Plesiosaurus
Plesiosaurus
and Pterodactylus. This Era is also called from a paleobotanist view the Age of Conifers.[3] Mesozoic
Mesozoic
means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal" or "living being".[4] It is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
("new life")
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Morganucodon
Morganucodon
Morganucodon
(" Glamorgan
Glamorgan
tooth") is an early mammaliaform genus that lived during the late Triassic
Triassic
period. It first appeared about 205 million years ago. Unlike many other early mammals, Morganucodon
Morganucodon
is well represented by abundant and well preserved, though in the vast majority of cases disarticulated, material. Most of this comes from Glamorgan
Glamorgan
in Wales
Wales
( Morganucodon
Morganucodon
watsoni), but fossils have also been found in Yunnan
Yunnan
Province in China
China
( Morganucodon
Morganucodon
oehleri) and various parts of Europe and North America
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Sinoconodon
Sinoconodon
Sinoconodon
rigneyi[1] is an ancient mammaliamorph or early mammal (depending on systematic approach) that appears in the fossil record of China in the Sinemurian
Sinemurian
stage of the Early Jurassic
Jurassic
period, about 193 million years ago
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Theria
Theria
Theria
(/ˈθɪəriə/; Greek: θηρίον, wild beast) is a subclass of mammals[2] amongst the Theriiformes (the sister taxa to Yinotheria). Theria
Theria
includes the eutherians (including the placental mammals) and the metatherians (including the marsupials).Contents1 Characteristics 2 Evolution 3 Taxonomy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Therian mammals give birth to live young without a shelled egg. It is possible thanks to key proteins called syncytins, which allow exchanges between the mother and its offspring through a placenta; even rudimental ones such as the marsupials. Genetic studies have enlighted the viral origin of syncytins through the endogenization process.[3] The marsupials and the placental mammals evolved from a common therian ancestor that gave live-birth by suppressing the mother's immune system
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