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Erythropoietin
1BUY, 1CN4, 1EERIdentifiersAliases EPO, EP, MVCD2, erythropoietin, ErythropoietinExternal IDs OMIM: 133170 MGI: 95407 HomoloGene: 624 GeneCards: EPOGene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
7 (human)[1]Band 7q22.1 Start 100,720,800 bp[1]End 100,723,700 bp[1]Gene location (Mouse)Chr. Chromosome
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Protein Data Bank
The Protein
Protein
Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy, and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations (PDBe,[1] PDBj,[2] and RCSB[3]). The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein
Protein
Data Bank, wwPDB. The PDB is a key resource in areas of structural biology, such as structural genomics. Most major scientific journals, and some funding agencies, now require scientists to submit their structure data to the PDB
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Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
(MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more ofte
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Gene Nomenclature
Gene
Gene
nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms
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Proximal Convoluted Tubule
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule
Bowman's capsule
to the loop of Henle. It is conventionally divided into the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and the proximal straight tubule (PST).Contents1 Structure1.1 Brush border
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Perisinusoidal Space
The perisinusoidal space (or space of Disse) is a location in the liver between a hepatocyte and a sinusoid. It contains the blood plasma. Microvilli of hepatocytes extend into this space, allowing proteins and other plasma components from the sinusoids to be absorbed by the hepatocytes. Fenestration and discontinuity of the endothelium, as well as its basement membrane,[1] facilitates this transport.[2] This space may be obliterated in liver disease, leading to decreased uptake by hepatocytes of nutrients and wastes such as bilirubin. The perisinusoidal space also contains hepatic stellate cells (also known as Ito cells), which store fat or fat soluble vitamins including vitamin A). A variety of insults that cause inflammation can result in the cells transforming into myofibroblasts, resulting in collagen production, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The Space of Disse was named after German anatomist Joseph Disse (1852–1912).[3] References[edit]^ Mescher, Anthony L
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Liver
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile
Bile
aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
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Exogeny
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity (from Greek exo, meaning 'outside', and gignomai, meaning 'to produce') is the fact of an action or object originating externally. It contrasts with endogeny or endogeneity, the fact of being influenced within a system.In an economic model, an exogenous change is one that comes from outside the model and is unexplained by the model. For example, in the simple supply and demand model, a change in consumer tastes or preferences is unexplained by the model and also leads to endogenous changes in demand that lead to changes in the equilibrium price. Similarly, a change in the consumer's income is given outside the model but affects demand
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Recombinant DNA Technology
Molecular cloning
Molecular cloning
is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA
DNA
molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.[1] The use of the word cloning refers to the fact that the method involves the replication of one molecule to produce a population of cells with identical DNA molecules. Molecular cloning
Molecular cloning
generally uses DNA
DNA
sequences from two different organisms: the species that is the source of the DNA
DNA
to be cloned, and the species that will serve as the living host for replication of the recombinant DNA
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Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8]
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Stroke
Stroke
Stroke
is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.[4] There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.[4] They result in part of the brain not functioning properly.[4] Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side.[1][2] Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred.[2] If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a trans
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Hypoxemia
Hypoxemia
Hypoxemia
(or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.[1][2] More specifically, it is oxygen deficiency in arterial blood.[3] Hypoxemia
Hypoxemia
has many causes, often respiratory disorders, and can cause
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Venous Thromboembolism
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein. Thrombosis
Thrombosis
is a term for a blood clot occurring inside a blood vessel. A common type of venous thrombosis is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which is a blood clot in the deep veins of the leg. If the thrombus breaks off (embolizes) and flows towards the lungs, it can become a pulmonary embolism (PE), a blood clot in the lungs. An inflammatory reaction is usually present, mainly in the superficial veins and, for this reason this pathology is called most of the time thrombophlebitis
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Performance-enhancing Drug
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED),[1] are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans. A well-known example involves doping in sport, where banned physical performance–enhancing drugs are used by athletes and bodybuilders. Athletic performance-enhancing substances are sometimes referred to as ergogenic aids.[2][3] Cognitive performance-enhancing drugs, commonly called nootropics,[4] are sometimes used by students to improve academic performance. Performance-enhancing substances are also used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.[5] The use of performance-enhancing drugs spans the categories of legitimate use and substance abuse.Contents1 Definition 2 Types 3 Usage in sport 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDefinition[edit] The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing substances are not entirely clear-cut and objective
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Posttranslational Modification
Post-translational modification
Post-translational modification
(PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes translating mRNA into polypeptide chains, which may then undergo PTM to form the mature protein product
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Glycosylation
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor). In biology glycosylation mainly refers in particular to the enzymatic process that attaches glycans to proteins, lipids, or other organic molecules. This enzymatic process produces one of the fundamental biopolymers found in cells (along with DNA, RNA, and proteins). Glycosylation is a form of co-translational and post-translational modification. Glycans serve a variety of structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins.[1] The majority of proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum undergo glycosylation. It is an enzyme-directed site-specific process, as opposed to the non-enzymatic chemical reaction of glycation
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