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Enzymatic Browning
Browning is the process of food turning brown due to the chemical reactions that take place within. The process of food browning is one of the most important reactions that take place in food chemistry and represents an interesting research topic regarding health, nutrition, and food technology. Though there are many different ways food chemically changes over time, browning in particular falls into 2 main categories: enzymatic and non-enzymatic processes
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Food
Food
Food
is any substance[1] consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. Historically, humans secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture
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Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis
is a thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere such as a vacuum gas.[1] It involves the change of chemical composition and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating". Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis
is most commonly applied to the treatment of organic materials. It is one of the processes involved in charring wood, starting at 200–300 °C (390–570 °F).[2] In general, pyrolysis of organic substances produces volatile products and leaves a solid residue enriched in carbon, char
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Tea Processing
Tea
Tea
processing is the method in which the leaves from the tea plant Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
are transformed into the dried leaves for brewing tea. The categories of tea are distinguished by the processing they undergo
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Rate Of Reaction
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products. For example, the oxidative rusting of iron under Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
is a slow reaction that can take many years, but the combustion of cellulose in a fire is a reaction that takes place in fractions of a second. For most reactions, the rate decreases as the reaction proceeds. Chemical kinetics
Chemical kinetics
is the part of physical chemistry that studies reaction rates
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Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin
Vitamin
C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] The disease scurvy is prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements.[1] Evidence does not support use in the general population for the prevention of the common cold.[2][3] There is, however, some evidence that regular use may shorten the length of colds.[4] It is unclear if supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.[5][6] It may be taken by mouth or by injection.[1]
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Chelation
Chelation
Chelation
(US: /kiːˈleɪʃən/ , UK: /tʃɪˈleɪʃən/) is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions
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Ion-exchange Chromatography
Ion
Ion
chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger. It works on almost any kind of charged molecule—including large proteins, small nucleotides, and amino acids. The two types of ion chromatography are anion-exchange and cation-exchange. It is often used in protein purification, water analysis,[1][2] and quality control. The water-soluble and charged molecules such as proteins, amino acids, and peptides bind to moieties which are oppositely charged by forming ionic bonds to the insoluble stationary phase.[3] The equilibrated stationary phase consists of an ionizable functional group where the targeted molecules of a mixture to be separated and quantified can bind while passing through the column—a cationic stationary phase is used to separate anions and an anionic stationary phase is used to separate cations
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Arctic Apples
Arctic® apples are a group of trademarked apples that contain a nonbrowning trait (when the apples are subjected to mechanical damage, such as slicing or bruising, the apple flesh remains as its original color)[1][2] introduced through biotechnology
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Brioche
Brioche
Brioche
(/ˈbriːoʊʃ, -ɒʃ/; French: [bʁi.ɔʃ]) is a pastry of French origin that is similar to a highly enriched bread, and whose high egg and butter content (400 grams for each kilogram of flour) give it a rich and tender crumb. Chef Joel Robuchon
Joel Robuchon
describes it as "light and slightly puffy, more or less fine, according to the proportion of butter and eggs."[1] It has a dark, golden, and flaky crust, frequently accentuated by an egg wash applied after proofing. Brioche
Brioche
is considered a Viennoiserie, in that it is made in the same basic way as bread, but has the richer aspect of a pastry because of the extra addition of eggs, butter, liquid (milk, water, cream, and, sometimes, brandy) and occasionally a bit of sugar
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Caramelization
Caramelization
Caramelization
is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The brown colours are produced by three groups of polymers: caramelans (C24H36O18), caramelens (C36H50O25), and caramelins (C125H188O80). As the process occurs, volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor.[1] Like the Maillard reaction, caramelization is a type of non-enzymatic browning
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Maillard Reaction
The Maillard reaction
Maillard reaction
(/maɪˈjɑːr/ my-YAR; French pronunciation: ​[majaʁ]) is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor. Seared steaks, pan-fried dumplings, cookies and other kinds of biscuits, breads, toasted marshmallows, as well as many other foods, undergo this reaction. It is named after French chemist Louis-Camille Maillard, who first described it in 1912 while attempting to reproduce biological protein synthesis.[1][2] The reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning which typically proceeds rapidly from around 140 to 165 °C (280 to 330 °F). Many recipes will call for an oven temperature high enough to ensure that a Maillard reaction
Maillard reaction
occurs[3]
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Water Activity
Water activity or aw is the partial vapor pressure of water in a substance divided by the standard state partial vapor pressure of water. In the field of food science, the standard state is most often defined as the partial vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Using this particular definition, pure distilled water has a water activity of exactly one. As temperature increases, aw typically increases, except in some products with crystalline salt or sugar. Higher aw substances tend to support more microorganisms. Bacteria usually require at least 0.91, and fungi at least 0.7.[1] See also fermentation. Water migrates from areas of high aw to areas of low aw. For example, if honey (aw ≈ 0.6) is exposed to humid air (aw ≈ 0.7), the honey absorbs water from the air
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Sugar
Sugar
Sugar
is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes) and is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
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Denaturation (biochemistry)
Note 1: Modified from the definition given in ref.[1] Note 2: Denaturation can occur when proteins and nucleic acids are subjected to elevated temperature or to extremes of pH, or to nonphysiological concentrations of salt, organic solvents, urea, or other chemical agents. Note 3: An enzyme loses its catalytic activity when it is denaturized.[2]Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.[3] If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. Protein
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Volatility (chemistry)
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure
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