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Emicerfont
EMICERFONT (GW-876,008) is a drug developed by GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
which acts as a CRF-1 antagonist. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), also known as Corticotropin releasing hormone
Corticotropin releasing hormone
, is an endogenous peptide hormone which is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress , and activates the two corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors : CRF1 and CRF2 . This then triggers the release of corticotropin (ACTH), another hormone which is involved in the physiological response to stress. Emicerfont
Emicerfont
blocks the CRF1 receptor, and so reduces ACTH release. It has been investigated for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and alcoholism , and while it was not effective enough to be adopted for medical use in these applications, it continues to be used for research, as the role of the CRH-ACTH system in IBS remains poorly understood
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Route Of Administration
A ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is. Action may be topical (local), enteral (system-wide effect, but delivered through the gastrointestinal tract), or parenteral (systemic action, but delivered by routes other than the GI tract)
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Alcoholism
ALCOHOLISM, also known as ALCOHOL USE DISORDER (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence . In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex among others. Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas , and immune system
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Irritable Bowel Syndrome
IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage. These symptoms occur over a long time, often years. It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively). IBS negatively affects quality of life and may result in missed school or work. Disorders such as anxiety , major depression , and chronic fatigue syndrome are common among people with IBS. The causes of IBS are not clear. Theories include combinations of gut–brain axis problems, gut motility disorders, pain sensitivity, infections including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth , neurotransmitters, genetic factors, and food sensitivity . Onset may be triggered by an intestinal infection , or stressful life event
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Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH), also known as CORTICOTROPIN is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland . It is also used as a medication and diagnostic agent . It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus ). Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland . ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms. Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus , cf. hypopituitarism ) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone CRH )
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Receptor Modulator
A RECEPTOR MODULATOR, or RECEPTOR LIGAND, is a type of drug which binds to and modulates receptors . They are ligands and include receptor agonists and receptor antagonists , as well as receptor partial agonists , inverse agonists , and allosteric modulators
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Eprosartan
EPROSARTAN is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of high blood pressure . It is marketed in the United States as Teveten by Abbvie , the spin-off of the pharmaceutical discovery division of Abbott Laboratories ; it is marketed as Eprozar by INTAS Pharmaceuticals in India
India
, and by Abbott Laboratories elsewhere. The compound came into the Abbott Laboratories cardiovascular pipeline with its acquisition of Kos Pharmaceuticals in 2006, which had licensed it, along with "a range of hypertensive treatments", from the Biovail Corporation . Eprosartan
Eprosartan
is sometimes paired with hydrochlorothiazide , whereupon it is marketed in the US as TEVETEN HCT and elsewhere as TEVETEN PLUS. The drug acts on the renin-angiotensin system to decrease total peripheral resistance in two ways
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Abitesartan
ABITESARTAN (INN ) is an Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist

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Saralasin
SARALASIN is a partial agonist of angiotensin II receptors , though it is commonly mistaken as a competitive antagonist . Saralasin's distinction as a partial agonist is based on the fact that its therapeutic effect (i.e. reduced hypertension) is only observed in patients with high plasma angiotensin II levels, but in patients with low angiotensin II levels Saralasin
Saralasin
causes hypertension. In other words, the effects of Saralasin
Saralasin
on the angiotensin II receptor in the absence of angiotensin II is pharmacodynamically similar to angiotensin II itself thus it is a partial agonist, because if it was an antagonist it would not elicit an effect when bound to its receptor
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Angiotensin Receptor
The ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands . They are important in the renin-angiotensin system : they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin II . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Members * 2.1 Overview table * 2.2 AT1 * 2.2.1 Location within the body * 2.2.2 Mechanism * 2.2.3 Effects * 2.3 AT2 * 2.4 AT3 and AT4 * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links STRUCTUREThe AT1 and AT2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, which is their main ligand. MEMBERSOVERVIEW TABLE RECEPTOR MECHANISM AT1 * Gq/11 * Gi/o AT2 * Gi2 / 3 AT3 AT4AT1 Main article: Angiotensin II receptor type 1 The AT1 receptor is the best elucidated angiotensin receptor
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Chronic Stress
CHRONIC STRESS is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control. It involves an endocrine system response in which corticosteroids are released. While the immediate effects of stress hormones are beneficial in a particular short-term situation, long-term exposure to stress creates a high level of these hormones. This may lead to high blood pressure (and subsequently heart disease), damage to muscle tissue, inhibition of growth, suppression of the immune system, and damage to mental health . CONTENTS * 1 Historical development * 2 Physiology * 3 Response * 4 Symptoms * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Hans Selye
Hans Selye
(1907–1982), known as the "father of stress", is credited with first studying and identifying stress
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE . There are two main areas: * IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry (Red Book) * IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry (Blue Book) This chemistry -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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