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Emicerfont
Emicerfont
Emicerfont
(GW-876,008) is a drug developed by GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
which acts as a CRF-1 antagonist. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), also known as Corticotropin releasing hormone, is an endogenous peptide hormone which is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress, and activates the two corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: CRF1 and CRF2. This then triggers the release of corticotropin (ACTH), another hormone which is involved in the physiological response to stress. Emicerfont
Emicerfont
blocks the CRF1 receptor, and so reduces ACTH release
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Route Of Administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.[1] Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is
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Chronic Stress
Chronic stress
Chronic stress
is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control. It involves an endocrine system response in which corticosteroids are released. While the immediate effects of stress hormones are beneficial in a particular short-term situation, long-term exposure to stress creates a high level of these hormones. This may lead to high blood pressure (and subsequently heart disease), damage to muscle tissue, inhibition of growth, suppression of the immune system,[1] and damage to mental health.Contents1 Historical development 2 Physiology 3 Response 4 Symptoms 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistorical development[edit] Hans Selye
Hans Selye
(1907–1982), known as the "father of stress",[2] is credited with first studying and identifying stress
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Angiotensin Receptor
The angiotensin II receptors, (AGTR1) and (AGTR2), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands.[1] They are important in the renin–angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin II.[2]Contents1 Structure 2 Members2.1 Overview table 2.2 AT12.2.1 Location within the body 2.2.2 Mechanism 2.2.3 Effects2.3 AT2 2.4 AT3 and AT43 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit] The AT1 and AT2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, which is their main ligand. Members[edit] Overview table[edit]Receptor Mechanism[3]AT1Gq/11 Gi/oAT2Gi2 / 3AT3AT4AT1[edit] Main article:
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Alcoholism
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.[12] The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[1][13] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.[1] Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex, among other things.[1] Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body, but it particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system.[3][4] This can
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Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
(IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.[1] These symptoms occur over a long time, often years.[2] It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively).[1] IBS negatively affects quality of life and may result in missed school or work.[7] Disorders such as anxiety, major de
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Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.[1] It is also used as a medication and diagnostic agent. ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland. ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms.[2] Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, cf. hypopituitarism) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone CRH)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.[3] Established in 2000 by a merger of Glaxo Wellcome
Glaxo Wellcome
and SmithKline Beecham, GSK was the world's sixth largest pharmaceutical company as of 2015, after Pfizer, Novartis, Merck, Hoffmann-La Roche
Hoffmann-La Roche
and Sanofi.[n 1][4] Emma Walmsley became CEO on 31 March 2017 and is the first female CEO of the company.[5] The company has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index
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KEGG
KEGG
KEGG
(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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