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Dzo
A DZO (Tibetan མཛོ་ mdzo) (also spelled ZO, ZHO and DZHO) is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle . The word dzo technically refers to a male hybrid, while a female is known as a _dzomo_ or _zhom_. In Mongolian it is called KHAINAG (хайнаг). There is also the English language portmanteau term of YATTLE, a combination of the words yak and cattle, as well as YAKOW, a combination of the words yak and cow. Dzomo are fertile (or, fecund ) while dzo are sterile . As they are a product of the hybrid genetic phenomenon of heterosis (hybrid vigor), they are larger and stronger than yak or cattle from the region. In Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet, khainags are thought to be more productive than cattle or yaks in terms of both milk and meat production. Dzomo can be back crossed . As a result, many supposedly pure yak or pure cattle probably carry each other's genetic material. In Mongolia and Tibet
Tibet
, the result of a khainag crossed with either a domestic bull or yak bull is called _ortoom_ (three-quarter-bred) and an _ortoom_ crossed with a domestic bull or yak bull results in a _usan güzee_ (one-eighth-bred). SEE ALSO * Bovid hybrid * Yakalo , a yak/buffalo (American bison) hybridREFERENCES * ^ Mummolo, Jonathan (August 11, 2007). "Yattle What?". _The Washington Post _. Retrieved January 3, 2017
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, _Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages_, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the _ Ethnologue _ (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European . ISO 639-3 is intended for use as metadata codes in a wide range of applications. It is widely used in computer and information systems, such as the Internet, in which many languages need to be supported. In archives and other information storage, they are used in cataloging systems, indicating what language a resource is in or about. The codes are also frequently used in the linguistic literature and elsewhere to compensate for the fact that language names may be obscure or ambiguous
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Depleted Zinc Oxide
DEPLETED ZINC OXIDE (DZO) is a zinc oxide depleted in the zinc isotope with the atomic mass 64, and used as a corrosion inhibitor in nuclear pressurized water reactors . The depletion of 64Zn is necessary, because this isotope is transformed into 65Zn by neutron capture . 65Zn with a half-life of 244.26 days emits gamma radiation with 1.115 MeV . 64Zn has a natural abundance of 48.6%, but in DZO it is reduced below 1%. The addition of zinc oxide to the primary water loop of a pressurized water nuclear reactor reduces the corrosion and therefore minimizes the amount of dissolved materials, especially the amount of 60Co . The isotope separation of zinc is done by gas centrifugation of diethylzinc . REFERENCES * Cowan, R. L. (2001). "BWR water chemistry—a delicate balance". Nuclear Energy. 40 (4): 245–252. doi :10.1680/nuen.40.4.245.39338 . * ^ Roost, E.; Funck, E.; Spernol, A.; Vaninbroukx, R. (1972). "The decay of 65Zn". Zeitschrift für Physik. 250 (5): 395. Bibcode :1972ZPhy..250..395D
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Pack Animal
A PACK ANIMAL or BEAST OF BURDEN is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal 's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them. Traditional pack animals are diverse, including camels , goats , yaks , reindeer , water buffalo , and llamas , as well as the more familiar horses , donkeys and mules . CONTENTS * 1 Pack versus draft * 2 Diversity * 3 Uses * 4 Load carrying capacity * 5 Pack animals by region * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links PACK VERSUS DRAFTThe term pack animal is traditionally used in contrast to draft animal, which is a working animal that typically pulls a load behind itself (such as a plow , a cart, a sled or a heavy log) rather than carrying cargo directly on its back. For instance, sled dogs pull loads but do not normally carry them, while working elephants have been used for centuries to haul logs out of forests. DIVERSITYTraditional pack animals include ungulates such as camels , the yak , reindeer , goats , water buffalo and llama , and domesticated members of the horse family including horses , donkeys and mules . Occasionally, dogs can be used to carry small loads
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Mount Everest
MOUNT EVEREST, also known in Nepal
Nepal
as SAGARMāTHā and in Tibetic languages China
China
as CHOMOLUNGMA, is Earth
Earth
's highest mountain . Its peak is 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) above sea level. Mount Everest
Everest
is in the Mahalangur Range. The international border between China
China
(Tibet Autonomous Region ) and Nepal
Nepal
runs across Everest's summit point . Nearby peaks include Lhotse
Lhotse
, 8,516 m (27,940 ft); Nuptse, 7,855 m (25,771 ft), and Changtse, 7,580 m (24,870 ft) among others. Another nearby peak is Khumbutse, and many of the highest mountains in the world are near Mount Everest. In 1715, China
China
surveyed the mountain while mapping Chinese territory and depicted it as MOUNT QOMOLANGMA no later than 1719. In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey
Great Trigonometrical Survey
of India
India
established the first published height of the mountain, then known as PEAK XV, at 8,840 m (29,002 ft). The current official height of 8,848 m (29,029 ft) as recognised by China
China
and Nepal
Nepal
was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the height of the mountain and got a result of 8844.43 m
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Conservation Status
The CONSERVATION STATUS of a group of organisms (for instance, a species ) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use. CONTENTS* 1 International systems * 1.1 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
* 1.2 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora * 2 Multi-country systems * 3 National systems * 4 Consumer guides * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMSIUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIESThe IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
is the best known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Species
Species
are classified by the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
into nine groups set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa. The Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata , consisting of chordates with a skull ; the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish of the superclass Osteichthyes . The world's largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans . Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion
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Mammal
MAMMALS are any vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪli.ə/ from Latin _mamma_ "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the biggest animals on the planet, the great whales . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders , belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents , bats and Soricomorpha
Soricomorpha
(shrews and allies). The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates
Primates
(apes and monkeys ), the Cetartiodactyla (whales and even-toed ungulates ), and the Carnivora
Carnivora
(cats , dogs , seals , and allies)
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Even-toed Ungulate
The EVEN-TOED UNGULATES (ARTIODACTYLA, from Greek ἄρτιος _(ártios)_, meaning 'even', and δάκτυλος _(dáktylos)_, meaning 'finger/toe') are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates , such as horses, bear their weight primarily on their third toe. The aquatic cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) evolved from within even-toed ungulates, and therefore modern taxonomic classification sometimes combines Artiodactyla and Cetacea into Cetartiodactyla. The roughly 220 artiodactyl species include pigs , peccaries , hippopotamuses , whales , camels , llamas , alpacas , mouse deer , deer , giraffes , antelopes , sheep , goats, and cattle , many of which are of great dietary, economic, and cultural importance to humans
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Bovidae
Aepycerotinae (1 genus) Alcelaphinae (4 genera) Antilopinae (3 tribes and 15 genera) Bovinae (3 tribes and 10 genera) Caprinae (3 tribes and 13 genera) Cephalophinae (3 genera) Hippotraginae (3 genera) Pantholopinae (1 genus) Peleinae (1 genus) Reduncinae (2 genera) The BOVIDAE are the biological family of cloven-hoofed , ruminant mammals that includes bison , African buffalo , water buffalo , antelopes , sheep , goats , muskoxen , and domestic cattle . A member of this family is called a BOVID. With 143 extant species and 300 known extinct species, the family Bovidae consists of eight major subfamilies apart from the disputed Peleinae and Pantholopinae . The family evolved 20 million years ago, in the early Miocene . The bovids show great variation in size and pelage colouration. Excepting some domesticated forms , all male bovids have two or more horns , and in many species females possess horns, too. The size and shape of the horns vary greatly, but the basic structure is always one or more pairs of simple bony protrusions without branches, often having a spiral, twisted or fluted form, each covered in a permanent sheath of keratin . Most bovids bear 30 to 32 teeth. Most bovids are diurnal . Social activity and feeding usually peak during dawn and dusk
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Bovinae
Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily BOVINAE includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates , including domestic cattle , bison , African buffalo , the water buffalo , the yak , and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes . The evolutionary relationship between the members of the group is still debated, and their classification into loose tribes rather than formal subgroups reflects this uncertainty. General characteristics include cloven hoofs and usually at least one of the sexes of a species having true horns . The largest extant bovine is the gaur . In most countries, bovids are used for food. Cattle are eaten almost everywhere except in parts of India and Nepal where they are considered sacred by most Hindus . CONTENTS * 1 Systematics and classification * 2 Etymology * 3 References * 4 External links SYSTEMATICS AND CLASSIFICATION _ Bovine skull. Bovine skull. * FAMILY BOVIDAE * SUBFAMILY BOVINAE * TRIBE BOSELAPHINI * Genus Tetracerus _ * Four-horned antelope , _Tetracerus quadricornis_ * _T.q. quadricornis_ * _T.q. iodes_ * _T.q. subquadricornis_* Genus _Boselaphus _ * Nilgai or blue bull, _Boselaphus tragocamelus_ (not to be confused with the extinct bluebuck _ Hippotragus leucophaeus_, Hippotraginae ) * _B.t
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Bovini
Bison
Bison
Bos
Bos
Bubalus
Bubalus
Pseudoryx Syncerus Pelorovis Ugandax The BOVINI tribe is made up of large to very large grazers, including large animals of great economic significance to humans in Domestic Cattle
Cattle
, Domestic buffalo , and the Yak
Yak
, as well as smaller Asian relatives, and large free-roaming bovids in the African Buffalo
African Buffalo
and the American Bison
Bison
. EVOLUTIONThe closest relations to this tribe are the Boselaphini
Boselaphini
and Tragelaphini tribes. The common ancestor of all the BOVINI species appears to have lived about 5–8 million years ago. The first clade to diverge was the buffalo clade ( Bubalus
Bubalus
and Syncerus species). This was followed by the banteng /gaur /gayal clade and the domestic cattle clade. A fourth clade leading to the bison and yak species may also exist
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Bos
_B. acutifrons _ † (Aurochs, primordial bos) _B. frontalis _ (gayal, domesticated gaur) _B. gaurus _ (gaur) _B. grunniens _ (domestic yak) _B. mutus _ (wild yak) _B. indicus _ (zebu) _B. javanicus _ (banteng) _B. palaesondaicus _ † (Pleistocene Banteng) _B. planifrons _ † _B. primigenius _ † (aurochs) _B. sauveli _ (kouprey) _B. taurus _ (cattle) _BOS_ (from Latin