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Dzo
A DZO (Tibetan མཛོ་ mdzo) (also spelled ZO, ZHO and DZHO) is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle . The word dzo technically refers to a male hybrid, while a female is known as a dzomo or zhom. In Mongolian it is called KHAINAG (хайнаг). There is also the English language portmanteau term of YATTLE, a combination of the words yak and cattle, as well as YAKOW, a combination of the words yak and cow. Dzomo are fertile (or, fecund ) while dzo are sterile . As they are a product of the hybrid genetic phenomenon of heterosis (hybrid vigor), they are larger and stronger than yak or cattle from the region. In Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet, khainags are thought to be more productive than cattle or yaks in terms of both milk and meat production. Dzomo can be back crossed . As a result, many supposedly pure yak or pure cattle probably carry each other's genetic material
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Heterosis
HETEROSIS, HYBRID VIGOR, or OUTBREEDING ENHANCEMENT, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring. The adjective derived from _heterosis_ is HETEROTIC. An offspring exhibits heterosis if its traits are enhanced as a result of mixing the genetic contributions of its parents. These effects can be due to Mendelian or non- Mendelian inheritance
Mendelian inheritance
. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Dominance versus overdominance * 3 Genetic basis * 4 Historical retrospective * 5 Controversy * 6 Genetic and epigenetic bases * 6.1 Major histocompatibility complex in animals * 7 Plants * 7.1 Corn (maize) * 7.2 Rice
Rice
(_Oryza sativa_) * 8 Hybrid livestock * 8.1 Poultry * 9 Dogs * 10 Humans * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading DEFINITIONSIn proposing the term _heterosis_ to replace the older term HETEROZYGOSIS, G.H
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, _Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages_, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the _ Ethnologue _ (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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The Washington Post
_THE WASHINGTON POST_ is an American daily newspaper . It is the most widely circulated newspaper published in Washington, D.C. , and was founded on December 6, 1877, making it the area's oldest extant newspaper. In 2017, it adopted the slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness". Located in the capital city of the United States, the newspaper has a particular emphasis on national politics. Daily editions are printed for the District of Columbia , Maryland , and Virginia . The newspaper is published as a broadsheet , with photographs printed both in color and in black and white. The newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes . This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008 , the second-highest number ever awarded to a single newspaper in one year, second only to _ The New York Times _' seven awards in 2002
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Sterility (physiology)
STERILITY is the physiological inability to effect sexual reproduction in a living thing, members of whose kind have been produced sexually. Sterility has a wide range of causes. It may be an inherited trait, as in the mule; or it may be acquired from the environment, for example through physical injury or disease, or by exposure to radiation . MECHANISMS OF STERILITYSterility can be caused by different closely related species breeding and producing offspring, these animals are usually sterile due to different numbers of chromosomes from the two parents, causing an imbalance in the resulting offspring making it viable but not fertile, this is the case with the mule . Sterility can also be caused by chromosomal differences within the patient, these individuals tend to be known as a genetic mosaics . Loss of part of a chromosome can also cause sterility due to nondisjunction
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Fecundity
In demography and biology , FECUNDITY is the actual reproductive rate of an organism or population , measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules. Fecundity is similar to fertility , the natural capability to produce offspring. A lack of fertility is infertility while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility . Demography
Demography
considers only human fecundity which is often intentionally limited through contraception , while biology studies all organisms. Fecundity is under both genetic and environmental control, and is the major measure of fitness . Fecundation is another term for fertilization . Superfecundity or retrofecundity refers to an organism's ability to store another organism's sperm (after copulation ) and fertilize its own eggs from that store after a period of time, essentially making it appear as though fertilization occurred without sperm (i.e. parthenogenesis )
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Mongolian Language
монгол хэл ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ PRONUNCIATION /mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ xeɮ/ NATIVE TO Mongolia , REGION All of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia ; parts of Liaoning , Jilin ,
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Fertility
FERTILITY is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population. Fertility differs from fecundity , which is defined as the _potential_ for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilization and carrying a pregnancy to term). A lack of fertility is infertility while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility . Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition , sexual behavior , consanguinity , culture , instinct , endocrinology , timing, economics , way of life, and emotions
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National Research Council (United States)
The NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific National Academy of the United States
United States
(US). The name is used interchangeably in two senses: (1) as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations (the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the National Academy of Medicine
National Academy of Medicine
(NAM)). And (2) as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS. Now jointly governed by all three academies, it produces some 200 publications annually which are published by the National Academies Press
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO . An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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Canis
1 _C. lupus_ also includes domestic dogs , _C. l. familiaris,_ and dingos , _C. l. dingo_ * _ Canis mesomelas _ * _ Canis rufus _ * _ Canis simensis _ * _ Canis lycaon __CANIS_ is a genus of canids containing multiple extant species, such as wolves, dogs and coyotes. Species of this genus are distinguished by their moderate to large size, their massive, well-developed skulls and dentition, long legs, and comparatively short ears and tails. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Terminology * 3 Taxonomy * 3.1 Canini * 3.2 _Canis_ * 3.3 Evolution * 4 Dentition and biteforce * 5 Behaviour * 5.1 Tooth breakage * 6 Wolves, dogs, and dingoes * 7 Coyotes, jackals, and wolves * 8 African migration * 9 Gallery * 10 See also * 11 References ETYMOLOGYThe generic name _Canis_ means "dog " in Latin
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Oceanic Dolphin
See text. OCEANIC DOLPHINS or DELPHINIDAE are a widely distributed family of dolphins that live in the sea. Thirty extant species are described. They include several big species whose common names contain "whale" rather than "dolphin", such as the killer whale and the pilot whales . Delphinidae
Delphinidae
is a family within the superfamily Delphinoidea
Delphinoidea
, which also includes the porpoises (Phocoenidae) and the Monodontidae
Monodontidae
(beluga whale and narwhal ). River dolphins are relatives of the Delphinoidea. Oceanic dolphins range in size from the 5.6-foot (1.7 m)-long and 110-pound (50 kg) Maui\'s dolphin to the 31-foot (9.4 m) and 11-short-ton (10.0 t) killer whale, the largest known dolphin. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism ; the males are larger than females. They have streamlined bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers
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Camelid
CAMELIDS are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only currently living family in the suborder Tylopoda . The extant members of this group are: dromedary camels , Bactrian camels , wild Bactrian camels , llamas , alpacas , vicuñas , and guanacos . Camelids are even-toed ungulates classified in the order Cetartiodactyla , along with pigs , whales , deer , cattle , antelope , and many others. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Evolution * 3 Scientific classification * 4 Phylogeny * 5 Extinct genera * 6 References * 7 External links CHARACTERISTICS Camelid
Camelid
feet lack functional hooves, the toe bones being embedded in a broad cutaneous pad. Camelids are large, strictly herbivorous animals with slender necks and long legs. They differ from ruminants in a number of ways
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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CABI (organisation)
THE CENTRE FOR AGRICULTURE AND BIOSCIENCE INTERNATIONAL (CABI, sometimes also referred to as CAB INTERNATIONAL) is a not-for-profit inter-governmental development and information organisation based in the United Kingdom. It focuses primarily on agricultural and environmental issues in the developing world. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Funding * 1.2 Projects * 1.2.1 GODAN Secretariat * 1.2.2 Invasive Species * 1.2.3 Plantwise * 2 Microbial Services * 3 Publishing Division * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWCABI, previously the "Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux", was established in 1910 as the Entomological Research Committee. Until 2006, the organisation had three main divisions, each undertaking different activities related to scientific research. More recently, the Publishing, Bioscience and Microbial groups have been bought under a single CABI brand. As of 2015 CABI employed over 400 staff working from more than 21 locations
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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