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Chenpi
CHENPI, CHEN PI, or CHIMPI (Chinese : 陈皮; pinyin : _chénpí_; literally: "preserved peel") is sun-dried tangerine peel used as a traditional seasoning in Chinese cooking and traditional medicine . They are aged by storing them dry. They have a pungent and bitter taste. First taste of its herb is slightly sweet and aftertaste is bitter. Their attribute is warm. Chenpi
Chenpi
has a common name, ‘ju pi’ or mandarin orange peel. Chenpi
Chenpi
contains volatile oils, nobiletin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, tangeridin, citromitin, synephrine, carotene, cryptoxanthin, inositol, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine utilizes the alcohol extracts of several citrus peels for specific health properties, including those extracted from mandarin orange and bitter orange . CONTENTS * 1 Identification * 2 History * 3 Production method * 4 Preparation * 5 Uses * 5.1 Cuisine * 5.2 Medicine * 5.2.1 Precaution of Usage * 6 Availability * 7 See also * 8 References IDENTIFICATION Chenpi
Chenpi
that is big in size have a surface integrated with deep-red scarfskin and white interior, and plenty of flesh heavy oil plus dense fragrance and pungency is of its best quality. In general, old-aged Chenpi
Chenpi
tends to have a higher quality
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
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Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang
Zhou Youguang
, based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government
Chinese government
in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations
United Nations
in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan
Taiwan
in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes
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Tangerine
The TANGERINE ( Citrus
Citrus
tangerina) is an orange-colored citrus fruit that is closely related to, or possibly a type of, mandarin orange ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata). The name was first used for fruit coming from Tangier , Morocco
Morocco
, described as a mandarin variety. Under the Tanaka classification system , Citrus
Citrus
tangerina is considered a separate species. Under the Swingle system , tangerines are considered to be a group of mandarin (C. reticulata ) varieties. While tangerines genetically resemble mandarins, the genetics are still not thoroughly studied. The term is currently applied to any reddish-orange mandarin (and, in some jurisdictions, mandarin-like hybrids, including some tangors ), but the term "tangerine" may yet acquire a definite genetic meaning. Tangerines are smaller and less rounded than common oranges . The taste is considered less sour , as well as sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange. A ripe tangerine is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves, as well as orange in color. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp , which makes them usually easier to peel and to split into segments. All of these traits are shared by mandarins generally. Peak tangerine season lasts from autumn to spring . Tangerines are most commonly peeled and eaten out of hand
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Peel (fruit)
PEEL, also known as RIND or SKIN, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which can be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical exocarp , but the term exocarp also includes the hard cases of nuts , which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but rather shells because of their hardness. A fruit with a thick peel, such as a citrus fruit, is called a hesperidium . In hesperidiums, the inner layer (also called albedo or, among non-botanists, pith) is peeled off together with the outer layer (called flavedo ), and together they are called the peel. The flavedo and albedo, respectively, are the exocarp and the mesocarp . The juicy layer inside the peel (containing the seeds) is the endocarp . CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 Allergy * 3 See also * 4 References USESDepending on the thickness and taste, fruit peel is sometimes eaten as part of the fruit, such as with apples . In some cases the peel is unpleasant or inedible, in which case it is removed and discarded, such as with bananas or grapefruits . The peel of some fruits — for example, pomegranates — is high in tannins and other polyphenols , and is employed in the production of dyes . The peel of citrus fruits is bitter and generally not eaten raw, but may be used in cooking, e.g. chenpi . In gastronomy, the outermost, colored part of the peel is called the zest , which can be scraped off and used for its tangy flavor
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Chinese Cuisine
CHINESE CUISINE is an important part of Chinese culture , which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China , as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia , with modifications made to cater to local palates. The preference for seasoning and cooking techniques of Chinese provinces depend on differences in historical background and ethnic groups . Geographic features including mountains, rivers, forests and deserts also have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering climate of China varies from tropical in the south to subarctic in the northeast. Imperial, royal and noble preference also plays a role in the change of Chinese cuisines. Because of imperial expansion and trading, ingredients and cooking techniques from other cultures are integrated into Chinese cuisines over time. The most praised "Four Major Cuisines" are Chuan , Lu , Yue and Huaiyang , representing West, North, South and East China cuisine correspondingly. Modern "Eight Cuisines" of China are Anhui , Cantonese , Fujian , Hunan , Jiangsu , Shandong , Sichuan , and Zhejiang cuisines. Color, smell and taste are the three traditional aspects used to describe Chinese food, as well as the meaning, shape and nutrition of the food
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Traditional Chinese Medicine
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM; simplified Chinese : 中医; traditional Chinese : 中醫; pinyin : _Zhōngyī_) is a style of traditional medicine informed by modern medicine but built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine , acupuncture , massage (tui na) , exercise (qigong) , and dietary therapy. It is primarily used as a complementary alternative medicine approach. TCM is widely used in China and is becoming increasingly available in Europe and North America. One of the basic tenets of TCM "holds that the body's vital energy (_chi_ or _qi_) circulates through channels, called _meridians ,_ that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to European humoral theory . Scientific investigation has not found histological or physiological evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as _qi_, meridians, and acupuncture points. The TCM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge , and there is disagreement between TCM practitioners on what diagnosis and treatments should be used for any given patient. The effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine remains poorly researched and documented. There are concerns over a number of potentially toxic plants, animal parts, and mineral Chinese medicinals
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Mandarin Orange
The MANDARIN ORANGE ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata; Chinese : 橘子 or 桔子; pinyin : júzi), also known as the MANDARIN or MANDARINE, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges . Mandarins are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish-orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerines , but this is not a botanical classification. Thin, pebbly skin Mandarins are smaller and oblate, rather than spherical like the common oranges (which are a mandarin hybrid ). The taste is considered less sour , as well as sweeter and stronger. A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp , so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids generally have these traits to a lesser degree. The tree is more drought-tolerant than the fruit. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas. According to molecular studies, the mandarin, the citron , the pomelo , and the papeda were the ancestors of most other commercial citrus varieties, through breeding or natural hybridization; mandarins are therefore all the more important as the only sweet fruit among the parental species
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Bitter Orange
BITTER ORANGE, SEVILLE ORANGE, SOUR ORANGE, BIGARADE ORANGE, or MARMALADE ORANGE refers to a citrus tree (_CITRUS_ × _AURANTIUM_) and its fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, and has been spread by humans to many parts of the world. Wild trees are found near small streams in generally secluded and wooded parts of Florida and The Bahamas after it was introduced to the area from Spain where it had been introduced and cultivated heavily beginning in the 10th century by the Moors . It is a hybrid between _ Citrus maxima _ (pomelo) and _Citrus reticulata _ (mandarin). Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil , and are found in perfume , used as a flavoring or as a solvent . The Seville orange variety is used in the production of marmalade . Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant , due to its active ingredient, synephrine . Bitter orange supplements have been linked to a number of serious side effects and deaths, and consumer groups advocate that people avoid using the fruit medically. CONTENTS * 1 Varieties * 2 Cooking * 3 Herbal stimulant * 3.1 Similarities to ephedra * 3.2 Drug interactions * 4 Other uses * 5 References * 6 External links VARIETIES See also: Citrus taxonomy § Oranges * _ Citrus × aurantium_ subsp
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Song Dynasty
The SONG DYNASTY (Chinese : 宋朝; pinyin : _Sòng cháo_; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period , coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy . This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder , as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass . The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. During the NORTHERN SONG (Chinese : 北宋; 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng
Kaifeng
) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China. The SOUTHERN SONG (Chinese : 南宋; 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars
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Ming Dynasty
The MING DYNASTY was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the EMPIRE OF THE GREAT MING – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol -led Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer , John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last imperial dynasty in China
China
ruled by ethnic Han Chinese . Although the primary capital of Beijing
Beijing
fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty , soon replaced by the Manchu -led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
), regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683. The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368–98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy 's dockyards in Nanjing
Nanjing
were the largest in the world
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Qing Dynasty
Tael (liǎng) PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
Republic of China
China
Qing dynasty "Qing dynasty" in Chinese (top) and Manchu (bottom) CHINESE NAME CHINESE 清朝 TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Qīng cháo WADE–GILES Ch'ing1 ch'ao2 IPA WU SUZHOUNESE Tshin záu YUE: CANTONESE YALE ROMANIZATION Ching1 Chiu4 IPA JYUTPING Cing1 ciu4 SOUTHERN MIN HOKKIEN POJ Chheng tiâu TâI-Lô Tshing tiâu GREAT QING TRADITIONAL CHINESE 大清 SIMPLIFIED CHINESE 大清 TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Dà Qīng WADE–GILES Ta2 Ch'ing1 YUE: CANTONESE YALE ROMANIZATION Daai6 Ching1 IPA JYUTPING daai6 cing1 SOUTHERN MIN HOKKIEN POJ Tāi-chheng TâI-Lô Tāi-tshing MANCHU NAME MANCHU SCRIPT ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ABKAI Daiqing gurun MöLLENDORFF Daicing gurun HISTORY OF CHINA ANCIENT NEOLITHIC c. 8500 – c. 2070 BCE XIA DYNASTY c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE SHANG DYNASTY c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE ZHOU DYNASTY c
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Xinhui District
XINHUI, formerly romanized as SUNWUI and also known as KUIXIANG, is an urban district of Jiangmen in Guangdong
Guangdong
, China
China
. It grew from a separate city founded at the confluence of the Tan and West Rivers . It has a population of about 735,500, 98% of whom are Han Chinese but many of whom speak a dialect of Cantonese
Cantonese
as their first language. Xinhui is best known in China
China
for its chenpi , a kind of dried orange peel . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Administration * 4 Demographics * 5 Economy * 5.1 Agriculture * 5.2 Port development * 6 Notable residents * 6.1 Historical figures * 6.2 Entertainers * 6.3 Athletes * 6.4 Politicians * 6.5 Businessmen * 6.6 Authors * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 9.1 Citations * 9.2 Bibliography * 10 External links GEOGRAPHYXinhui is situated at the confluence of the Tan and West Rivers in the southwestern area of the Pearl River Delta . It borders the South China
China
Sea and adjoins Macao
Macao
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. It comprises a total area of 1,387.02 square meters (14,929.8 sq ft). Geologists have shown that Xinhui originated as a shallow bay at the mouth of the Pearl River about 5000 years ago , with its southeastern portion consisting of a chain of islands
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Guangdong
GUANGDONG (Chinese : 广东) is a province in South China , located on the South China Sea coast. Traditionally romanised as CANTON or KWANGTUNG, Guangdong surpassed Henan and Sichuan to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census , accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China 's population. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province at 2015 had 108,500,000 people. Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions , with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics , Guangdong's GDP in 2014 reached RMB 6,779 billion, or US$ 1.104 trillion, making its economy roughly the same size as Mexico. Since 2011, Guangdong has had the highest GDP among all provinces of Mainland China . The province contributes approximately 12% of the PRC's national economic output, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations
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Tong Sui
TONG SUI literally translated as "sugar water", also known as TIM TONG, is a collective term for any sweet, warm soup or custard served as a dessert at the end of a meal in Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine . Tong sui
Tong sui
are a Cantonese
Cantonese
specialty and are rarely found in other regional cuisines of China
China
. Outside of Cantonese-speaking communities, soupy desserts generally are not recognized as a distinct category, and the term tong sui is not used. In Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Malaysia
Malaysia
, there is a huge variety of tong sui, so huge to an extent that have led to stores specialised in selling these desserts. These dessert stalls have also gained prominence in overseas Chinese communities, and are found in various parts of Canada
Canada
, Australia
Australia
and the United States
United States
. CONTENTS * 1 Common varieties * 2 See also * 3 Sources * 4 External links COMMON VARIETIES ENGLISH NAME CHINESE NAME DESCRIPTION Black sesame soup 芝麻糊; zhīma hú Ground black sesame seeds are traditionally cooked with water and rock sugar . Chinese herbs are sometimes added to enhance the flavour and aroma. The instant black sesame powder sold in Asian supermarkets is usually sweetened
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Red Bean Soup
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