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British Science Association
The BRITISH SCIENCE ASSOCIATION (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science. Until 2009 it was known as the BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE (BA). CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Foundation * 1.2 Electrical standards * 1.3 Other * 2 Perception of science in the UK * 2.1 British Science Festival
Science Festival
* 2.2 Science Communication Conference * 2.3 British Science Week * 3 Presidents of the British Science Association
British Science Association
* 4 List of Annual Meetings * 5 Structure * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links * 8.1 Video clips HISTORYFOUNDATION The former British Science Association
British Science Association
logo launched in 2009 Old logo used for "The BA" The Association was founded in 1831 and modelled on the German Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte. The prime mover (who is regarded as the main founder) was Reverend William Vernon Harcourt , following a suggestion by Sir David Brewster , who was disillusioned with the elitist and conservative attitude of the Royal Society
Royal Society
. Brewster, Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
, William Whewell and J. F. W. Johnston are also considered to be founding members
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Charitable Organization
A CHARITABLE ORGANIZATION is a type of non-profit organization (NPO). It differs from other types of NPOs in that it centers on philanthropic goals as well as social well-being (e.g. charitable , educational , religious , or other activities serving the public interest or common good ). The legal definition of a charitable organization (and of charity) varies according to the country and in some instances the region of the country in which the charitable organization operates. The regulation, the tax treatment, and the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations also vary. Financial figures (e.g. tax refund, revenue from fundraising, revenue from sale of goods and services or revenue from investment) are important indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity, especially to charity evaluators . This information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, and thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations often depend partly on donations from for-profit-organizations. Such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Lord Willetts
DAVID LINSAY WILLETTS, BARON WILLETTS, PC , FAcSS (born 9 March 1956) is an English Conservative Party politician, life peer , and academic. From 1992 to 2015, he was the Member of Parliament (MP) representing the constituency of Havant in Hampshire . He was the Minister of State for Universities and Science from 2010 until July 2014. Willetts became a member of the House of Lords in 2015. He has been a Visiting Professor at King\'s College London since 2014. CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Policy researcher * 3 First period in government * 4 Shadow Cabinet * 5 Second period in government * 5.1 Feminism claim * 5.2 Sale of student loan debts * 5.3 Standing down * 6 Free votes record * 7 "Two Brains" * 8 Civic conservatism * 9 Personal life and member\'s interests * 10 Published works * 11 References * 12 External links EDUCATIONWilletts was educated at King Edward\'s School, Birmingham , and Christ Church, Oxford , where he studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics , Willetts graduated with a first class degree. POLICY RESEARCHERHaving served as Nigel Lawson 's private researcher, Willetts took charge of the Treasury monetary policy division at 26 before moving over to Margaret Thatcher 's Policy Unit at 28. Aged 31, he subsequently took over the Centre for Policy Studies
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Dame Nancy Rothwell
DAME NANCY JANE ROTHWELL DBE DL FRS FMedSci FBPhS (born 2 October 1955) is a British physiologist , President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Manchester since July 2010, having been Deputy President and Deputy Vice-Chancellor since January 2010. Rothwell is also a director of pharmaceuticals company AstraZeneca , co-chair of the Council for Science and Technology and past President of the Royal Society of Biology . CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Research * 3 Career * 4 Awards and honours * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATIONRothwell was born in Tarleton , a village near Preston, Lancashire. She was educated at Penwortham Girls’ Grammar School and then went to college where she took four A-levels in maths, physics, chemistry and art. She enrolled at the University of London and obtained a first class degree in physiology (1976) and a Doctor of Philosophy degree (1979) from Queen Elizabeth College , now part of King\'s College, London . Rothwell was later was awarded a Doctor of Science degree in 1987 by King\'s College London and an honorary Doctor of Law degree from the University of Bath in 2009. RESEARCHRothwell's early research identified mechanisms of energy balance regulation, obesity and cachexia . In 1984 she was awarded a Royal Society Research Fellowship and relocated to Manchester in 1987 and numerous grants by the BBSRC
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Mission Statement
A MISSION STATEMENT is a short statement of an organization 's purpose, identifying the scope of its operations: what kind of product or service it provides, its primary customers or market , and its geographical region of operation. It may include a short statement of such fundamental matters as the organization's values or philosophies, a business's main competitive advantages, or a desired future state—the "vision". A mission statement is not simply a description of an organization by an external party, but an expression, made by its leaders, of their desires and intent for the organization. The purpose of a mission statement is to focus and direct the organization itself. It communicates primarily to the people who make up the organization—its members or employees—giving them a shared understanding of the organization's intended direction. Organizations normally do not change their mission statements over time, since they define their continuous, ongoing purpose and focus
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Learned Society
A LEARNED SOCIETY (also known as a LEARNED ACADEMY, SCHOLARLY SOCIETY or ACADEMIC ASSOCIATION) is an organization that exists to promote an academic discipline , profession , or a group of related disciplines such as the arts . Membership may be open to all, may require possession of some qualification, or may be an honor conferred by election. Most learned societies are non-profit organizations , and many are professional associations . Their activities typically include holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or sponsoring academic journals in their discipline. Some also act as professional bodies , regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or the collective interest of the membership
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William Vernon Harcourt (scientist)
Rev. WILLIAM VENABLES-VERNON HARCOURT (1789 – April 1871) founder of the British Association for the Advancement of Science , canon residentiary of the York Cathedral , Dean of Chichester , and later rector of Bolton Percy . CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Career * 3 Family * 4 Works * 5 References FAMILYHe was born at Sudbury, Derbyshire , a younger son of Edward Vernon-Harcourt , Archbishop of York and his wife Lady Anne Leveson-Gower, who was a daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford and his second wife Lady Louisa Egerton. Her maternal grandparents were Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater and his second wife Rachel Russell. Rachel was a daughter of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford and the rich heiress Elizabeth Howland, daughter of John Howland of Streatham. CAREERAfter he had served in the navy, on the West Indian station , for five years, his father yielded to his wish to become a clergyman, and he became a student of Christ Church, Oxford , in 1807. He graduated B.A. in 1811, and M.A. in 1814, and remained a student of Christ Church till 1815. He had the advantage of the personal friendship of Cyril Jackson , the dean ; and Dr. John Kidd , then a teacher of chemistry at his college, imbued him with a lifelong love of that science
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David Brewster
SIR DAVID BREWSTER KH PRSE FRS FSA(Scot) FSSA MICE (11 December 1781 – 10 February 1868) was a Scottish physicist, mathematician, astronomer, inventor, writer, historian of science and university principal . Most noted for his contributions to the field of optics , he studied the double refraction by compression and discovered the photoelastic effect , which gave birth to the field of optical mineralogy . For his work, William Whewell dubbed him the "Father of modern experimental optics" and "the Johannes Kepler of Optics." He is well-recognized for being the inventor of the kaleidoscope and an improved version of the stereoscope applied to photography. He called it the "lenticular stereoscope", which was the first portable, 3D viewing device. He also invented the binocular camera, two types of polarimeters , the polyzonal lens and the lighthouse illuminator. A prominent figure in the popularization of science , he is considered one of the founders of the British Association , of which he would be elected President in 1849. In addition, he became the public face of higher education in Scotland, acting as Principal of the University of St Andrews and then Edinburgh between 1837 and 1868. Brewster also edited the 18-volume _ Edinburgh Encyclopædia _
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Royal Society
THE PRESIDENT, COUNCIL AND FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON FOR IMPROVING NATURAL KNOWLEDGE, commonly known as the ROYAL SOCIETY, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". The Society is the United Kingdom 's and Commonwealth of Nations ' Academy of Sciences and fulfills a number of roles; promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows. As of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS (Fellow of the Royal Society ), with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year. There are also royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS (Foreign Member of the Royal Society). The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan , who took up the post on 30 November 2015
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Charles Babbage
CHARLES BABBAGE KH FRS (/ˈbæbɪdʒ/ ; 26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath . A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer . Considered by some to be a "father of the computer ", Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex electronic designs, though all the essential ideas of modern computers are to be found in Babbage's analytical engine . His varied work in other fields has led him to be described as "pre-eminent" among the many polymaths of his century. Parts of Babbage's incomplete mechanisms are on display in the Science Museum in London. In 1991, a functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked
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William Whewell
WILLIAM WHEWELL FRS FGS (/ˈhjuːəl/ _HEW-əl_ ; 24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath , scientist , Anglican priest , philosopher , theologian , and historian of science . He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge . In his time as a student there, he achieved distinction in both poetry and mathematics. What is most often remarked about Whewell is the breadth of his endeavours. In a time of increasing specialisation, Whewell appears as a vestige of an earlier era when natural philosophers dabbled in a bit of everything. He researched ocean tides (for which he won the Royal Medal ), published work in the disciplines of mechanics , physics , geology , astronomy , and economics , while also finding the time to compose poetry , author a Bridgewater Treatise , translate the works of Goethe , and write sermons and theological tracts. In mathematics , Whewell introduced what is now called the Whewell equation , an equation defining the shape of a curve without reference to an arbitrarily chosen coordinate system. One of Whewell's greatest gifts to science was his wordsmithing. He often corresponded with many in his field and helped them come up with new terms for their discoveries
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James Finlay Weir Johnston
JAMES FINLAY WEIR JOHNSTON, FRS FRSE (13 September 1796 – 18 September 1855) was a Scottish agricultural chemist and mineralogist. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Family * 4 References * 5 External links LIFEBorn in Paisley , Renfrewshire , Johnston was educated at University of Glasgow , where he studied Theology and graduated MA. Johnston founded a grammar school in Durham in 1825, which later merged with other local schools, such as Brandon and Bowburn , to form a single comprehensive school for the area, named Durham Johnston Comprehensive School , preserving James Finlay Weir Johnston's name. He acquired a fortune at the time of his marriage in 1830, and was able to devote himself to studying chemistry. He visited the chemist J. J. Berzelius in Sweden and was a co-founder of the British Association for the Advancement of Science . In 1832 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , his proposer being Thomas Charles Hope . He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1837. He was appointed reader in Chemistry and Mineralogy at Durham University on its foundation in 1833, but continued to reside in Edinburgh out of term. From 1847, his assistant was Augustus Voelcker who also lectured in agricultural chemistry at Durham University. Johnston died in Durham on 18 September 1855
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York
YORK (/ˈjɔːrk/ ( listen )) is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
, England. The municipality is the traditional county town of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to which it gives its name. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural and sporting activities making it a popular tourist destination for millions. The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior , and later of the kingdoms of Northumbria
Northumbria
and Jórvík . In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England , a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York
York
became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre. In recent decades, the economy of York
York
has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services
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Yorkshire Museum
The YORKSHIRE MUSEUM is a museum in York , England. It is the home of the Cawood sword
Cawood sword
, and has four permanent collections, covering biology, geology, archaeology and astronomy. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Collections * 2.1 Biology * 2.2 Geology * 2.3 Astronomy * 2.4 Archaeology * 3 Notable collections * 3.1 Vale of York Viking hoard * 4 Events * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY The museum building in the early 1900s The museum was founded by the Yorkshire Philosophical Society to accommodate their geological and archaeological collections, and was originally housed in Ousegate, York, until the site became too small. In 1828, the society received by royal grant, 10 acres (0.040 km2) of land formerly belonging to St Mary’s Abbey for the purposes of building a new museum. The main building of the museum is called the Yorkshire Museum; it was designed by William Wilkins in a Greek Revival style and is a Grade I listed building . It was officially opened in February 1830, which makes it one of the longest established museums in England. A condition of the royal grant was that the land surrounding the museum building should be a botanic gardens and one was created in the 1830s. The botanic gardens are now known as the Museum Gardens
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Charles Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 5th Earl Fitzwilliam
CHARLES WILLIAM WENTWORTH FITZWILLIAM, 5TH EARL FITZWILLIAM in the peerage of Ireland, and 3rd Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Great Britain, KG (4 May 1786 – 4 October 1857) was a British nobleman and politician. He was President three times of the Royal Statistical Society in 1838–1840, 1847–1849, and 1853–1855; and President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in its inaugural year (1831–2). He was born the only son of William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam and his first wife, Lady Charlotte Ponsonby. He was a pupil at Eton College from 1796 to 1802. Before inheriting the Earldom on 8 February 1833 on the death of his father, he was known by the courtesy title of VISCOUNT MILTON. Under that name he was the Whig Member of Parliament for Northamptonshire between 1831 and 1832. FAMILYHe married the Hon. Mary Dundas (30 May 1787 – 1 November 1830) on 8 July 1806; she was his cousin and the daughter of Thomas Dundas, 1st Baron Dundas and Lady Charlotte Fitzwilliam, the 4th Earl 's sister. They had 13 children: * Lady Charlotte Wentworth-FitzWilliam (12 Jul 1807-????) * Hon. Margaret Bruce Wentworth-FitzWilliam (27 Jan 1809-03 Feb 1809) * Lady Mary Wentworth-FitzWilliam (02 May 1810-15 May, 1893). Married Leonard Thompson, Esq.* William Charles Wentworth-FitzWilliam, Viscount Milton (18 January 1812 – 8 November 1835)
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