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Biological Interaction
BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS are the effects that the organisms in a community have on each other. In the natural world no organism exists in absolute isolation, and thus every organism must interact with the environment and other organisms. An organism's interactions with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of antagonism . The mutualism interaction between the red-billed oxpecker and the giraffe . In Ecology , biological interactions can involve individuals of the same species (intraspecific interactions) or individuals of different species (interspecific interactions). These can be further classified by either the mechanism of the interaction or the strength, duration and direction of their effects. Species
Species
may interact once in a generation (e.g. pollination ) or live completely within another (e.g. endosymbiosis ). Effects range from consumption of another individual (predation , herbivory , or cannibalism ), to mutual benefit (mutualism ). Interactions need not be direct; individuals may affect each other indirectly through intermediaries such as shared resources or common enemies
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote . Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains —bacteria and archaea . Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct
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Community (ecology)
In ecology, a COMMUNITY is an assemblage or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses. In its simplest form it refers to groups of organisms in a specific place or time, for example, "the fish community of Lake Ontario before industrialization". COMMUNITY ECOLOGY or SYNECOLOGY is the study of the interactions between species in communities on many spatial and temporal scales, including the distribution, structure, abundance, demography , and interactions between coexisting populations. The primary focus of community ecology is on the interactions between populations as determined by specific genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Community ecology has its origin in European plant sociology . Modern community ecology examines patterns such as variation in species richness , equitability, productivity and food web structure (see community structure ); it also examines processes such as predator–prey population dynamics , succession , and community assembly . On a deeper level the meaning and value of the community concept in ecology is up for debate. Communities have traditionally been understood on a fine scale in terms of local processes constructing (or destructing) an assemblage of species, such as the way climate change is likely to affect the make-up of grass communities
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World
The WORLD is the planet Earth
Earth
and all life upon it, including human civilization . In a philosophical context, the world is the whole of the physical Universe
Universe
, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the _world_ is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred. The "end of the world " refers to scenarios of the final end of human history, often in religious contexts. History of the world is commonly understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion , world language , world government , and world war , _world_ suggests international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of the entire world. World population
World population
is the sum of all human populations at any time; similarly, world economy is the sum of the economies of all societies or countries, especially in the context of globalization . Terms like world championship , gross world product , world flags imply the sum or combination of all current-day sovereign states
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Black Walnut
JUGLANS NIGRA, the EASTERN BLACK WALNUT, is a species of deciduous tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae , native to eastern North America . It grows mostly in riparian zones , from southern Ontario , west to southeast South Dakota , south to Georgia , northern Florida and southwest to central Texas . Wild trees in the upper Ottawa Valley may be an isolated native population or may have derived from planted trees. Black walnut is an important tree commercially, as the wood is a deep brown color and easily worked. The fruits, walnuts, are cultivated for their distinctive and desirable taste. Often, trees are grown for both lumber and walnuts simultaneously and many cultivars have been developed for improved quality nuts or wood. Black walnut is currently under pressure from the thousand cankers disease which is causing decline of walnuts in some areas. Black walnut is also allelopathic which means that it releases chemicals from roots and other tissues which harm other organisms and give the tree a competitive advantage; this is often undesirable as it can harm garden plants and grasses
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Antagonism (phytopathology)
In phytopathology , ANTAGONISM refers to the action of any organism that suppress or interfere the normal growth and activity of a plant pathogen, such as the main parts of bacteria or fungi . These organisms can be used for pest control and are referred to as ``Biological Control Agents´´. They may be predators, parasites, parasitoides, or pathogens that attack harmful insect, weed or plant disease or any other organism in its vicinity . the inhibitory substance is highly specific in its action affecting only a specific species. many soil microorganisms are antagonistic .they secrete a potent enzyme which destroys other cells by digesting their cell walls and degrade the cellular material as well as d released protoplasmic material serves as a nutrient for the inhibitor organism for example Aspergillus has an antagonistic effect on Penicillium and Cladosporium . Trichoderma has an effect on actinomycetes. Pseudomanas show antagonism on Cladosporium. ANTAGONISM - MECHANISM * Antibiosis example- enzymes, toxins, antibiotics. * Direct parasitism example- biotrophic or necrotrophic. * competition example- for nutrients. * Induced resistance (indirect). This horticulture article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This agriculture article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This plant disease article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Mutualism (biology)
MUTUALISM is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation . Mutualism can be contrasted with interspecific competition , in which each species experiences reduced fitness, and exploitation , or parasitism , in which one species benefits at the "expense" of the other. Symbiosis involves two species living in close proximity and includes relationships that are mutualistic, parasitic , and commensal . Symbiotic relationships are sometimes, but not always, mutualistic. A well-known example of mutualism is the relationship between ungulates (such as bovines ) and bacteria within their intestines . The ungulates benefit from the cellulase produced by the bacteria, which facilitates digestion ; the bacteria benefit from having a stable supply of nutrients in the host environment. This can also be found in many many different symbiotic relationships. Mutualism plays a key part in ecology . For example, mutualistic interactions are vital for terrestrial ecosystem function as more than 48% of land plants rely on mycorrhizal relationships with fungi to provide them with inorganic compounds and trace elements. In addition, mutualism is thought to have driven the evolution of much of the biological diversity we see, such as flower forms (important for pollination mutualisms) and co-evolution between groups of species
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Red-billed Oxpecker
The RED-BILLED OXPECKER (Buphagus erythrorhynchus) is a passerine bird in the starling and myna family, Sturnidae; some ornithologists regard the oxpeckers to be in a family by themselves, the Buphagidae . It is native to the savannah of sub-Saharan Africa , from the Central African Republic east to South Sudan and south to northern and eastern South Africa . Its range overlaps that of the less widespread yellow-billed oxpecker . BEHAVIORThe red-billed oxpecker nests in tree holes lined with hair plucked from livestock . It lays 2–5 eggs , with three being the average. Outside the breeding season it forms large, chattering flocks . The preferred habitat is open country, and the red-billed oxpecker eats insects . Both the English and scientific names arise from this species' habit of perching on large wild and domesticated mammals such as cattle and eating ticks . An adult will take nearly 100 blood-engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus ticks, or more than 12,000 larvae in a day. However, their preferred food is blood, and while they may take ticks bloated with blood, they also feed on it directly, pecking at the mammal's wounds to keep them open. This is a medium-sized passerine, 20 cm long with strong feet. The red-billed oxpecker has plain brown upperparts and head, buff underparts and a pale rump. The bill is red, and adults have a yellow eyering, both clear distinctions from the related yellow-billed oxpecker
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Giraffe
The GIRAFFE (_Giraffa_) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals , the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants . The genus currently consists of one species, _Giraffa camelopardalis_, the type species . Seven other species are extinct, prehistoric species known from fossils. Taxonomic classifications of one to eight extant giraffe species have been described, based upon research into the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA , as well as morphological measurements of _Giraffa,_ but the IUCN currently recognizes only one species with nine subspecies. The giraffe's chief distinguishing characteristics are its extremely long neck and legs, its horn-like ossicones , and its distinctive coat patterns. It is classified under the family Giraffidae , along with its closest extant relative, the okapi . Its scattered range extends from Chad
Chad
in the north to South Africa
South Africa
in the south, and from Niger
Niger
in the west to Somalia
Somalia
in the east. Giraffes usually inhabit savannahs and woodlands . Their food source is leaves, fruits and flowers of woody plants, primarily acacia species, which they browse at heights most other herbivores cannot reach. They may be preyed on by lions , leopards , spotted hyenas and African wild dogs
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Ecology
ECOLOGY (from Greek : οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology , geography , and Earth science . Ecology includes the study of interactions that organisms have with each other, other organisms, and with abiotic components of their environment . Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity , distribution, amount (biomass ), and number (population ) of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Ecosystems are composed of dynamically interacting parts including organisms , the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production , pedogenesis , nutrient cycling , and various niche construction activities, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits, and the variety of organisms is called biodiversity. Biodiversity , which refers to the varieties of species , genes , and ecosystems , enhances certain ecosystem services . Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism , natural history, or environmental science . It is closely related to evolutionary biology , genetics , and ethology
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Pollination
POLLINATION is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place. Like all living organisms , seed plants have a single major purpose: to pass their genetic information on to the next generation. The reproductive unit is the seed , and pollination is an essential step in the production of seeds in all spermatophytes (seed plants ). For the process of pollination to be successful, a pollen grain produced by the anther , the male part of a flower , must be transferred to a stigma , the female part of the flower, of a plant of the same species. The process is rather different in angiosperms (flowering plants) from what it is in gymnosperms (other seed plants). In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it creates a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches the ovary. Sperm cells from the pollen grain then move along the pollen tube, enter the egg cell through the micropyle and fertilise it, resulting in the production of a seed. A successful angiosperm pollen grain (gametophyte ) containing the male gametes is transported to the stigma , where it germinates and its pollen tube grows down the style to the ovary. Its two gametes travel down the tube to where the gametophyte(s) containing the female gametes are held within the carpel
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Endosymbiosis
SYMBIOGENESIS, or ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms , first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski , and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967. It holds that the organelles distinguishing eukaryote cells evolved through symbiosis of individual single-celled prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea ). The theory holds that mitochondria , plastids such as chloroplasts , and possibly other organelles of eukaryotic cells represent formerly free-living prokaryotes taken one inside the other in endosymbiosis , around 1.5 billion years ago. In more detail, mitochondria appear to be related to Rickettsiales proteobacteria , and chloroplasts to nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria . Among the many lines of evidence supporting symbiogenesis are that new mitochondria and plastids are formed only through binary fission , and that cells cannot create new ones otherwise; that the transport proteins called porins are found in the outer membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial cell membranes; and that some mitochondria and plastids contain single circular DNA molecules similar to the DNA of bacteria
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Predation
In an ecosystem, PREDATION is a biological interaction where a PREDATOR (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its PREY (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through digestion. It could also constitute a chase, stalking, or attack of prey. Thus predation is often, though not always, carnivory . Other categories of consumption are herbivory (eating parts of plants), fungivory (eating parts of fungi), and detritivory (the consumption of dead organic material). All of these are consumer-resource systems . It can often be difficult to separate various types of feeding behaviors . For example, some parasites prey on their host and then lay their eggs on it, for their offspring to feed on it while it continues to live, or on its decaying corpse after it has died. The key characteristic of predation is the predator's direct impact on the prey population. Selective pressures (coevolution ) imposed on one another often leads to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations . Ways of classifying predation include grouping by trophic level or diet, by specialization, and by the predator's interaction with prey
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Herbivore
A HERBIVORE is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material , for example foliage , for the main component of its diet. As a result of their plant diet, herbivorous animals typically have mouthparts adapted to rasping or grinding. Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass , tree bark , and other tough plant material. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter , which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. This gut flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria living in the herbivores' intestines. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Definition and related terms * 3 Evolution of herbivory * 4 Food chain * 5 Feeding strategies * 6 Attacks and counter-attacks * 6.1 Herbivore
Herbivore
offense * 6.2 Plant
Plant
defense * 6.3 Herbivore–plant interactions per predator–prey theory * 7 Impacts * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links ETYMOLOGY Herbivore
Herbivore
is the anglicized form of a modern Latin coinage, _herbivora,_ cited in Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
's 1830 _ Principles of Geology ._ Richard Owen
Richard Owen
employed the anglicized term in an 1854 work on fossil teeth and skeletons
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Cannibalism
CANNIBALISM IN HUMANS is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings. A person who practices cannibalism is called a CANNIBAL. The expression _cannibalism_ has been extended into zoology to mean one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food, including sexual cannibalism . The Island Carib people of the Lesser Antilles , from whom the word cannibalism derives, acquired a long-standing reputation as cannibals following the recording of their legends in the 17th century. Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture. Cannibalism was widespread in the past among humans in many parts of the world, continuing into the 19th century in some isolated South Pacific cultures, and to the present day in parts of tropical Africa. Cannibalism was practiced in New Guinea and in parts of the Solomon Islands , and flesh markets existed in some parts of Melanesia . Fiji was once known as the "Cannibal Isles". Cannibalism has been well documented around the world, from Fiji to the Amazon Basin to the Congo to the Māori people of New Zealand . Neanderthals are believed to have practiced cannibalism, and neanderthals may have been eaten by anatomically modern humans
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Competition (biology)
COMPETITION is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed. Limited supply of at least one resource (such as food , water , and territory ) used by both can be a factor. Competition both within and between species is an important topic in ecology , especially community ecology . Competition is one of many interacting biotic and abiotic factors that affect community structure. Competition among members of the same species is known as intraspecific competition , while competition between individuals of different species is known as interspecific competition . Competition is not always straightforward, and can occur in both a direct and indirect fashion. According to the competitive exclusion principle , species less suited to compete for resources should either adapt or die out , although competitive exclusion is rarely found in natural ecosystems. According to evolutionary theory , this competition within and between species for resources is important in natural selection . However, competition may play less of a role than expansion among larger clades ; this is termed the 'Room to Roam' hypothesis
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