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Biological Interaction
BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS are the effects that the organisms in a community have on each other. In the natural world no organism exists in absolute isolation, and thus every organism must interact with the environment and other organisms. An organism's interactions with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of antagonism . The mutualism interaction between the red-billed oxpecker and the giraffe . In Ecology , biological interactions can involve individuals of the same species (intraspecific interactions) or individuals of different species (interspecific interactions). These can be further classified by either the mechanism of the interaction or the strength, duration and direction of their effects. Species
Species
may interact once in a generation (e.g
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Community (ecology)
In ecology, a COMMUNITY is an assemblage or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses. In its simplest form it refers to groups of organisms in a specific place or time, for example, "the fish community of Lake Ontario before industrialization". COMMUNITY ECOLOGY or SYNECOLOGY is the study of the interactions between species in communities on many spatial and temporal scales, including the distribution, structure, abundance, demography , and interactions between coexisting populations. The primary focus of community ecology is on the interactions between populations as determined by specific genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Community ecology has its origin in European plant sociology
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World
The WORLD is the planet Earth
Earth
and all life upon it, including human civilization . In a philosophical context, the world is the whole of the physical Universe
Universe
, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the _world_ is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred. The "end of the world " refers to scenarios of the final end of human history, often in religious contexts. History of the world is commonly understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion , world language , world government , and world war , _world_ suggests international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of the entire world
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Black Walnut
JUGLANS NIGRA, the EASTERN BLACK WALNUT, is a species of deciduous tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
, native to eastern North America . It grows mostly in riparian zones , from southern Ontario
Ontario
, west to southeast South Dakota
South Dakota
, south to Georgia , northern Florida and southwest to central Texas
Texas
. Wild trees in the upper Ottawa Valley may be an isolated native population or may have derived from planted trees. Black walnut
Black walnut
is an important tree commercially, as the wood is a deep brown color and easily worked. The fruits, walnuts, are cultivated for their distinctive and desirable taste. Often, trees are grown for both lumber and walnuts simultaneously and many cultivars have been developed for improved quality nuts or wood
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Antagonism (phytopathology)
In phytopathology , ANTAGONISM refers to the action of any organism that suppress or interfere the normal growth and activity of a plant pathogen, such as the main parts of bacteria or fungi . These organisms can be used for pest control and are referred to as ``Biological Control Agents´´. They may be predators, parasites, parasitoides, or pathogens that attack harmful insect, weed or plant disease or any other organism in its vicinity . the inhibitory substance is highly specific in its action affecting only a specific species. many soil microorganisms are antagonistic .they secrete a potent enzyme which destroys other cells by digesting their cell walls and degrade the cellular material as well as d released protoplasmic material serves as a nutrient for the inhibitor organism for example Aspergillus has an antagonistic effect on Penicillium and Cladosporium . Trichoderma has an effect on actinomycetes. Pseudomanas show antagonism on Cladosporium
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Mutualism (biology)
MUTUALISM is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation . Mutualism can be contrasted with interspecific competition , in which each species experiences reduced fitness, and exploitation , or parasitism , in which one species benefits at the "expense" of the other. Symbiosis
Symbiosis
involves two species living in close proximity and includes relationships that are mutualistic, parasitic , and commensal . Symbiotic
Symbiotic
relationships are sometimes, but not always, mutualistic. A well-known mutualism is the relationship between ungulates (such as bovines ) and bacteria within their intestines . The ungulates benefit from the cellulase produced by the bacteria, which facilitates digestion ; the bacteria benefit from having a stable supply of nutrients in the host environment
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Red-billed Oxpecker
The RED-BILLED OXPECKER (Buphagus erythrorhynchus) is a passerine bird in the starling and myna family, Sturnidae; some ornithologists regard the oxpeckers to be in a family by themselves, the Buphagidae . It is native to the savannah of sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
, from the Central African Republic east to South Sudan and south to northern and eastern South Africa
Africa
. Its range overlaps that of the less widespread yellow-billed oxpecker . BEHAVIORThe red-billed oxpecker nests in tree holes lined with hair plucked from livestock . It lays 2–5 eggs , with three being the average. Outside the breeding season it forms large, chattering flocks . The preferred habitat is open country, and the red-billed oxpecker eats insects . Both the English and scientific names arise from this species' habit of perching on large wild and domesticated mammals such as cattle and eating ticks
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Giraffe
The GIRAFFE (_Giraffa_) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals , the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants . The genus currently consists of one species, _Giraffa camelopardalis_, the type species . Seven other species are extinct, prehistoric species known from fossils. Taxonomic classifications of one to eight extant giraffe species have been described, based upon research into the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA , as well as morphological measurements of _Giraffa,_ but the IUCN currently recognizes only one species with nine subspecies. The giraffe's chief distinguishing characteristics are its extremely long neck and legs, its horn-like ossicones , and its distinctive coat patterns. It is classified under the family Giraffidae , along with its closest extant relative, the okapi
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Ecology
ECOLOGY (from Greek : οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology , geography , and Earth science . Ecology includes the study of interactions that organisms have with each other, other organisms, and with abiotic components of their environment . Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity , distribution, amount (biomass ), and number (population ) of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Ecosystems are composed of dynamically interacting parts including organisms , the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment
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Pollination
POLLINATION is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place. Like all living organisms , seed plants have a single major purpose: to pass their genetic information on to the next generation. The reproductive unit is the seed , and pollination is an essential step in the production of seeds in all spermatophytes (seed plants ). For the process of pollination to be successful, a pollen grain produced by the anther , the male part of a flower , must be transferred to a stigma , the female part of the flower, of a plant of the same species. The process is rather different in angiosperms (flowering plants) from what it is in gymnosperms (other seed plants). In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it creates a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches the ovary
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Endosymbiosis
An ENDOSYMBIONT or ENDOBIONT is any organism that lives to mutual benefit within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. in an ENDOSYMBIOSIS (Greek : ἔνδον endon "within", σύν syn "together" and βίωσις biosis "living"). Examples are nitrogen-fixing bacteria (called rhizobia ), which live in root nodules on legume roots, single-cell algae inside reef-building corals , and bacterial endosymbionts that provide essential nutrients to about 10–15% of insects. Many instances of endosymbiosis are obligate; that is, either the endosymbiont or the host cannot survive without the other, such as the gutless marine worms of the genus Riftia , which get nutrition from their endosymbiotic bacteria. The most common examples of obligate endosymbioses are mitochondria and chloroplasts . Some human parasites, e.g
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Predation
In an ecosystem, PREDATION is a biological interaction where a PREDATOR (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its PREY (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through digestion. It could also constitute a chase, stalking, or attack of prey. Thus predation is often, though not always, carnivory . Other categories of consumption are herbivory (eating parts of plants), fungivory (eating parts of fungi), and detritivory (the consumption of dead organic material). All of these are consumer-resource systems . It can often be difficult to separate various types of feeding behaviors . For example, some parasites prey on their host and then lay their eggs on it, for their offspring to feed on it while it continues to live, or on its decaying corpse after it has died
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Herbivore
A HERBIVORE is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material , for example foliage , for the main component of its diet. As a result of their plant diet, herbivorous animals typically have mouthparts adapted to rasping or grinding. Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass , tree bark , and other tough plant material. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter , which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. This gut flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria living in the herbivores' intestines
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Cannibalism
CANNIBALISM IN HUMANS is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings. A person who practices cannibalism is called a CANNIBAL. The expression _cannibalism_ has been extended into zoology to mean one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food, including sexual cannibalism . The Island Carib people of the Lesser Antilles , from whom the word cannibalism derives, acquired a long-standing reputation as cannibals following the recording of their legends in the 17th century. Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture
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Competition (biology)
COMPETITION is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed. Limited supply of at least one resource (such as food , water , and territory ) used by both can be a factor. Competition both within and between species is an important topic in ecology , especially community ecology . Competition is one of many interacting biotic and abiotic factors that affect community structure. Competition among members of the same species is known as intraspecific competition , while competition between individuals of different species is known as interspecific competition . Competition is not always straightforward, and can occur in both a direct and indirect fashion
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