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Barium
BARIUM is a chemical element with symbol BA and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal . Because of its high chemical reactivity , barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern history as baryta , does not occur as a mineral , but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate. The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (barium sulfate , BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate , BaCO3), both insoluble in water. The barium name originates from the alchemical derivative "baryta", from Greek βαρύς (_barys_), meaning "heavy." _Baric_ is the adjectival form of barium. Barium
Barium
was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808 with the advent of electrolysis . Barium
Barium
has few industrial applications. Historically, it was used as a getter for vacuum tubes . It is a component of YBCO (high-temperature superconductors ) and electroceramics, and is added to steel and cast iron to reduce the size of carbon grains within the microstructure. Barium
Barium
compounds are added to fireworks to impart a green color. Barium
Barium
sulfate is used as an insoluble additive to oil well drilling fluid , as well as in a purer form, as X-ray radiocontrast agents for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract
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Periodic Table
The PERIODIC TABLE is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements , ordered by their atomic number (number of protons ), electron configurations , and recurring chemical properties . This ordering shows _periodic trends _, such as elements with similar behaviour in the same column. It also shows four rectangular blocks with some approximately similar chemical properties. In general, within one row (period) the elements are metals on the left, and non-metals on the right. The rows of the table are called periods ; the columns are called groups . Six groups have names as well as numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens ; and group 18, the noble gases . The periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the properties of the elements, and predict the properties of new elements yet to be discovered or synthesized. The periodic table provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behaviour, and is widely used in chemistry and other sciences. The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the first widely recognized periodic table in 1869. He developed his table to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then-known elements. Mendeleev also predicted some properties of then-unknown elements that would be expected to fill gaps in this table. Most of his predictions were proved correct when the elements in question were subsequently discovered
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Hydrogen
HYDROGEN is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of circa 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table . Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe , constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state . The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed _protium_ (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons . The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch . At standard temperature and pressure , hydrogen is a colorless , odorless , tasteless , non-toxic, nonmetallic , highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds . Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid–base reactions because most acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds , hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion ) when it is known as a hydride , or as a positively charged (i.e., cation ) species denoted by the symbol H+. The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex
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Helium
HELIUM is a chemical element with symbol HE and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert , monatomic gas , the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table . Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements . After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe , being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun and in Jupiter . This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon ) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay . Most helium in the universe is helium-4, and is believed to have been formed during the Big Bang . Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars . Helium is named for the Greek god of the Sun, Helios . It was first detected as an unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet , Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson , and Lieutenant John Herschel, and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer Jules Janssen . Janssen is often jointly credited with detecting the element along with Norman Lockyer
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Lithium
LITHIUM (from Greek : λίθος _lithos_, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol LI and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal . Under standard conditions , it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil . When cut open, it exhibits a metallic luster , but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds , such as pegmatitic minerals which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines . Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride . The nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides . Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nuclei are very light: it is an exception to the trend that heavier nuclei are less common. For related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics
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Beryllium
BERYLLIUM is a chemical element with symbol BE and atomic number 4. It is a relatively rare element in the universe , usually occurring as a product of the spallation of larger atomic nuclei that have collided with cosmic rays . Within the cores of stars beryllium is depleted as it is fused and creates larger elements. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine , emerald ) and chrysoberyl . As a free element it is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal . Beryllium improves many physical properties when added as an alloying element to aluminium , copper (notably the alloy beryllium copper ), iron and nickel . Beryllium does not form oxides until it reaches very high temperatures. Tools made of beryllium copper alloys are strong and hard and do not create sparks when they strike a steel surface. In structural applications, the combination of high flexural rigidity , thermal stability , thermal conductivity and low density (1.85 times that of water) make beryllium metal a desirable aerospace material for aircraft components, missiles , spacecraft , and satellites
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Boron
BORON is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis , it is a low-abundance element in the Solar system and in the Earth\'s crust . Boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals . These are mined industrially as evaporites , such as borax and kernite . The largest known boron deposits are in Turkey , the largest producer of boron minerals. Elemental boron is a metalloid that is found in small amounts in meteoroids but chemically uncombined boron is not otherwise found naturally on Earth. Industrially, very pure boron is produced with difficulty because of refractory contamination by carbon or other elements. Several allotropes of boron exist: amorphous boron is a brown powder; crystalline boron is silvery to black, extremely hard (about 9.5 on the Mohs scale ), and a poor electrical conductor at room temperature. The primary use of elemental boron is as boron filaments with applications similar to carbon fibers in some high-strength materials. Boron is primarily used in chemical compounds
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin : _carbo_ "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life . It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon . The best known are graphite , diamond , and amorphous carbon . The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent . Graphite
Graphite
is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb "γράφειν" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known
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Nitrogen
NITROGEN is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name _nitrogen_ was suggested by Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates ; this name derives from the Greek roots νἰτρον "nitre " and -γεννᾶν "to form". Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name _AZOTE_, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas ; his name is instead used in many languages, such as French , Russian , and Turkish , and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine , azides and azo compounds . Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties. It is a common element in the universe , estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way
Milky Way
and the Solar System
Solar System

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Oxygen
OXYGEN is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as other compounds . By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium . At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth\'s atmosphere . Additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earth\'s crust . Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins , nucleic acids , carbohydrates , and fats , as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, the major constituent of lifeforms. Conversely, oxygen is continuously replenished by photosynthesis , which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms
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Fluorine
FLUORINE is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions . As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases , form compounds with fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance . Fluorite , the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting , the Latin verb _fluo_ meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis , a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment , its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II . Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking
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Neon
NEON is a chemical element with symbol NE and atomic number 10. It is a noble gas . Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions , with about two-thirds the density of air. It was discovered (along with krypton and xenon ) in 1898 as one of the three residual rare inert elements remaining in dry air, after nitrogen , oxygen , argon and carbon dioxide were removed. Neon was the second of these three rare gases to be discovered, and was immediately recognized as a new element from its bright red emission spectrum . The name neon is derived from the Greek word, νέον, neuter singular form of νέος (_neos_), meaning new. Neon is chemically inert and forms no uncharged chemical compounds. The compounds of neon include ionic molecules, molecules held together by van der Waals forces and clathrates . During cosmic nucleogenesis of the elements, large amounts of neon are built up from the alpha-capture fusion process in stars. Although neon is a very common element in the universe and solar system (it is fifth in cosmic abundance after hydrogen , helium , oxygen and carbon ), it is very rare on Earth. It composes about 18.2 ppm of air by volume (this is about the same as the molecular or mole fraction), and a smaller fraction in Earth's crust. The reason for neon's relative scarcity on Earth and the inner (terrestrial) planets is that neon is highly volatile and forms no compounds to fix it to solids
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Sodium
SODIUM is a chemical element with symbol NA (from Latin _natrium_) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal . Sodium is an alkali metal , being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation . Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth\'s minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide . Among many other useful sodium compounds, sodium hydroxide (lye ) is used in soap manufacture , and sodium chloride (edible salt ) is a de-icing agent and a nutrient for animals including humans. Sodium is an essential element for all animals and some plants. Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume
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Magnesium
MAGNESIUM is a chemical element with symbol MG and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals ) of the periodic table : all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe. It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas , much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron , oxygen and silicon ), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle . It is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater, after sodium and chlorine . Magnesium occurs naturally only in combination with other elements, where it invariably has a +2 oxidation state . The free element (metal) can be produced artificially, and is highly reactive (though in the atmosphere, it is soon coated in a thin layer of oxide that partly inhibits reactivity — see passivation ). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant-white light
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Aluminium
ALUMINIUM or ALUMINUM (see below ) is a chemical element with symbol AL and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group . By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth\'s crust ; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals . The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite . Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation . Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically , but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue
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Silicon
SILICON is a chemical element with symbol SI and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-gray metallic luster, it is a tetravalent metalloid . It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbon above it and germanium , tin , lead , and flerovium below. It is not very reactive, although more reactive than carbon, and has great chemical affinity for oxygen; it was first purified and characterized in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius . Silicon
Silicon
is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust. It is most widely distributed in dusts , sands , planetoids , and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates . Over 90% of the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
is composed of silicate minerals , making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
(about 28% by mass) after oxygen . Most silicon is used commercially without being separated, and often with little processing of the natural minerals. Such use includes industrial construction with clays , silica sand , and stone . Silicate
Silicate
is used in Portland cement
Portland cement
for mortar and stucco , and mixed with silica sand and gravel to make concrete for walkways, foundations, and roads
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