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Barium
BARIUM is a chemical element with symbol BA and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal . Because of its high chemical reactivity , barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern history as baryta , does not occur as a mineral , but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate. The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (barium sulfate , BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate , BaCO3), both insoluble in water. The barium name originates from the alchemical derivative "baryta", from Greek βαρύς (barys), meaning "heavy." Baric is the adjectival form of barium. Barium
Barium
was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808 with the advent of electrolysis . Barium
Barium
has few industrial applications. Historically, it was used as a getter for vacuum tubes
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Nitrogen
NITROGEN is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogen was suggested by Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates ; this name derives from the Greek roots νἰτρον "nitre " and -γεννᾶν "to form"
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Nickel
NICKEL is a chemical element with symbol NI and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile . Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area , shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation ). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks , and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron , a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis . An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Zinc
ZINC is a chemical element with symbol ZN and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table . In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium : both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc
Zinc
is the 24th most abundant element in Earth\'s crust and has five stable isotopes . The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc
Zinc
is refined by froth flotation of the ore , roasting , and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning )
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Cobalt
COBALT is a chemical element with symbol CO and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron . The free element, produced by reductive smelting , is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal . Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue ) have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth . Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals ; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic -containing fumes upon smelting. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal (the first discovered since ancient times), and this was ultimately named for the kobold
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Cadmium
CADMIUM is a chemical element with symbol CD and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12 , zinc and mercury . Like zinc, it demonstrates oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds, and like mercury, it has a lower melting point than other transition metals . Cadmium
Cadmium
and its congeners are not always considered transition metals, in that they do not have partly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. The average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust is between 0.1 and 0.5 parts per million (ppm). It was discovered in 1817 simultaneously by Stromeyer and Hermann , both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate . Cadmium
Cadmium
occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and is a byproduct of zinc production
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Indium
INDIUM is a chemical element with symbol IN and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium , but lower than lithium and tin . Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium , and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium
Indium
was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods . They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium
Indium
was isolated the next year. Indium
Indium
is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement
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Vanadium
VANADIUM is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile , and malleable transition metal . The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation ) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation . Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico
Mexico
by analyzing a new lead -bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from Greek for "red") since, upon heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years later, however, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium
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Chromium
CHROMIUM is a chemical element with symbol CR and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6 . It is a steely-grey, lustrous , hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing , and has a high melting point. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color , because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium . Chromium
Chromium
metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness
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Gallium
GALLIUM is a chemical element with symbol GA and atomic number 31. It is in group 13 of the periodic table, and thus has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium , indium , and thallium . Gallium does not occur as a free element in nature, but as gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite . Elemental gallium is a soft, silvery blue metal at standard temperature and pressure , a brittle solid at low temperatures, and a liquid at temperatures greater than 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature ). The melting point of gallium is used as a temperature reference point. The alloy galinstan (68.5% gallium, 21.5% indium , and 10% tin ) has an even lower melting point of −19 °C (−2 °F), well below the freezing point of water. Since its discovery in 1875, gallium has been used to make alloys with low melting points. It is also used in semiconductors as a dopant in semiconductor substrates
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Selenium
SELENIUM is a chemical element with symbol SE and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table , sulfur and tellurium . It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. Selenium
Selenium
(Greek σελήνη selene meaning "Moon") was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius , who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously discovered tellurium (named for the Earth). Selenium
Selenium
is found in metal sulfide ores , where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, selenium is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production. Minerals that are pure selenide or selenate compounds are known but rare
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Zirconium
ZIRCONIUM is a chemical element with symbol ZR and atomic number 40. The name zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon , the most important source of zirconium. The word zircon comes from the Persian word zargun زرگون, meaning "gold-colored". It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium . Zirconium
Zirconium
is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier , although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium
Zirconium
forms a variety of inorganic and organometallic compounds such as zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride , respectively. Five isotopes occur naturally, three of which are stable. Zirconium
Zirconium
compounds have no known biological role
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Molybdenum
MOLYBDENUM is a chemical element with symbol MO and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead , since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum
Molybdenum
minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele . The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm . Molybdenum
Molybdenum
does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element
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Technetium
TECHNETIUM is a chemical element with symbol TC and atomic number 43. It is the lightest element whose isotopes are all radioactive ; none are stable . Nearly all technetium is produced synthetically, and only minute amounts are found in the Earth's crust. Naturally occurring technetium is a spontaneous fission product in uranium ore or the product of neutron capture in molybdenum ores. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese . Many of technetium's properties were predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev before the element was discovered. Mendeleev noted a gap in his periodic table and gave the undiscovered element the provisional name ekamanganese (Em). In 1937, technetium (specifically the technetium-97 isotope) became the first predominantly artificial element to be produced, hence its name (from the Greek τεχνητός, meaning "artificial", + -ium)
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Rhodium
RHODIUM is a chemical element with symbol RH and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, and chemically inert transition metal . It is a member of the platinum group . It has only one naturally occurring isotope , 103Rh. Naturally occurring rhodium is usually found as the free metal, alloyed with similar metals, and rarely as a chemical compound in minerals such as bowieite and rhodplumsite . It is one of the rarest and most valuable precious metals . Rhodium
Rhodium
is a noble metal , resistant to corrosion , found in platinum or nickel ores together with the other members of the platinum group metals. It was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston in one such ore, and named for the rose color of one of its chlorine compounds, produced after it reacted with the powerful acid mixture aqua regia
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